Taifeng Wang


Keywords and Instances: A Hierarchical Contrastive Learning Framework Unifying Hybrid Granularities for Text Generation
Mingzhe Li | XieXiong Lin | Xiuying Chen | Jinxiong Chang | Qishen Zhang | Feng Wang | Taifeng Wang | Zhongyi Liu | Wei Chu | Dongyan Zhao | Rui Yan
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Contrastive learning has achieved impressive success in generation tasks to militate the “exposure bias” problem and discriminatively exploit the different quality of references. Existing works mostly focus on contrastive learning on the instance-level without discriminating the contribution of each word, while keywords are the gist of the text and dominant the constrained mapping relationships. Hence, in this work, we propose a hierarchical contrastive learning mechanism, which can unify hybrid granularities semantic meaning in the input text. Concretely, we first propose a keyword graph via contrastive correlations of positive-negative pairs to iteratively polish the keyword representations. Then, we construct intra-contrasts within instance-level and keyword-level, where we assume words are sampled nodes from a sentence distribution. Finally, to bridge the gap between independent contrast levels and tackle the common contrast vanishing problem, we propose an inter-contrast mechanism that measures the discrepancy between contrastive keyword nodes respectively to the instance distribution. Experiments demonstrate that our model outperforms competitive baselines on paraphrasing, dialogue generation, and storytelling tasks.

Extracting Trigger-sharing Events via an Event Matrix
Jun Xu | Weidi Xu | Mengshu Sun | Taifeng Wang | Wei Chu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

A growing interest emerges in event extraction which aims to extract multiple events with triggers and arguments. Previous methods mitigate the problem of multiple events extraction by predicting the arguments conditioned on the event trigger and event type, assuming that these arguments belong to a single event. However, the assumption is invalid in general as there may be multiple events. Therefore, we present a unified framework called MatEE for trigger-sharing events extraction. It resolves the kernel bottleneck by effectively modeling the relations between arguments by an event matrix, where trigger-sharing events are represented by multiple cliques. We verify the proposed method on 3 widely-used benchmark datasets of event extraction. The experimental results show that it beats all the advanced competitors, significantly improving the state-of-the-art performances in event extraction.


Probing into the Root: A Dataset for Reason Extraction of Structural Events from Financial Documents
Pei Chen | Kang Liu | Yubo Chen | Taifeng Wang | Jun Zhao
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

This paper proposes a new task regarding event reason extraction from document-level texts. Unlike the previous causality detection task, we do not assign target events in the text, but only provide structural event descriptions, and such settings accord more with practice scenarios. Moreover, we annotate a large dataset FinReason for evaluation, which provides Reasons annotation for Financial events in company announcements. This task is challenging because the cases of multiple-events, multiple-reasons, and implicit-reasons are included. In total, FinReason contains 8,794 documents, 12,861 financial events and 11,006 reason spans. We also provide the performance of existing canonical methods in event extraction and machine reading comprehension on this task. The results show a 7 percentage point F1 score gap between the best model and human performance, and existing methods are far from resolving this problem.

PairRE: Knowledge Graph Embeddings via Paired Relation Vectors
Linlin Chao | Jianshan He | Taifeng Wang | Wei Chu
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Distance based knowledge graph embedding methods show promising results on link prediction task, on which two topics have been widely studied: one is the ability to handle complex relations, such as N-to-1, 1-to-N and N-to-N, the other is to encode various relation patterns, such as symmetry/antisymmetry. However, the existing methods fail to solve these two problems at the same time, which leads to unsatisfactory results. To mitigate this problem, we propose PairRE, a model with paired vectors for each relation representation. The paired vectors enable an adaptive adjustment of the margin in loss function to fit for different complex relations. Besides, PairRE is capable of encoding three important relation patterns, symmetry/antisymmetry, inverse and composition. Given simple constraints on relation representations, PairRE can encode subrelation further. Experiments on link prediction benchmarks demonstrate the proposed key capabilities of PairRE. Moreover, We set a new state-of-the-art on two knowledge graph datasets of the challenging Open Graph Benchmark.

Document-level Event Extraction via Parallel Prediction Networks
Hang Yang | Dianbo Sui | Yubo Chen | Kang Liu | Jun Zhao | Taifeng Wang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Document-level event extraction (DEE) is indispensable when events are described throughout a document. We argue that sentence-level extractors are ill-suited to the DEE task where event arguments always scatter across sentences and multiple events may co-exist in a document. It is a challenging task because it requires a holistic understanding of the document and an aggregated ability to assemble arguments across multiple sentences. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end model, which can extract structured events from a document in a parallel manner. Specifically, we first introduce a document-level encoder to obtain the document-aware representations. Then, a multi-granularity non-autoregressive decoder is used to generate events in parallel. Finally, to train the entire model, a matching loss function is proposed, which can bootstrap a global optimization. The empirical results on the widely used DEE dataset show that our approach significantly outperforms current state-of-the-art methods in the challenging DEE task. Code will be available at https://github.com/HangYang-NLP/DE-PPN.


Reconstructing Event Regions for Event Extraction via Graph Attention Networks
Pei Chen | Hang Yang | Kang Liu | Ruihong Huang | Yubo Chen | Taifeng Wang | Jun Zhao
Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 10th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

Event information is usually scattered across multiple sentences within a document. The local sentence-level event extractors often yield many noisy event role filler extractions in the absence of a broader view of the document-level context. Filtering spurious extractions and aggregating event information in a document remains a challenging problem. Following the observation that a document has several relevant event regions densely populated with event role fillers, we build graphs with candidate role filler extractions enriched by sentential embeddings as nodes, and use graph attention networks to identify event regions in a document and aggregate event information. We characterize edges between candidate extractions in a graph into rich vector representations to facilitate event region identification. The experimental results on two datasets of two languages show that our approach yields new state-of-the-art performance for the challenging event extraction task.

Generating Informative Conversational Response using Recurrent Knowledge-Interaction and Knowledge-Copy
Xiexiong Lin | Weiyu Jian | Jianshan He | Taifeng Wang | Wei Chu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Knowledge-driven conversation approaches have achieved remarkable research attention recently. However, generating an informative response with multiple relevant knowledge without losing fluency and coherence is still one of the main challenges. To address this issue, this paper proposes a method that uses recurrent knowledge interaction among response decoding steps to incorporate appropriate knowledge. Furthermore, we introduce a knowledge copy mechanism using a knowledge-aware pointer network to copy words from external knowledge according to knowledge attention distribution. Our joint neural conversation model which integrates recurrent Knowledge-Interaction and knowledge Copy (KIC) performs well on generating informative responses. Experiments demonstrate that our model with fewer parameters yields significant improvements over competitive baselines on two datasets Wizard-of-Wikipedia(average Bleu +87%; abs.: 0.034) and DuConv(average Bleu +20%; abs.: 0.047)) with different knowledge formats (textual & structured) and different languages (English & Chinese).

SpellGCN: Incorporating Phonological and Visual Similarities into Language Models for Chinese Spelling Check
Xingyi Cheng | Weidi Xu | Kunlong Chen | Shaohua Jiang | Feng Wang | Taifeng Wang | Wei Chu | Yuan Qi
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Chinese Spelling Check (CSC) is a task to detect and correct spelling errors in Chinese natural language. Existing methods have made attempts to incorporate the similarity knowledge between Chinese characters. However, they take the similarity knowledge as either an external input resource or just heuristic rules. This paper proposes to incorporate phonological and visual similarity knowledge into language models for CSC via a specialized graph convolutional network (SpellGCN). The model builds a graph over the characters, and SpellGCN is learned to map this graph into a set of inter-dependent character classifiers. These classifiers are applied to the representations extracted by another network, such as BERT, enabling the whole network to be end-to-end trainable. Experiments are conducted on three human-annotated datasets. Our method achieves superior performance against previous models by a large margin.

Towards Fast and Accurate Neural Chinese Word Segmentation with Multi-Criteria Learning
Weipeng Huang | Xingyi Cheng | Kunlong Chen | Taifeng Wang | Wei Chu
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

The ambiguous annotation criteria lead to divergence of Chinese Word Segmentation (CWS) datasets in various granularities. Multi-criteria Chinese word segmentation aims to capture various annotation criteria among datasets and leverage their common underlying knowledge. In this paper, we propose a domain adaptive segmenter to exploit diverse criteria of various datasets. Our model is based on Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT), which is responsible for introducing open-domain knowledge. Private and shared projection layers are proposed to capture domain-specific knowledge and common knowledge, respectively. We also optimize computational efficiency via distillation, quantization, and compiler optimization. Experiments show that our segmenter outperforms the previous state of the art (SOTA) models on 10 CWS datasets with superior efficiency.

Incremental Event Detection via Knowledge Consolidation Networks
Pengfei Cao | Yubo Chen | Jun Zhao | Taifeng Wang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Conventional approaches to event detection usually require a fixed set of pre-defined event types. Such a requirement is often challenged in real-world applications, as new events continually occur. Due to huge computation cost and storage budge, it is infeasible to store all previous data and re-train the model with all previous data and new data, every time new events arrive. We formulate such challenging scenarios as incremental event detection, which requires a model to learn new classes incrementally without performance degradation on previous classes. However, existing incremental learning methods cannot handle semantic ambiguity and training data imbalance problems between old and new classes in the task of incremental event detection. In this paper, we propose a Knowledge Consolidation Network (KCN) to address the above issues. Specifically, we devise two components, prototype enhanced retrospection and hierarchical distillation, to mitigate the adverse effects of semantic ambiguity and class imbalance, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, outperforming the state-of-the-art model by 19% and 13.4% of whole F1 score on ACE benchmark and TAC KBP benchmark, respectively.

Question Directed Graph Attention Network for Numerical Reasoning over Text
Kunlong Chen | Weidi Xu | Xingyi Cheng | Zou Xiaochuan | Yuyu Zhang | Le Song | Taifeng Wang | Yuan Qi | Wei Chu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Numerical reasoning over texts, such as addition, subtraction, sorting and counting, is a challenging machine reading comprehension task, since it requires both natural language understanding and arithmetic computation. To address this challenge, we propose a heterogeneous graph representation for the context of the passage and question needed for such reasoning, and design a question directed graph attention network to drive multi-step numerical reasoning over this context graph. Our model, which combines deep learning and graph reasoning, achieves remarkable results in benchmark datasets such as DROP.


Variational Semi-Supervised Aspect-Term Sentiment Analysis via Transformer
Xingyi Cheng | Weidi Xu | Taifeng Wang | Wei Chu | Weipeng Huang | Kunlong Chen | Junfeng Hu
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

Aspect-term sentiment analysis (ATSA) is a long-standing challenge in natural language process. It requires fine-grained semantical reasoning about a target entity appeared in the text. As manual annotation over the aspects is laborious and time-consuming, the amount of labeled data is limited for supervised learning. This paper proposes a semi-supervised method for the ATSA problem by using the Variational Autoencoder based on Transformer. The model learns the latent distribution via variational inference. By disentangling the latent representation into the aspect-specific sentiment and the lexical context, our method induces the underlying sentiment prediction for the unlabeled data, which then benefits the ATSA classifier. Our method is classifier-agnostic, i.e., the classifier is an independent module and various supervised models can be integrated. Experimental results are obtained on the SemEval 2014 task 4 and show that our method is effective with different the five specific classifiers and outperforms these models by a significant margin.