Nihal V. Nayak


PromptSource: An Integrated Development Environment and Repository for Natural Language Prompts
Stephen Bach | Victor Sanh | Zheng Xin Yong | Albert Webson | Colin Raffel | Nihal V. Nayak | Abheesht Sharma | Taewoon Kim | M Saiful Bari | Thibault Fevry | Zaid Alyafeai | Manan Dey | Andrea Santilli | Zhiqing Sun | Srulik Ben-david | Canwen Xu | Gunjan Chhablani | Han Wang | Jason Fries | Maged Al-shaibani | Shanya Sharma | Urmish Thakker | Khalid Almubarak | Xiangru Tang | Dragomir Radev | Mike Tian-jian Jiang | Alexander Rush
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

PromptSource is a system for creating, sharing, and using natural language prompts. Prompts are functions that map an example from a dataset to a natural language input and target output. Using prompts to train and query language models is an emerging area in NLP that requires new tools that let users develop and refine these prompts collaboratively. PromptSource addresses the emergent challenges in this new setting with (1) a templating language for defining data-linked prompts, (2) an interface that lets users quickly iterate on prompt development by observing outputs of their prompts on many examples, and (3) a community-driven set of guidelines for contributing new prompts to a common pool. Over 2,000 prompts for roughly 170 datasets are already available in PromptSource. PromptSource is available at


Study on Unsupervised Statistical Machine Translation for Backtranslation
Anush Kumar | Nihal V. Nayak | Aditya Chandra | Mydhili K. Nair
Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2019)

Machine Translation systems have drastically improved over the years for several language pairs. Monolingual data is often used to generate synthetic sentences to augment the training data which has shown to improve the performance of machine translation models. In our paper, we make use of an Unsupervised Statistical Machine Translation (USMT) to generate synthetic sentences. Our study compares the performance improvements in Neural Machine Translation model when using synthetic sentences from supervised and unsupervised Machine Translation models. Our approach of using USMT for backtranslation shows promise in low resource conditions and achieves an improvement of 3.2 BLEU score over the Neural Machine Translation model.


Context Based Approach for Second Language Acquisition
Nihal V. Nayak | Arjun R. Rao
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications

SLAM 2018 focuses on predicting a student’s mistake while using the Duolingo application. In this paper, we describe the system we developed for this shared task. Our system uses a logistic regression model to predict the likelihood of a student making a mistake while answering an exercise on Duolingo in all three language tracks - English/Spanish (en/es), Spanish/English (es/en) and French/English (fr/en). We conduct an ablation study with several features during the development of this system and discover that context based features plays a major role in language acquisition modeling. Our model beats Duolingo’s baseline scores in all three language tracks (AUROC scores for en/es = 0.821, es/en = 0.790 and fr/en = 0.812). Our work makes a case for providing favourable textual context for students while learning second language.


V for Vocab: An Intelligent Flashcard Application
Nihal V. Nayak | Tanmay Chinchore | Aishwarya Hanumanth Rao | Shane Michael Martin | Sagar Nagaraj Simha | G. M. Lingaraju | H. S. Jamadagni
Proceedings of ACL 2017, Student Research Workshop