Ting-Yun Chang


Rethinking Why Intermediate-Task Fine-Tuning Works
Ting-Yun Chang | Chi-Jen Lu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Supplementary Training on Intermediate Labeled-data Tasks (STILT) is a widely applied technique, which first fine-tunes the pretrained language models on an intermediate task before on the target task of interest. While STILT is able to further improve the performance of pretrained language models, it is still unclear why and when it works. Previous research shows that those intermediate tasks involving complex inference, such as commonsense reasoning, work especially well for RoBERTa-large. In this paper, we discover that the improvement from an intermediate task could be orthogonal to it containing reasoning or other complex skills — a simple real-fake discrimination task synthesized by GPT2 can benefit diverse target tasks. We conduct extensive experiments to study the impact of different factors on STILT. These findings suggest rethinking the role of intermediate fine-tuning in the STILT pipeline.


Incorporating Commonsense Knowledge Graph in Pretrained Models for Social Commonsense Tasks
Ting-Yun Chang | Yang Liu | Karthik Gopalakrishnan | Behnam Hedayatnia | Pei Zhou | Dilek Hakkani-Tur
Proceedings of Deep Learning Inside Out (DeeLIO): The First Workshop on Knowledge Extraction and Integration for Deep Learning Architectures

Pretrained language models have excelled at many NLP tasks recently; however, their social intelligence is still unsatisfactory. To enable this, machines need to have a more general understanding of our complicated world and develop the ability to perform commonsense reasoning besides fitting the specific downstream tasks. External commonsense knowledge graphs (KGs), such as ConceptNet, provide rich information about words and their relationships. Thus, towards general commonsense learning, we propose two approaches to implicitly and explicitly infuse such KGs into pretrained language models. We demonstrate our proposed methods perform well on SocialIQA, a social commonsense reasoning task, in both limited and full training data regimes.


What Does This Word Mean? Explaining Contextualized Embeddings with Natural Language Definition
Ting-Yun Chang | Yun-Nung Chen
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Contextualized word embeddings have boosted many NLP tasks compared with traditional static word embeddings. However, the word with a specific sense may have different contextualized embeddings due to its various contexts. To further investigate what contextualized word embeddings capture, this paper analyzes whether they can indicate the corresponding sense definitions and proposes a general framework that is capable of explaining word meanings given contextualized word embeddings for better interpretation. The experiments show that both ELMo and BERT embeddings can be well interpreted via a readable textual form, and the findings may benefit the research community for a better understanding of what the embeddings capture.

Leveraging Hierarchical Category Knowledge for Data-Imbalanced Multi-Label Diagnostic Text Understanding
Shang-Chi Tsai | Ting-Yun Chang | Yun-Nung Chen
Proceedings of the Tenth International Workshop on Health Text Mining and Information Analysis (LOUHI 2019)

Clinical notes are essential medical documents to record each patient’s symptoms. Each record is typically annotated with medical diagnostic codes, which means diagnosis and treatment. This paper focuses on predicting diagnostic codes given the descriptive present illness in electronic health records by leveraging domain knowledge. We investigate various losses in a convolutional model to utilize hierarchical category knowledge of diagnostic codes in order to allow the model to share semantics across different labels under the same category. The proposed model not only considers the external domain knowledge but also addresses the issue about data imbalance. The MIMIC3 benchmark experiments show that the proposed methods can effectively utilize category knowledge and provide informative cues to improve the performance in terms of the top-ranked diagnostic codes which is better than the prior state-of-the-art. The investigation and discussion express the potential of integrating the domain knowledge in the current machine learning based models and guiding future research directions.


A Meaning-based English Math Word Problem Solver with Understanding, Reasoning and Explanation
Chao-Chun Liang | Shih-Hong Tsai | Ting-Yun Chang | Yi-Chung Lin | Keh-Yih Su
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

This paper presents a meaning-based statistical math word problem (MWP) solver with understanding, reasoning and explanation. It comprises a web user interface and pipelined modules for analysing the text, transforming both body and question parts into their logic forms, and then performing inference on them. The associated context of each quantity is represented with proposed role-tags (e.g., nsubj, verb, etc.), which provides the flexibility for annotating the extracted math quantity with its associated syntactic and semantic information (which specifies the physical meaning of that quantity). Those role-tags are then used to identify the desired operands and filter out irrelevant quantities (so that the answer can be obtained precisely). Since the physical meaning of each quantity is explicitly represented with those role-tags and used in the inference process, the proposed approach could explain how the answer is obtained in a human comprehensible way.