Paula Carvalho


Annotating Arguments in a Corpus of Opinion Articles
Gil Rocha | Luís Trigo | Henrique Lopes Cardoso | Rui Sousa-Silva | Paula Carvalho | Bruno Martins | Miguel Won
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Interest in argument mining has resulted in an increasing number of argument annotated corpora. However, most focus on English texts with explicit argumentative discourse markers, such as persuasive essays or legal documents. Conversely, we report on the first extensive and consolidated Portuguese argument annotation project focused on opinion articles. We briefly describe the annotation guidelines based on a multi-layered process and analyze the manual annotations produced, highlighting the main challenges of this textual genre. We then conduct a comprehensive inter-annotator agreement analysis, including argumentative discourse units, their classes and relations, and resulting graphs. This analysis reveals that each of these aspects tackles very different kinds of challenges. We observe differences in annotator profiles, motivating our aim of producing a non-aggregated corpus containing the insights of every annotator. We note that the interpretation and identification of token-level arguments is challenging; nevertheless, tasks that focus on higher-level components of the argument structure can obtain considerable agreement. We lay down perspectives on corpus usage, exploiting its multi-faceted nature.

Hate Speech Dynamics Against African descent, Roma and LGBTQI Communities in Portugal
Paula Carvalho | Bernardo Cunha | Raquel Santos | Fernando Batista | Ricardo Ribeiro
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

This paper introduces FIGHT, a dataset containing 63,450 tweets, posted before and after the official declaration of Covid-19 as a pandemic by online users in Portugal. This resource aims at contributing to the analysis of online hate speech targeting the most representative minorities in Portugal, namely the African descent and the Roma communities, and the LGBTQI community, the most commonly reported target of hate speech in social media at the European context. We present the methods for collecting the data, and provide insightful statistics on the distribution of tweets included in FIGHT, considering both the temporal and spatial dimensions. We also analyze the availability over time of tweets targeting the above-mentioned communities, distinguishing public, private and deleted tweets. We believe this study will contribute to better understand the dynamics of online hate speech in Portugal, particularly in adverse contexts, such as a pandemic outbreak, allowing the development of more informed and accurate hate speech resources for Portuguese.


Modelling Context with User Embeddings for Sarcasm Detection in Social Media
Silvio Amir | Byron C. Wallace | Hao Lyu | Paula Carvalho | Mário J. Silva
Proceedings of the 20th SIGNLL Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

Port4NooJ v3.0: Integrated Linguistic Resources for Portuguese NLP
Cristina Mota | Paula Carvalho | Anabela Barreiro
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

This paper introduces Port4NooJ v3.0, the latest version of the Portuguese module for NooJ, highlights its main features, and details its three main new components: (i) a lexicon-grammar based dictionary of 5,177 human intransitive adjectives, and a set of local grammars that use the distributional properties of those adjectives for paraphrasing (ii) a polarity dictionary with 9,031 entries for sentiment analysis, and (iii) a set of priority dictionaries and local grammars for named entity recognition. These new components were derived and/or adapted from publicly available resources. The Port4NooJ v3.0 resource is innovative in terms of the specificity of the linguistic knowledge it incorporates. The dictionary is bilingual Portuguese-English, and the semantico-syntactic information assigned to each entry validates the linguistic relation between the terms in both languages. These characteristics, which cannot be found in any other public resource for Portuguese, make it a valuable resource for translation and paraphrasing. The paper presents the current statistics and describes the different complementary and synergic components and integration efforts.


Liars and Saviors in a Sentiment Annotated Corpus of Comments to Political Debates
Paula Carvalho | Luís Sarmento | Jorge Teixeira | Mário J. Silva
Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies


Second HAREM: Advancing the State of the Art of Named Entity Recognition in Portuguese
Cláudia Freitas | Cristina Mota | Diana Santos | Hugo Gonçalo Oliveira | Paula Carvalho
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

In this paper, we present Second HAREM, the second edition of an evaluation campaign for Portuguese, addressing named entity recognition (NER). This second edition also included two new tracks: the recognition and normalization of temporal entities (proposed by a group of participants, and hence not covered on this paper) and ReRelEM, the detection of semantic relations between named entities. We summarize the setup of Second HAREM by showing the preserved distinctive features and discussing the changes compared to the first edition. Furthermore, we present the main results achieved and describe the available resources and tools developed under this evaluation, namely,(i) the golden collections, i.e. a set of documents whose named entities and semantic relations between those entities were manually annotated, (ii) the Second HAREM collection (which contains the unannotated version of the golden collection), as well as the participating systems results on it, (iii) the scoring tools, and (iv) SAHARA, a Web application that allows interactive evaluation. We end the paper by offering some remarks about what was learned.


Exploring the Vector Space Model for Finding Verb Synonyms in Portuguese
Luís Sarmento | Paula Carvalho | Eugénio Oliveira
Proceedings of the International Conference RANLP-2009

Relation detection between named entities: report of a shared task
Cláudia Freitas | Diana Santos | Cristina Mota | Hugo Gonçalo Oliveira | Paula Carvalho
Proceedings of the Workshop on Semantic Evaluations: Recent Achievements and Future Directions (SEW-2009)


Portuguese Large-scale Language Resources for NLP Applications
Elisabete Ranchhod | Paula Carvalho | Cristina Mota | Anabela Barreiro
Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’04)

Multiword Lexical Acquisition and Dictionary Formalization
Cristina Mota | Paula Carvalho | Elisabete Ranchhod
Proceedings of the Workshop on Enhancing and Using Electronic Dictionaries