Scott Novotney


CUE Vectors: Modular Training of Language Models Conditioned on Diverse Contextual Signals
Scott Novotney | Sreeparna Mukherjee | Zeeshan Ahmed | Andreas Stolcke
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

We propose a framework to modularize the training of neural language models that use diverse forms of context by eliminating the need to jointly train context and within-sentence encoders. Our approach, contextual universal embeddings (CUE), trains LMs on one type of contextual data and adapts to novel context types. The model consists of a pretrained neural sentence LM, a BERT-based contextual encoder, and a masked transfomer decoder that estimates LM probabilities using sentence-internal and contextual evidence.When contextually annotated data is unavailable, our model learns to combine contextual and sentence-internal information using noisy oracle unigram embeddings as a proxy. Real context data can be introduced later and used to adapt a small number of parameters that map contextual data into the decoder’s embedding space. We validate the CUE framework on a NYTimes text corpus with multiple metadata types, for which the LM perplexity can be lowered from 36.6 to 27.4 by conditioning on context. Bootstrapping a contextual LM with only a subset of the metadata during training retains 85% of the achievable gain. Training the model initially with proxy context retains 67% of the perplexity gain after adapting to real context. Furthermore, we can swap one type of pretrained sentence LM for another without retraining the context encoders, by only adapting the decoder model. Overall, we obtain a modular framework that allows incremental, scalable training of context-enhanced LMs.


Attention-based Contextual Language Model Adaptation for Speech Recognition
Richard Diehl Martinez | Scott Novotney | Ivan Bulyko | Ariya Rastrow | Andreas Stolcke | Ankur Gandhe
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


Crowdsourced Accessibility: Elicitation of Wikipedia Articles
Scott Novotney | Chris Callison-Burch
Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 Workshop on Creating Speech and Language Data with Amazon’s Mechanical Turk

Cheap, Fast and Good Enough: Automatic Speech Recognition with Non-Expert Transcription
Scott Novotney | Chris Callison-Burch
Human Language Technologies: The 2010 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics