Saurabh Gupta


PAIGE: Personalized Adaptive Interactions Graph Encoder for Query Rewriting in Dialogue Systems
Daniel Biś | Saurabh Gupta | Jie Hao | Xing Fan | Chenlei Guo
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Industry Track

Unexpected responses or repeated clarification questions from conversational agents detract from the users’ experience with technology meant to streamline their daily tasks. To reduce these frictions, Query Rewriting (QR) techniques replace transcripts of faulty queries with alternatives that lead to responses thatsatisfy the users’ needs. Despite their successes, existing QR approaches are limited in their ability to fix queries that require considering users’ personal preferences.We improve QR by proposing Personalized Adaptive Interactions Graph Encoder (PAIGE).PAIGE is the first QR architecture that jointly models user’s affinities and query semantics end-to-end.The core idea is to represent previous user-agent interactions and world knowledge in a structured form — a heterogeneous graph — and apply message passing to propagate latent representations of users’ affinities to refine utterance embeddings.Using these embeddings, PAIGE can potentially provide different rewrites given the same query for users with different preferences. Our model, trained without any human-annotated data, improves the rewrite retrieval precision of state-of-the-art baselines by 12.5–17.5% while having nearly ten times fewer parameters.

CGF: Constrained Generation Framework for Query Rewriting in Conversational AI
Jie Hao | Yang Liu | Xing Fan | Saurabh Gupta | Saleh Soltan | Rakesh Chada | Pradeep Natarajan | Chenlei Guo | Gokhan Tur
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Industry Track

In conversational AI agents, Query Rewriting (QR) plays a crucial role in reducing user frictions and satisfying their daily demands. User frictions are caused by various reasons, such as errors in the conversational AI system, users’ accent or their abridged language. In this work, we present a novel Constrained Generation Framework (CGF) for query rewriting at both global and personalized levels. It is based on the encoder-decoder framework, where the encoder takes the query and its previous dialogue turns as the input to form a context-enhanced representation, and the decoder uses constrained decoding to generate the rewrites based on the pre-defined global or personalized constrained decoding space. Extensive offline and online A/B experiments show that the proposed CGF significantly boosts the query rewriting performance.


Contextual Rephrase Detection for Reducing Friction in Dialogue Systems
Zhuoyi Wang | Saurabh Gupta | Jie Hao | Xing Fan | Dingcheng Li | Alexander Hanbo Li | Chenlei Guo
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

For voice assistants like Alexa, Google Assistant, and Siri, correctly interpreting users’ intentions is of utmost importance. However, users sometimes experience friction with these assistants, caused by errors from different system components or user errors such as slips of the tongue. Users tend to rephrase their queries until they get a satisfactory response. Rephrase detection is used to identify the rephrases and has long been treated as a task with pairwise input, which does not fully utilize the contextual information (e.g. users’ implicit feedback). To this end, we propose a contextual rephrase detection model ContReph to automatically identify rephrases from multi-turn dialogues. We showcase how to leverage the dialogue context and user-agent interaction signals, including the user’s implicit feedback and the time gap between different turns, which can help significantly outperform the pairwise rephrase detection models.

Personalized Search-based Query Rewrite System for Conversational AI
Eunah Cho | Ziyan Jiang | Jie Hao | Zheng Chen | Saurabh Gupta | Xing Fan | Chenlei Guo
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Conversational AI

Query rewrite (QR) is an emerging component in conversational AI systems, reducing user defect. User defect is caused by various reasons, such as errors in the spoken dialogue system, users’ slips of the tongue or their abridged language. Many of the user defects stem from personalized factors, such as user’s speech pattern, dialect, or preferences. In this work, we propose a personalized search-based QR framework, which focuses on automatic reduction of user defect. We build a personalized index for each user, which encompasses diverse affinity layers to reflect personal preferences for each user in the conversational AI. Our personalized QR system contains retrieval and ranking layers. Supported by user feedback based learning, training our models does not require hand-annotated data. Experiments on personalized test set showed that our personalized QR system is able to correct systematic and user errors by utilizing phonetic and semantic inputs.


Viable Threat on News Reading: Generating Biased News Using Natural Language Models
Saurabh Gupta | Hong Huy Nguyen | Junichi Yamagishi | Isao Echizen
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Natural Language Processing and Computational Social Science

Recent advancements in natural language generation has raised serious concerns. High-performance language models are widely used for language generation tasks because they are able to produce fluent and meaningful sentences. These models are already being used to create fake news. They can also be exploited to generate biased news, which can then be used to attack news aggregators to change their reader’s behavior and influence their bias. In this paper, we use a threat model to demonstrate that the publicly available language models can reliably generate biased news content based on an input original news. We also show that a large number of high-quality biased news articles can be generated using controllable text generation. A subjective evaluation with 80 participants demonstrated that the generated biased news is generally fluent, and a bias evaluation with 24 participants demonstrated that the bias (left or right) is usually evident in the generated articles and can be easily identified.


Language Models for Image Captioning: The Quirks and What Works
Jacob Devlin | Hao Cheng | Hao Fang | Saurabh Gupta | Li Deng | Xiaodong He | Geoffrey Zweig | Margaret Mitchell
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)