Rabeeh Karimi Mahabadi


Prompt-free and Efficient Few-shot Learning with Language Models
Rabeeh Karimi Mahabadi | Luke Zettlemoyer | James Henderson | Lambert Mathias | Marzieh Saeidi | Veselin Stoyanov | Majid Yazdani
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Current methods for few-shot fine-tuning of pretrained masked language models (PLMs) require carefully engineered prompts and verbalizers for each new task to convert examples into a cloze-format that the PLM can score. In this work, we propose Perfect, a simple and efficient method for few-shot fine-tuning of PLMs without relying on any such handcrafting, which is highly effective given as few as 32 data points. Perfect makes two key design choices: First, we show that manually engineered task prompts can be replaced with task-specific adapters that enable sample-efficient fine-tuning and reduce memory and storage costs by roughly factors of 5 and 100, respectively. Second, instead of using handcrafted verbalizers, we learn new multi-token label embeddings during fine-tuning, which are not tied to the model vocabulary and which allow us to avoid complex auto-regressive decoding. These embeddings are not only learnable from limited data but also enable nearly 100x faster training and inference. Experiments on a wide range of few shot NLP tasks demonstrate that Perfect, while being simple and efficient, also outperforms existing state-of-the-art few-shot learning methods. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/rabeehk/perfect.


Parameter-efficient Multi-task Fine-tuning for Transformers via Shared Hypernetworks
Rabeeh Karimi Mahabadi | Sebastian Ruder | Mostafa Dehghani | James Henderson
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

State-of-the-art parameter-efficient fine-tuning methods rely on introducing adapter modules between the layers of a pretrained language model. However, such modules are trained separately for each task and thus do not enable sharing information across tasks. In this paper, we show that we can learn adapter parameters for all layers and tasks by generating them using shared hypernetworks, which condition on task, adapter position, and layer id in a transformer model. This parameter-efficient multi-task learning framework allows us to achieve the best of both worlds by sharing knowledge across tasks via hypernetworks while enabling the model to adapt to each individual task through task-specific adapters. Experiments on the well-known GLUE benchmark show improved performance in multi-task learning while adding only 0.29% parameters per task. We additionally demonstrate substantial performance improvements in few-shot domain generalization across a variety of tasks. Our code is publicly available in https://github.com/rabeehk/hyperformer.


End-to-End Bias Mitigation by Modelling Biases in Corpora
Rabeeh Karimi Mahabadi | Yonatan Belinkov | James Henderson
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Several recent studies have shown that strong natural language understanding (NLU) models are prone to relying on unwanted dataset biases without learning the underlying task, resulting in models that fail to generalize to out-of-domain datasets and are likely to perform poorly in real-world scenarios. We propose two learning strategies to train neural models, which are more robust to such biases and transfer better to out-of-domain datasets. The biases are specified in terms of one or more bias-only models, which learn to leverage the dataset biases. During training, the bias-only models’ predictions are used to adjust the loss of the base model to reduce its reliance on biases by down-weighting the biased examples and focusing the training on the hard examples. We experiment on large-scale natural language inference and fact verification benchmarks, evaluating on out-of-domain datasets that are specifically designed to assess the robustness of models against known biases in the training data. Results show that our debiasing methods greatly improve robustness in all settings and better transfer to other textual entailment datasets. Our code and data are publicly available in https://github.com/rabeehk/robust-nli.