Zijun Yao


Program Transfer for Answering Complex Questions over Knowledge Bases
Shulin Cao | Jiaxin Shi | Zijun Yao | Xin Lv | Jifan Yu | Lei Hou | Juanzi Li | Zhiyuan Liu | Jinghui Xiao
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Program induction for answering complex questions over knowledge bases (KBs) aims to decompose a question into a multi-step program, whose execution against the KB produces the final answer. Learning to induce programs relies on a large number of parallel question-program pairs for the given KB. However, for most KBs, the gold program annotations are usually lacking, making learning difficult. In this paper, we propose the approach of program transfer, which aims to leverage the valuable program annotations on the rich-resourced KBs as external supervision signals to aid program induction for the low-resourced KBs that lack program annotations. For program transfer, we design a novel two-stage parsing framework with an efficient ontology-guided pruning strategy. First, a sketch parser translates the question into a high-level program sketch, which is the composition of functions. Second, given the question and sketch, an argument parser searches the detailed arguments from the KB for functions. During the searching, we incorporate the KB ontology to prune the search space. The experiments on ComplexWebQuestions and WebQuestionSP show that our method outperforms SOTA methods significantly, demonstrating the effectiveness of program transfer and our framework. Our codes and datasets can be obtained from https://github.com/THU-KEG/ProgramTransfer.

Invernet: An Inversion Attack Framework to Infer Fine-Tuning Datasets through Word Embeddings
Ishrak Hayet | Zijun Yao | Bo Luo
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Word embedding aims to learn the dense representation of words and has become a regular input preparation in many NLP tasks. Due to the data and computation intensive nature of learning embeddings from scratch, a more affordable way is to borrow the pretrained embedding available in public and fine-tune the embedding through a domain specific downstream dataset. A privacy concern can arise if a malicious owner of the pretrained embedding gets access to the fine-tuned embedding and tries to infer the critical information from the downstream datasets. In this study, we propose a novel embedding inversion framework called Invernet that materializes the privacy concern by inferring the context distribution in the downstream dataset, which can lead to key information breach. With extensive experimental studies on two real-world news datasets: Antonio Gulli’s News and New York Times, we validate the feasibility of proposed privacy attack and demonstrate the effectiveness of Invernet on inferring downstream datasets based on multiple word embedding methods.

Dependency Parsing via Sequence Generation
Boda Lin | Zijun Yao | Jiaxin Shi | Shulin Cao | Binghao Tang | Si Li | Yong Luo | Juanzi Li | Lei Hou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Dependency parsing aims to extract syntactic dependency structure or semantic dependency structure for sentences.Existing methods for dependency parsing include transition-based method, graph-based method and sequence-to-sequence method.These methods obtain excellent performance and we notice them belong to labeling method.Therefore, it may be very valuable and interesting to explore the possibility of using generative method to implement dependency parsing.In this paper, we propose to achieve Dependency Parsing (DP) via Sequence Generation (SG) by utilizing only the pre-trained language model without any auxiliary structures.We first explore different serialization designing strategies for converting parsing structures into sequences.Then we design dependency units and concatenate these units into the sequence for DPSG.We verify the DPSG is capable of parsing on widely used DP benchmarks, i.e., PTB, UD2.2, SDP15 and SemEval16.In addition, we also investigate the astonishing low-resource applicability of DPSG, which includes unsupervised cross-domain conducted on CODT and few-shot cross-task conducted on SDP15.Our research demonstrates that sequence generation is one of the effective methods to achieve dependency parsing.Our codes are available now.


Interpretable and Low-Resource Entity Matching via Decoupling Feature Learning from Decision Making
Zijun Yao | Chengjiang Li | Tiansi Dong | Xin Lv | Jifan Yu | Lei Hou | Juanzi Li | Yichi Zhang | Zelin Dai
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Entity Matching (EM) aims at recognizing entity records that denote the same real-world object. Neural EM models learn vector representation of entity descriptions and match entities end-to-end. Though robust, these methods require many annotated resources for training, and lack of interpretability. In this paper, we propose a novel EM framework that consists of Heterogeneous Information Fusion (HIF) and Key Attribute Tree (KAT) Induction to decouple feature representation from matching decision. Using self-supervised learning and mask mechanism in pre-trained language modeling, HIF learns the embeddings of noisy attribute values by inter-attribute attention with unlabeled data. Using a set of comparison features and a limited amount of annotated data, KAT Induction learns an efficient decision tree that can be interpreted by generating entity matching rules whose structure is advocated by domain experts. Experiments on 6 public datasets and 3 industrial datasets show that our method is highly efficient and outperforms SOTA EM models in most cases. We will release the codes upon acceptance.