Large-scale pre-trained language models have attracted extensive attentions in the research community and shown promising results on various tasks of natural language processing. However, the attention maps, which record the attention scores between tokens in self-attention mechanism, are sometimes ineffective as they are learned implicitly without the guidance of explicit semantic knowledge. Thus, we aim to infuse explicit external knowledge into pre-trained language models to further boost their performance. Existing works of knowledge infusion largely depend on multi-task learning frameworks, which are inefficient and require large-scale re-training when new knowledge is considered. In this paper, we propose a novel and generic solution, KAM-BERT, which directly incorporates knowledge-generated attention maps into the self-attention mechanism. It requires only a few extra parameters and supports efficient fine-tuning once new knowledge is added. KAM-BERT achieves consistent improvements on various academic datasets for natural language understanding. It also outperforms other state-of-the-art methods which conduct knowledge infusion into transformer-based architectures. Moreover, we apply our model to an industry-scale ad relevance application and show its advantages in the real-world scenario.
Pre-trained language models like BERT achieve superior performances in various NLP tasks without explicit consideration of syntactic information. Meanwhile, syntactic information has been proved to be crucial for the success of NLP applications. However, how to incorporate the syntax trees effectively and efficiently into pre-trained Transformers is still unsettled. In this paper, we address this problem by proposing a novel framework named Syntax-BERT. This framework works in a plug-and-play mode and is applicable to an arbitrary pre-trained checkpoint based on Transformer architecture. Experiments on various datasets of natural language understanding verify the effectiveness of syntax trees and achieve consistent improvement over multiple pre-trained models, including BERT, RoBERTa, and T5.
Currently, multilingual machine translation is receiving more and more attention since it brings better performance for low resource languages (LRLs) and saves more space. However, existing multilingual machine translation models face a severe challenge: imbalance. As a result, the translation performance of different languages in multilingual translation models are quite different. We argue that this imbalance problem stems from the different learning competencies of different languages. Therefore, we focus on balancing the learning competencies of different languages and propose Competence-based Curriculum Learning for Multilingual Machine Translation, named CCL-M. Specifically, we firstly define two competencies to help schedule the high resource languages (HRLs) and the low resource languages: 1) Self-evaluated Competence, evaluating how well the language itself has been learned; and 2) HRLs-evaluated Competence, evaluating whether an LRL is ready to be learned according to HRLs’ Self-evaluated Competence. Based on the above competencies, we utilize the proposed CCL-M algorithm to gradually add new languages into the training set in a curriculum learning manner. Furthermore, we propose a novel competence-aware dynamic balancing sampling strategy for better selecting training samples in multilingual training. Experimental results show that our approach has achieved a steady and significant performance gain compared to the previous state-of-the-art approach on the TED talks dataset.
BERT is a cutting-edge language representation model pre-trained by a large corpus, which achieves superior performances on various natural language understanding tasks. However, a major blocking issue of applying BERT to online services is that it is memory-intensive and leads to unsatisfactory latency of user requests, raising the necessity of model compression. Existing solutions leverage the knowledge distillation framework to learn a smaller model that imitates the behaviors of BERT. However, the training procedure of knowledge distillation is expensive itself as it requires sufficient training data to imitate the teacher model. In this paper, we address this issue by proposing a tailored solution named LadaBERT (Lightweight adaptation of BERT through hybrid model compression), which combines the advantages of different model compression methods, including weight pruning, matrix factorization and knowledge distillation. LadaBERT achieves state-of-the-art accuracy on various public datasets while the training overheads can be reduced by an order of magnitude.