Retrieval-based dialogue systems display an outstanding performance when pre-trained language models are used, which includes bidirectional encoder representations from transformers (BERT). During the multi-turn response selection, BERT focuses on training the relationship between the context with multiple utterances and the response. However, this method of training is insufficient when considering the relations between each utterance in the context. This leads to a problem of not completely understanding the context flow that is required to select a response. To address this issue, we propose a new fine-grained post-training method that reflects the characteristics of the multi-turn dialogue. Specifically, the model learns the utterance level interactions by training every short context-response pair in a dialogue session. Furthermore, by using a new training objective, the utterance relevance classification, the model understands the semantic relevance and coherence between the dialogue utterances. Experimental results show that our model achieves new state-of-the-art with significant margins on three benchmark datasets. This suggests that the fine-grained post-training method is highly effective for the response selection task.
As research on utilizing human knowledge in natural language processing has attracted considerable attention in recent years, knowledge graph (KG) completion has come into the spotlight. Recently, a new knowledge graph completion method using a pre-trained language model, such as KG-BERT, is presented and showed high performance. However, its scores in ranking metrics such as Hits@k are still behind state-of-the-art models. We claim that there are two main reasons: 1) failure in sufficiently learning relational information in knowledge graphs, and 2) difficulty in picking out the correct answer from lexically similar candidates. In this paper, we propose an effective multi-task learning method to overcome the limitations of previous works. By combining relation prediction and relevance ranking tasks with our target link prediction, the proposed model can learn more relational properties in KGs and properly perform even when lexical similarity occurs. Experimental results show that we not only largely improve the ranking performances compared to KG-BERT but also achieve the state-of-the-art performances in Mean Rank and Hits@10 on the WN18RR dataset.