Saliha Muradoglu


Eeny, meeny, miny, moe. How to choose data for morphological inflection.
Saliha Muradoglu | Mans Hulden
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Data scarcity is a widespread problem for numerous natural language processing (NLP) tasks within low-resource languages. Within morphology, the labour-intensive task of tagging/glossing data is a serious bottleneck for both NLP and fieldwork. Active learning (AL) aims to reduce the cost of data annotation by selecting data that is most informative for the model. In this paper, we explore four sampling strategies for the task of morphological inflection using a Transformer model: a pair of oracle experiments where data is chosen based on correct/incorrect predictions by the model, model confidence, entropy, and random selection. We investigate the robustness of each sampling strategy across 30 typologically diverse languages, as well as a 10-cycle iteration using Natügu as a case study. Our results show a clear benefit to selecting data based on model confidence. Unsurprisingly, the oracle experiment, which is presented as a proxy for linguist/language informer feedback, shows the most improvement. This is followed closely by low-confidence and high-entropy forms. We also show that despite the conventional wisdom of larger data sets yielding better accuracy, introducing more instances of high-confidence, low-entropy, or forms that the model can already inflect correctly, can reduce model performance.


Linguist vs. Machine: Rapid Development of Finite-State Morphological Grammars
Sarah Beemer | Zak Boston | April Bukoski | Daniel Chen | Princess Dickens | Andrew Gerlach | Torin Hopkins | Parth Anand Jawale | Chris Koski | Akanksha Malhotra | Piyush Mishra | Saliha Muradoglu | Lan Sang | Tyler Short | Sagarika Shreevastava | Elizabeth Spaulding | Testumichi Umada | Beilei Xiang | Changbing Yang | Mans Hulden
Proceedings of the 17th SIGMORPHON Workshop on Computational Research in Phonetics, Phonology, and Morphology

Sequence-to-sequence models have proven to be highly successful in learning morphological inflection from examples as the series of SIGMORPHON/CoNLL shared tasks have shown. It is usually assumed, however, that a linguist working with inflectional examples could in principle develop a gold standard-level morphological analyzer and generator that would surpass a trained neural network model in accuracy of predictions, but that it may require significant amounts of human labor. In this paper, we discuss an experiment where a group of people with some linguistic training develop 25+ grammars as part of the shared task and weigh the cost/benefit ratio of developing grammars by hand. We also present tools that can help linguists triage difficult complex morphophonological phenomena within a language and hypothesize inflectional class membership. We conclude that a significant development effort by trained linguists to analyze and model morphophonological patterns are required in order to surpass the accuracy of neural models.

Modelling Verbal Morphology in Nen
Saliha Muradoglu | Nicholas Evans | Ekaterina Vylomova
Proceedings of the The 18th Annual Workshop of the Australasian Language Technology Association

Nen verbal morphology is particularly complex; a transitive verb can take up to 1,740 unique forms. The combined effect of having a large combinatoric space and a low-resource setting amplifies the need for NLP tools. Nen morphology utilises distributed exponence - a non-trivial means of mapping form to meaning. In this paper, we attempt to model Nen verbal morphology using state-of-the-art machine learning models for morphological reinflection. We explore and categorise the types of errors these systems generate. Our results show sensitivity to training data composition; different distributions of verb type yield different accuracies (patterning with E-complexity). We also demonstrate the types of patterns that can be inferred from the training data, through the case study of sycretism.

Exploring Looping Effects in RNN-based Architectures
Andrei Shcherbakov | Saliha Muradoglu | Ekaterina Vylomova
Proceedings of the The 18th Annual Workshop of the Australasian Language Technology Association

The paper investigates repetitive loops, a common problem in contemporary text generation (such as machine translation, language modelling, morphological inflection) systems. More specifically, we conduct a study on neural models with recurrent units by explicitly altering their decoder internal state. We use a task of morphological reinflection task as a proxy to study the effects of the changes. Our results show that the probability of the occurrence of repetitive loops is significantly reduced by introduction of an extra neural decoder output. The output should be specifically trained to produce gradually increasing value upon generation of each character of a given sequence. We also explored variations of the technique and found that feeding the extra output back to the decoder amplifies the positive effects.

To compress or not to compress? A Finite-State approach to Nen verbal morphology
Saliha Muradoglu | Nicholas Evans | Hanna Suominen
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

This paper describes the development of a verbal morphological parser for an under-resourced Papuan language, Nen. Nen verbal morphology is particularly complex, with a transitive verb taking up to 1,740 unique features. The structural properties exhibited by Nen verbs raises interesting choices for analysis. Here we compare two possible methods of analysis: ‘Chunking’ and decomposition. ‘Chunking’ refers to the concept of collating morphological segments into one, whereas the decomposition model follows a more classical linguistic approach. Both models are built using the Finite-State Transducer toolkit foma. The resultant architecture shows differences in size and structural clarity. While the ‘Chunking’ model is under half the size of the full de-composed counterpart, the decomposition displays higher structural order. In this paper, we describe the challenges encountered when modelling a language exhibiting distributed exponence and present the first morphological analyser for Nen, with an overall accuracy of 80.3%.