Rajesh Bhatt

UMass Amherst

Other people with similar names: Rajesh Bhat


SLING: Sino Linguistic Evaluation of Large Language Models
Yixiao Song | Kalpesh Krishna | Rajesh Bhatt | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

To understand what kinds of linguistic knowledge are encoded by pretrained Chinese language models (LMs), we introduce the benchmark of Sino LINGuistics (SLING), which consists of 38K minimal sentence pairs in Mandarin Chinese grouped into 9 high-level linguistic phenomena. Each pair demonstrates the acceptability contrast of a specific syntactic or semantic phenomenon (e.g., The keys are lost vs. The keys is lost), and an LM should assign lower perplexity to the acceptable sentence. In contrast to the CLiMP dataset (Xiang et al., 2021), which also contains Chinese minimal pairs and was created by translating the vocabulary of the English BLiMP dataset, the minimal pairs in SLING are derived primarily by applying syntactic and lexical transformations to naturally-occurring, linguist-annotated sentences from the Chinese Treebank 9.0, thus addressing severe issues in CLiMP’s data generation process. We test 18 publicly available pretrained monolingual (e.g., BERT-base-zh, CPM) and multi-lingual (e.g., mT5, XLM) language models on SLING. Our experiments show that the average accuracy for LMs is far below human performance (69.7% vs. 97.1%), while BERT-base-zh achieves the highest accuracy (84.8%) of all tested LMs, even much larger ones. Additionally, we find that most LMs have a strong gender and number (singular/plural) bias, and they perform better on local phenomena than hierarchical ones.


Towards a Psycholinguistically Motivated Dependency Grammar for Hindi
Samar Husain | Rajesh Bhatt | Shravan Vasishth
Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Dependency Linguistics (DepLing 2013)


Creating a Tree Adjoining Grammar from a Multilayer Treebank
Rajesh Bhatt | Owen Rambow | Fei Xia
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammars and Related Formalisms (TAG+11)


Linguistic Phenomena, Analyses, and Representations: Understanding Conversion between Treebanks
Rajesh Bhatt | Owen Rambow | Fei Xia
Proceedings of 5th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing


Empty Categories in a Hindi Treebank
Archna Bhatia | Rajesh Bhatt | Bhuvana Narasimhan | Martha Palmer | Owen Rambow | Dipti Misra Sharma | Michael Tepper | Ashwini Vaidya | Fei Xia
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

We are in the process of creating a multi-representational and multi-layered treebank for Hindi/Urdu (Palmer et al., 2009), which has three main layers: dependency structure, predicate-argument structure (PropBank), and phrase structure. This paper discusses an important issue in treebank design which is often neglected: the use of empty categories (ECs). All three levels of representation make use of ECs. We make a high-level distinction between two types of ECs, trace and silent, on the basis of whether they are postulated to mark displacement or not. Each type is further refined into several subtypes based on the underlying linguistic phenomena which the ECs are introduced to handle. This paper discusses the stages at which we add ECs to the Hindi/Urdu treebank and why. We investigate methodically the different types of ECs and their role in our syntactic and semantic representations. We also examine our decisions whether or not to coindex each type of ECs with other elements in the representation.


A Multi-Representational and Multi-Layered Treebank for Hindi/Urdu
Rajesh Bhatt | Bhuvana Narasimhan | Martha Palmer | Owen Rambow | Dipti Sharma | Fei Xia
Proceedings of the Third Linguistic Annotation Workshop (LAW III)