Myeongjun Jang


Beyond Distributional Hypothesis: Let Language Models Learn Meaning-Text Correspondence
Myeongjun Jang | Frank Mtumbuka | Thomas Lukasiewicz
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

The logical negation property (LNP), which implies generating different predictions for semantically opposite inputs (p is true iff ¬p is false), is an important property that a trustworthy language model must satisfy. However, much recent evidence shows that large-size pre-trained language models (PLMs) do not satisfy this property. In this paper, we perform experiments using probing tasks to assess PLMs’ LNP understanding. Unlike previous studies that only examined negation expressions, we expand the boundary of the investigation to lexical semantics. Through experiments, we observe that PLMs violate the LNP frequently. To alleviate the issue, we propose a novel intermediate training task, named meaning-matching, designed to directly learn a meaning text correspondence, instead of relying on the distributional hypothesis. Through multiple experiments, we find that the task enables PLMs to learn lexical semantic information. Also, through fine-tuning experiments on 7 GLUE tasks, we confirm that it is a safe intermediate task that guarantees a similar or better performance of downstream tasks. Finally, we observe that our proposed approach outperforms our previous counterparts despite its time and resource efficiency.

BECEL: Benchmark for Consistency Evaluation of Language Models
Myeongjun Jang | Deuk Sin Kwon | Thomas Lukasiewicz
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Behavioural consistency is a critical condition for a language model (LM) to become trustworthy like humans. Despite its importance, however, there is little consensus on the definition of LM consistency, resulting in different definitions across many studies. In this paper, we first propose the idea of LM consistency based on behavioural consistency and establish a taxonomy that classifies previously studied consistencies into several sub-categories. Next, we create a new benchmark that allows us to evaluate a model on 19 test cases, distinguished by multiple types of consistency and diverse downstream tasks. Through extensive experiments on the new benchmark, we ascertain that none of the modern pre-trained language models (PLMs) performs well in every test case, while exhibiting high inconsistency in many cases. Our experimental results suggest that a unified benchmark that covers broad aspects (i.e., multiple consistency types and tasks) is essential for a more precise evaluation.

KoBEST: Korean Balanced Evaluation of Significant Tasks
Myeongjun Jang | Dohyung Kim | Deuk Sin Kwon | Eric Davis
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

A well-formulated benchmark plays a critical role in spurring advancements in the natural language processing (NLP) field, as it allows objective and precise evaluation of diverse models. As modern language models (LMs) have become more elaborate and sophisticated, more difficult benchmarks that require linguistic knowledge and reasoning have been proposed. However, most of these benchmarks only support English, and great effort is necessary to construct benchmarks for other low resource languages. To this end, we propose a new benchmark named Korean balanced evaluation of significant tasks (KoBEST), which consists of five Korean-language downstream tasks. Professional Korean linguists designed the tasks that require advanced Korean linguistic knowledge. Moreover, our data is purely annotated by humans and thoroughly reviewed to guarantee high data quality. We also provide baseline models and human performance results. Our dataset is available on the Huggingface.