Xiaojie Yuan


PM2F2N: Patient Multi-view Multi-modal Feature Fusion Networks for Clinical Outcome Prediction
Ying Zhang | Baohang Zhou | Kehui Song | Xuhui Sui | Guoqing Zhao | Ning Jiang | Xiaojie Yuan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Clinical outcome prediction is critical to the condition prediction of patients and management of hospital capacities. There are two kinds of medical data, including time series signals recorded by various devices and clinical notes in electronic health records (EHR), which are used for two common prediction targets: mortality and length of stay. Traditional methods focused on utilizing time series data but ignored clinical notes. With the development of deep learning, natural language processing (NLP) and multi-modal learning methods are exploited to jointly model the time series and clinical notes with different modals. However, the existing methods failed to fuse the multi-modal features of patients from different views. Therefore, we propose the patient multi-view multi-modal feature fusion networks for clinical outcome prediction. Firstly, from patient inner view, we propose to utilize the co-attention module to enhance the fine-grained feature interaction between time series and clinical notes from each patient. Secondly, the patient outer view is the correlation between patients, which can be reflected by the structural knowledge in clinical notes. We exploit the structural information extracted from clinical notes to construct the patient correlation graph, and fuse patients’ multi-modal features by graph neural networks (GNN). The experimental results on MIMIC-III benchmark demonstrate the superiority of our method.

A Span-based Multimodal Variational Autoencoder for Semi-supervised Multimodal Named Entity Recognition
Baohang Zhou | Ying Zhang | Kehui Song | Wenya Guo | Guoqing Zhao | Hongbin Wang | Xiaojie Yuan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Multimodal named entity recognition (MNER) on social media is a challenging task which aims to extract named entities in free text and incorporate images to classify them into user-defined types. However, the annotation for named entities on social media demands a mount of human efforts. The existing semi-supervised named entity recognition methods focus on the text modal and are utilized to reduce labeling costs in traditional NER. However, the previous methods are not efficient for semi-supervised MNER. Because the MNER task is defined to combine the text information with image one and needs to consider the mismatch between the posted text and image. To fuse the text and image features for MNER effectively under semi-supervised setting, we propose a novel span-based multimodal variational autoencoder (SMVAE) model for semi-supervised MNER. The proposed method exploits modal-specific VAEs to model text and image latent features, and utilizes product-of-experts to acquire multimodal features. In our approach, the implicit relations between labels and multimodal features are modeled by multimodal VAE. Thus, the useful information of unlabeled data can be exploited in our method under semi-supervised setting. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets demonstrate that our approach not only outperforms baselines under supervised setting, but also improves MNER performance with less labeled data than existing semi-supervised methods.

Improving Zero-Shot Entity Linking Candidate Generation with Ultra-Fine Entity Type Information
Xuhui Sui | Ying Zhang | Kehui Song | Baohang Zhou | Guoqing Zhao | Xin Wei | Xiaojie Yuan
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Entity linking, which aims at aligning ambiguous entity mentions to their referent entities in a knowledge base, plays a key role in multiple natural language processing tasks. Recently, zero-shot entity linking task has become a research hotspot, which links mentions to unseen entities to challenge the generalization ability. For this task, the training set and test set are from different domains, and thus entity linking models tend to be overfitting due to the tendency of memorizing the properties of entities that appear frequently in the training set. We argue that general ultra-fine-grained type information can help the linking models to learn contextual commonality and improve their generalization ability to tackle the overfitting problem. However, in the zero-shot entity linking setting, any type information is not available and entities are only identified by textual descriptions. Thus, we first extract the ultra-fine entity type information from the entity textual descriptions. Then, we propose a hierarchical multi-task model to improve the high-level zero-shot entity linking candidate generation task by utilizing the entity typing task as an auxiliary low-level task, which introduces extracted ultra-fine type information into the candidate generation task. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of utilizing the ultra-fine entity type information and our proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance.

TreeMAN: Tree-enhanced Multimodal Attention Network for ICD Coding
Zichen Liu | Xuyuan Liu | Yanlong Wen | Guoqing Zhao | Fen Xia | Xiaojie Yuan
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

ICD coding is designed to assign the disease codes to electronic health records (EHRs) upon discharge, which is crucial for billing and clinical statistics. In an attempt to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of manual coding, many methods have been proposed to automatically predict ICD codes from clinical notes. However, most previous works ignore the decisive information contained in structured medical data in EHRs, which is hard to be captured from the noisy clinical notes. In this paper, we propose a Tree-enhanced Multimodal Attention Network (TreeMAN) to fuse tabular features and textual features into multimodal representations by enhancing the text representations with tree-based features via the attention mechanism. Tree-based features are constructed according to decision trees learned from structured multimodal medical data, which capture the decisive information about ICD coding. We can apply the same multi-label classifier from previous text models to the multimodal representations to predict ICD codes. Experiments on two MIMIC datasets show that our method outperforms prior state-of-the-art ICD coding approaches. The code is available at https://github.com/liu-zichen/TreeMAN.

Overcoming Language Priors in Visual Question Answering via Distinguishing Superficially Similar Instances
Yike Wu | Yu Zhao | Shiwan Zhao | Ying Zhang | Xiaojie Yuan | Guoqing Zhao | Ning Jiang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Despite the great progress of Visual Question Answering (VQA), current VQA models heavily rely on the superficial correlation between the question type and its corresponding frequent answers (i.e., language priors) to make predictions, without really understanding the input. In this work, we define the training instances with the same question type but different answers as superficially similar instances, and attribute the language priors to the confusion of VQA model on such instances. To solve this problem, we propose a novel training framework that explicitly encourages the VQA model to distinguish between the superficially similar instances. Specifically, for each training instance, we first construct a set that contains its superficially similar counterparts. Then we exploit the proposed distinguishing module to increase the distance between the instance and its counterparts in the answer space. In this way, the VQA model is forced to further focus on the other parts of the input beyond the question type, which helps to overcome the language priors. Experimental results show that our method achieves the state-of-the-art performance on VQA-CP v2. Codes are available at Distinguishing-VQA.


TEMP: Taxonomy Expansion with Dynamic Margin Loss through Taxonomy-Paths
Zichen Liu | Hongyuan Xu | Yanlong Wen | Ning Jiang | HaiYing Wu | Xiaojie Yuan
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

As an essential form of knowledge representation, taxonomies are widely used in various downstream natural language processing tasks. However, with the continuously rising of new concepts, many existing taxonomies are unable to maintain coverage by manual expansion. In this paper, we propose TEMP, a self-supervised taxonomy expansion method, which predicts the position of new concepts by ranking the generated taxonomy-paths. For the first time, TEMP employs pre-trained contextual encoders in taxonomy construction and hypernym detection problems. Experiments prove that pre-trained contextual embeddings are able to capture hypernym-hyponym relations. To learn more detailed differences between taxonomy-paths, we train the model with dynamic margin loss by a novel dynamic margin function. Extensive evaluations exhibit that TEMP outperforms prior state-of-the-art taxonomy expansion approaches by 14.3% in accuracy and 15.8% in mean reciprocal rank on three public benchmarks.

Incorporating Circumstances into Narrative Event Prediction
Shichao Wang | Xiangrui Cai | HongBin Wang | Xiaojie Yuan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

The narrative event prediction aims to predict what happens after a sequence of events, which is essential to modeling sophisticated real-world events. Existing studies focus on mining the inter-events relationships while ignoring how the events happened, which we called circumstances. With our observation, the event circumstances indicate what will happen next. To incorporate event circumstances into the narrative event prediction, we propose the CircEvent, which adopts the two multi-head attention to retrieve circumstances at the local and global levels. We also introduce a regularization of attention weights to leverage the alignment between events and local circumstances. The experimental results demonstrate our CircEvent outperforms existing baselines by 12.2%. The further analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of our multi-head attention modules and regularization.

An End-to-End Progressive Multi-Task Learning Framework for Medical Named Entity Recognition and Normalization
Baohang Zhou | Xiangrui Cai | Ying Zhang | Xiaojie Yuan
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Medical named entity recognition (NER) and normalization (NEN) are fundamental for constructing knowledge graphs and building QA systems. Existing implementations for medical NER and NEN are suffered from the error propagation between the two tasks. The mispredicted mentions from NER will directly influence the results of NEN. Therefore, the NER module is the bottleneck of the whole system. Besides, the learnable features for both tasks are beneficial to improving the model performance. To avoid the disadvantages of existing models and exploit the generalized representation across the two tasks, we design an end-to-end progressive multi-task learning model for jointly modeling medical NER and NEN in an effective way. There are three level tasks with progressive difficulty in the framework. The progressive tasks can reduce the error propagation with the incremental task settings which implies the lower level tasks gain the supervised signals other than errors from the higher level tasks to improve their performances. Besides, the context features are exploited to enrich the semantic information of entity mentions extracted by NER. The performance of NEN profits from the enhanced entity mention features. The standard entities from knowledge bases are introduced into the NER module for extracting corresponding entity mentions correctly. The empirical results on two publicly available medical literature datasets demonstrate the superiority of our method over nine typical methods.


Corpus-based Semantic Class Mining: Distributional vs. Pattern-Based Approaches
Shuming Shi | Huibin Zhang | Xiaojie Yuan | Ji-Rong Wen
Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2010)