Since the meaning representations are detailed and accurate annotations which express fine-grained sequence-level semtantics, it is usually hard to train discriminative semantic parsers via Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) in an autoregressive fashion. In this paper, we propose a semantic-aware contrastive learning algorithm, which can learn to distinguish fine-grained meaning representations and take the overall sequence-level semantic into consideration. Specifically, a multi-level online sampling algorithm is proposed to sample confusing and diverse instances. Three semantic-aware similarity functions are designed to accurately measure the distance between meaning representations as a whole. And a ranked contrastive loss is proposed to pull the representations of the semantic-identical instances together and push negative instances away. Experiments on two standard datasets show that our approach achieves significant improvements over MLE baselines and gets state-of-the-art performances by simply applying semantic-aware contrastive learning on a vanilla Seq2Seq model.
Semantic parsing is challenging due to the structure gap and the semantic gap between utterances and logical forms. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised semantic parsing method - Synchronous Semantic Decoding (SSD), which can simultaneously resolve the semantic gap and the structure gap by jointly leveraging paraphrasing and grammar-constrained decoding. Specifically, we reformulate semantic parsing as a constrained paraphrasing problem: given an utterance, our model synchronously generates its canonical utterancel and meaning representation. During synchronously decoding: the utterance paraphrasing is constrained by the structure of the logical form, therefore the canonical utterance can be paraphrased controlledly; the semantic decoding is guided by the semantics of the canonical utterance, therefore its logical form can be generated unsupervisedly. Experimental results show that SSD is a promising approach and can achieve state-of-the-art unsupervised semantic parsing performance on multiple datasets.