Tianze Shi


Weakly Supervised Headline Dependency Parsing
Adrian Benton | Tianze Shi | Ozan İrsoy | Igor Malioutov
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

English news headlines form a register with unique syntactic properties that have been documented in linguistics literature since the 1930s. However, headlines have received surprisingly little attention from the NLP syntactic parsing community. We aim to bridge this gap by providing the first news headline corpus of Universal Dependencies annotated syntactic dependency trees, which enables us to evaluate existing state-of-the-art dependency parsers on news headlines. To improve English news headline parsing accuracies, we develop a projection method to bootstrap silver training data from unlabeled news headline-article lead sentence pairs. Models trained on silver headline parses demonstrate significant improvements in performance over models trained solely on gold-annotated long-form texts. Ultimately, we find that, although projected silver training data improves parser performance across different news outlets, the improvement is moderated by constructions idiosyncratic to outlet.

Evaluating the Impact of Model Scale for Compositional Generalization in Semantic Parsing
Linlu Qiu | Peter Shaw | Panupong Pasupat | Tianze Shi | Jonathan Herzig | Emily Pitler | Fei Sha | Kristina Toutanova
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Despite their strong performance on many tasks, pre-trained language models have been shown to struggle on out-of-distribution compositional generalization. Meanwhile, recent work has shown considerable improvements on many NLP tasks from model scaling. Can scaling up model size also improve compositional generalization in semantic parsing? We evaluate encoder-decoder models up to 11B parameters and decoder-only models up to 540B parameters, and compare model scaling curves for three different methods for applying a pre-trained language model to a new task: fine-tuning all parameters, prompt tuning, and in-context learning. We observe that fine-tuning generally has flat or negative scaling curves on out-of-distribution compositional generalization in semantic parsing evaluations. In-context learning has positive scaling curves, but is generally outperformed by much smaller fine-tuned models. Prompt-tuning can outperform fine-tuning, suggesting further potential improvements from scaling as it exhibits a more positive scaling curve. Additionally, we identify several error trends that vary with model scale. For example, larger models are generally better at modeling the syntax of the output space, but are also more prone to certain types of overfitting. Overall, our study highlights limitations of current techniques for effectively leveraging model scale for compositional generalization, while our analysis also suggests promising directions for future work.


TGIF: Tree-Graph Integrated-Format Parser for Enhanced UD with Two-Stage Generic- to Individual-Language Finetuning
Tianze Shi | Lillian Lee
Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Parsing Technologies and the IWPT 2021 Shared Task on Parsing into Enhanced Universal Dependencies (IWPT 2021)

We present our contribution to the IWPT 2021 shared task on parsing into enhanced Universal Dependencies. Our main system component is a hybrid tree-graph parser that integrates (a) predictions of spanning trees for the enhanced graphs with (b) additional graph edges not present in the spanning trees. We also adopt a finetuning strategy where we first train a language-generic parser on the concatenation of data from all available languages, and then, in a second step, finetune on each individual language separately. Additionally, we develop our own complete set of pre-processing modules relevant to the shared task, including tokenization, sentence segmentation, and multiword token expansion, based on pre-trained XLM-R models and our own pre-training of character-level language models. Our submission reaches a macro-average ELAS of 89.24 on the test set. It ranks top among all teams, with a margin of more than 2 absolute ELAS over the next best-performing submission, and best score on 16 out of 17 languages.

Transition-based Bubble Parsing: Improvements on Coordination Structure Prediction
Tianze Shi | Lillian Lee
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We propose a transition-based bubble parser to perform coordination structure identification and dependency-based syntactic analysis simultaneously. Bubble representations were proposed in the formal linguistics literature decades ago; they enhance dependency trees by encoding coordination boundaries and internal relationships within coordination structures explicitly. In this paper, we introduce a transition system and neural models for parsing these bubble-enhanced structures. Experimental results on the English Penn Treebank and the English GENIA corpus show that our parsers beat previous state-of-the-art approaches on the task of coordination structure prediction, especially for the subset of sentences with complex coordination structures.

Diversity-Aware Batch Active Learning for Dependency Parsing
Tianze Shi | Adrian Benton | Igor Malioutov | Ozan İrsoy
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

While the predictive performance of modern statistical dependency parsers relies heavily on the availability of expensive expert-annotated treebank data, not all annotations contribute equally to the training of the parsers. In this paper, we attempt to reduce the number of labeled examples needed to train a strong dependency parser using batch active learning (AL). In particular, we investigate whether enforcing diversity in the sampled batches, using determinantal point processes (DPPs), can improve over their diversity-agnostic counterparts. Simulation experiments on an English newswire corpus show that selecting diverse batches with DPPs is superior to strong selection strategies that do not enforce batch diversity, especially during the initial stages of the learning process. Additionally, our diversity-aware strategy is robust under a corpus duplication setting, where diversity-agnostic sampling strategies exhibit significant degradation.

Learning Syntax from Naturally-Occurring Bracketings
Tianze Shi | Ozan İrsoy | Igor Malioutov | Lillian Lee
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Naturally-occurring bracketings, such as answer fragments to natural language questions and hyperlinks on webpages, can reflect human syntactic intuition regarding phrasal boundaries. Their availability and approximate correspondence to syntax make them appealing as distant information sources to incorporate into unsupervised constituency parsing. But they are noisy and incomplete; to address this challenge, we develop a partial-brackets-aware structured ramp loss in learning. Experiments demonstrate that our distantly-supervised models trained on naturally-occurring bracketing data are more accurate in inducing syntactic structures than competing unsupervised systems. On the English WSJ corpus, our models achieve an unlabeled F1 score of 68.9 for constituency parsing.


On the Potential of Lexico-logical Alignments for Semantic Parsing to SQL Queries
Tianze Shi | Chen Zhao | Jordan Boyd-Graber | Hal Daumé III | Lillian Lee
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Large-scale semantic parsing datasets annotated with logical forms have enabled major advances in supervised approaches. But can richer supervision help even more? To explore the utility of fine-grained, lexical-level supervision, we introduce SQUALL, a dataset that enriches 11,276 WIKITABLEQUESTIONS English-language questions with manually created SQL equivalents plus alignments between SQL and question fragments. Our annotation enables new training possibilities for encoderdecoder models, including approaches from machine translation previously precluded by the absence of alignments. We propose and test two methods: (1) supervised attention; (2) adopting an auxiliary objective of disambiguating references in the input queries to table columns. In 5-fold cross validation, these strategies improve over strong baselines by 4.4% execution accuracy. Oracle experiments suggest that annotated alignments can support further accuracy gains of up to 23.9%.

Extracting Headless MWEs from Dependency Parse Trees: Parsing, Tagging, and Joint Modeling Approaches
Tianze Shi | Lillian Lee
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

An interesting and frequent type of multi-word expression (MWE) is the headless MWE, for which there are no true internal syntactic dominance relations; examples include many named entities (“Wells Fargo”) and dates (“July 5, 2020”) as well as certain productive constructions (“blow for blow”, “day after day”). Despite their special status and prevalence, current dependency-annotation schemes require treating such flat structures as if they had internal syntactic heads, and most current parsers handle them in the same fashion as headed constructions. Meanwhile, outside the context of parsing, taggers are typically used for identifying MWEs, but taggers might benefit from structural information. We empirically compare these two common strategies—parsing and tagging—for predicting flat MWEs. Additionally, we propose an efficient joint decoding algorithm that combines scores from both strategies. Experimental results on the MWE-Aware English Dependency Corpus and on six non-English dependency treebanks with frequent flat structures show that: (1) tagging is more accurate than parsing for identifying flat-structure MWEs, (2) our joint decoder reconciles the two different views and, for non-BERT features, leads to higher accuracies, and (3) most of the gains result from feature sharing between the parsers and taggers.

Semantic Role Labeling as Syntactic Dependency Parsing
Tianze Shi | Igor Malioutov | Ozan Irsoy
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

We reduce the task of (span-based) PropBank-style semantic role labeling (SRL) to syntactic dependency parsing. Our approach is motivated by our empirical analysis that shows three common syntactic patterns account for over 98% of the SRL annotations for both English and Chinese data. Based on this observation, we present a conversion scheme that packs SRL annotations into dependency tree representations through joint labels that permit highly accurate recovery back to the original format. This representation allows us to train statistical dependency parsers to tackle SRL and achieve competitive performance with the current state of the art. Our findings show the promise of syntactic dependency trees in encoding semantic role relations within their syntactic domain of locality, and point to potential further integration of syntactic methods into semantic role labeling in the future.


CoSQL: A Conversational Text-to-SQL Challenge Towards Cross-Domain Natural Language Interfaces to Databases
Tao Yu | Rui Zhang | Heyang Er | Suyi Li | Eric Xue | Bo Pang | Xi Victoria Lin | Yi Chern Tan | Tianze Shi | Zihan Li | Youxuan Jiang | Michihiro Yasunaga | Sungrok Shim | Tao Chen | Alexander Fabbri | Zifan Li | Luyao Chen | Yuwen Zhang | Shreya Dixit | Vincent Zhang | Caiming Xiong | Richard Socher | Walter Lasecki | Dragomir Radev
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

We present CoSQL, a corpus for building cross-domain, general-purpose database (DB) querying dialogue systems. It consists of 30k+ turns plus 10k+ annotated SQL queries, obtained from a Wizard-of-Oz (WOZ) collection of 3k dialogues querying 200 complex DBs spanning 138 domains. Each dialogue simulates a real-world DB query scenario with a crowd worker as a user exploring the DB and a SQL expert retrieving answers with SQL, clarifying ambiguous questions, or otherwise informing of unanswerable questions. When user questions are answerable by SQL, the expert describes the SQL and execution results to the user, hence maintaining a natural interaction flow. CoSQL introduces new challenges compared to existing task-oriented dialogue datasets: (1) the dialogue states are grounded in SQL, a domain-independent executable representation, instead of domain-specific slot value pairs, and (2) because testing is done on unseen databases, success requires generalizing to new domains. CoSQL includes three tasks: SQL-grounded dialogue state tracking, response generation from query results, and user dialogue act prediction. We evaluate a set of strong baselines for each task and show that CoSQL presents significant challenges for future research. The dataset, baselines, and leaderboard will be released at https://yale-lily.github.io/cosql.

Editing-Based SQL Query Generation for Cross-Domain Context-Dependent Questions
Rui Zhang | Tao Yu | Heyang Er | Sungrok Shim | Eric Xue | Xi Victoria Lin | Tianze Shi | Caiming Xiong | Richard Socher | Dragomir Radev
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

We focus on the cross-domain context-dependent text-to-SQL generation task. Based on the observation that adjacent natural language questions are often linguistically dependent and their corresponding SQL queries tend to overlap, we utilize the interaction history by editing the previous predicted query to improve the generation quality. Our editing mechanism views SQL as sequences and reuses generation results at the token level in a simple manner. It is flexible to change individual tokens and robust to error propagation. Furthermore, to deal with complex table structures in different domains, we employ an utterance-table encoder and a table-aware decoder to incorporate the context of the user utterance and the table schema. We evaluate our approach on the SParC dataset and demonstrate the benefit of editing compared with the state-of-the-art baselines which generate SQL from scratch. Our code is available at https://github.com/ryanzhumich/sparc_atis_pytorch.


Valency-Augmented Dependency Parsing
Tianze Shi | Lillian Lee
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We present a complete, automated, and efficient approach for utilizing valency analysis in making dependency parsing decisions. It includes extraction of valency patterns, a probabilistic model for tagging these patterns, and a joint decoding process that explicitly considers the number and types of each token’s syntactic dependents. On 53 treebanks representing 41 languages in the Universal Dependencies data, we find that incorporating valency information yields higher precision and F1 scores on the core arguments (subjects and complements) and functional relations (e.g., auxiliaries) that we employ for valency analysis. Precision on core arguments improves from 80.87 to 85.43. We further show that our approach can be applied to an ostensibly different formalism and dataset, Tree Adjoining Grammar as extracted from the Penn Treebank; there, we outperform the previous state-of-the-art labeled attachment score by 0.7. Finally, we explore the potential of extending valency patterns beyond their traditional domain by confirming their helpfulness in improving PP attachment decisions.

Improving Coverage and Runtime Complexity for Exact Inference in Non-Projective Transition-Based Dependency Parsers
Tianze Shi | Carlos Gómez-Rodríguez | Lillian Lee
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

We generalize Cohen, Gómez-Rodríguez, and Satta’s (2011) parser to a family of non-projective transition-based dependency parsers allowing polynomial-time exact inference. This includes novel parsers with better coverage than Cohen et al. (2011), and even a variant that reduces time complexity to O(n6), improving over the known bounds in exact inference for non-projective transition-based parsing. We hope that this piece of theoretical work inspires design of novel transition systems with better coverage and better run-time guarantees.

Global Transition-based Non-projective Dependency Parsing
Carlos Gómez-Rodríguez | Tianze Shi | Lillian Lee
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Shi, Huang, and Lee (2017a) obtained state-of-the-art results for English and Chinese dependency parsing by combining dynamic-programming implementations of transition-based dependency parsers with a minimal set of bidirectional LSTM features. However, their results were limited to projective parsing. In this paper, we extend their approach to support non-projectivity by providing the first practical implementation of the MH₄ algorithm, an O(n4) mildly nonprojective dynamic-programming parser with very high coverage on non-projective treebanks. To make MH₄ compatible with minimal transition-based feature sets, we introduce a transition-based interpretation of it in which parser items are mapped to sequences of transitions. We thus obtain the first implementation of global decoding for non-projective transition-based parsing, and demonstrate empirically that it is effective than its projective counterpart in parsing a number of highly non-projective languages.


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Fast(er) Exact Decoding and Global Training for Transition-Based Dependency Parsing via a Minimal Feature Set
Tianze Shi | Liang Huang | Lillian Lee
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We first present a minimal feature set for transition-based dependency parsing, continuing a recent trend started by Kiperwasser and Goldberg (2016a) and Cross and Huang (2016a) of using bi-directional LSTM features. We plug our minimal feature set into the dynamic-programming framework of Huang and Sagae (2010) and Kuhlmann et al. (2011) to produce the first implementation of worst-case O(n3) exact decoders for arc-hybrid and arc-eager transition systems. With our minimal features, we also present O(n3) global training methods. Finally, using ensembles including our new parsers, we achieve the best unlabeled attachment score reported (to our knowledge) on the Chinese Treebank and the “second-best-in-class” result on the English Penn Treebank.

Combining Global Models for Parsing Universal Dependencies
Tianze Shi | Felix G. Wu | Xilun Chen | Yao Cheng
Proceedings of the CoNLL 2017 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies

We describe our entry, C2L2, to the CoNLL 2017 shared task on parsing Universal Dependencies from raw text. Our system features an ensemble of three global parsing paradigms, one graph-based and two transition-based. Each model leverages character-level bi-directional LSTMs as lexical feature extractors to encode morphological information. Though relying on baseline tokenizers and focusing only on parsing, our system ranked second in the official end-to-end evaluation with a macro-average of 75.00 LAS F1 score over 81 test treebanks. In addition, we had the top average performance on the four surprise languages and on the small treebank subset.


Learning Cross-lingual Word Embeddings via Matrix Co-factorization
Tianze Shi | Zhiyuan Liu | Yang Liu | Maosong Sun
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)