Ronald Cardenas


A Grounded Unsupervised Universal Part-of-Speech Tagger for Low-Resource Languages
Ronald Cardenas | Ying Lin | Heng Ji | Jonathan May
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Unsupervised part of speech (POS) tagging is often framed as a clustering problem, but practical taggers need to ground their clusters as well. Grounding generally requires reference labeled data, a luxury a low-resource language might not have. In this work, we describe an approach for low-resource unsupervised POS tagging that yields fully grounded output and requires no labeled training data. We find the classic method of Brown et al. (1992) clusters well in our use case and employ a decipherment-based approach to grounding. This approach presumes a sequence of cluster IDs is a ‘ciphertext’ and seeks a POS tag-to-cluster ID mapping that will reveal the POS sequence. We show intrinsically that, despite the difficulty of the task, we obtain reasonable performance across a variety of languages. We also show extrinsically that incorporating our POS tagger into a name tagger leads to state-of-the-art tagging performance in Sinhalese and Kinyarwanda, two languages with nearly no labeled POS data available. We further demonstrate our tagger’s utility by incorporating it into a true ‘zero-resource’ variant of the MALOPA (Ammar et al., 2016) dependency parser model that removes the current reliance on multilingual resources and gold POS tags for new languages. Experiments show that including our tagger makes up much of the accuracy lost when gold POS tags are unavailable.

CUNIMalta system at SIGMORPHON 2019 Shared Task on Morphological Analysis and Lemmatization in context: Operation-based word formation
Ronald Cardenas | Claudia Borg | Daniel Zeman
Proceedings of the 16th Workshop on Computational Research in Phonetics, Phonology, and Morphology

This paper presents the submission by the Charles University-University of Malta team to the SIGMORPHON 2019 Shared Task on Morphological Analysis and Lemmatization in context. We present a lemmatization model based on previous work on neural transducers (Makarov and Clematide, 2018b; Aharoni and Goldberg, 2016). The key difference is that our model transforms the whole word form in every step, instead of consuming it character by character. We propose a merging strategy inspired by Byte-Pair-Encoding that reduces the space of valid operations by merging frequent adjacent operations. The resulting operations not only encode the actions to be performed but the relative position in the word token and how characters need to be transformed. Our morphological tagger is a vanilla biLSTM tagger that operates over operation representations, encoding operations and words in a hierarchical manner. Even though relative performance according to metrics is below the baseline, experiments show that our models capture important associations between interpretable operation labels and fine-grained morpho-syntax labels.


A Morphological Analyzer for Shipibo-Konibo
Ronald Cardenas | Daniel Zeman
Proceedings of the Fifteenth Workshop on Computational Research in Phonetics, Phonology, and Morphology

We present a fairly complete morphological analyzer for Shipibo-Konibo, a low-resourced native language spoken in the Amazonian region of Peru. We resort to the robustness of finite-state systems in order to model the complex morphosyntax of the language. Evaluation over raw corpora shows promising coverage of grammatical phenomena, limited only by the scarce lexicon. We make this tool freely available so as to aid the production of annotated corpora and impulse further research in native languages of Peru.

Document Modeling with External Attention for Sentence Extraction
Shashi Narayan | Ronald Cardenas | Nikos Papasarantopoulos | Shay B. Cohen | Mirella Lapata | Jiangsheng Yu | Yi Chang
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Document modeling is essential to a variety of natural language understanding tasks. We propose to use external information to improve document modeling for problems that can be framed as sentence extraction. We develop a framework composed of a hierarchical document encoder and an attention-based extractor with attention over external information. We evaluate our model on extractive document summarization (where the external information is image captions and the title of the document) and answer selection (where the external information is a question). We show that our model consistently outperforms strong baselines, in terms of both informativeness and fluency (for CNN document summarization) and achieves state-of-the-art results for answer selection on WikiQA and NewsQA.