Mithun Paul


Eidos, INDRA, & Delphi: From Free Text to Executable Causal Models
Rebecca Sharp | Adarsh Pyarelal | Benjamin Gyori | Keith Alcock | Egoitz Laparra | Marco A. Valenzuela-Escárcega | Ajay Nagesh | Vikas Yadav | John Bachman | Zheng Tang | Heather Lent | Fan Luo | Mithun Paul | Steven Bethard | Kobus Barnard | Clayton Morrison | Mihai Surdeanu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Demonstrations)

Building causal models of complicated phenomena such as food insecurity is currently a slow and labor-intensive manual process. In this paper, we introduce an approach that builds executable probabilistic models from raw, free text. The proposed approach is implemented through three systems: Eidos, INDRA, and Delphi. Eidos is an open-domain machine reading system designed to extract causal relations from natural language. It is rule-based, allowing for rapid domain transfer, customizability, and interpretability. INDRA aggregates multiple sources of causal information and performs assembly to create a coherent knowledge base and assess its reliability. This assembled knowledge serves as the starting point for modeling. Delphi is a modeling framework that assembles quantified causal fragments and their contexts into executable probabilistic models that respect the semantics of the original text, and can be used to support decision making.

On the Importance of Delexicalization for Fact Verification
Sandeep Suntwal | Mithun Paul | Rebecca Sharp | Mihai Surdeanu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

While neural networks produce state-of-the-art performance in many NLP tasks, they generally learn from lexical information, which may transfer poorly between domains. Here, we investigate the importance that a model assigns to various aspects of data while learning and making predictions, specifically, in a recognizing textual entailment (RTE) task. By inspecting the attention weights assigned by the model, we confirm that most of the weights are assigned to noun phrases. To mitigate this dependence on lexicalized information, we experiment with two strategies of masking. First, we replace named entities with their corresponding semantic tags along with a unique identifier to indicate lexical overlap between claim and evidence. Second, we similarly replace other word classes in the sentence (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) with their super sense tags (Ciaramita and Johnson, 2003). Our results show that, while performance on the in-domain dataset remains on par with that of the model trained on fully lexicalized data, it improves considerably when tested out of domain. For example, the performance of a state-of-the-art RTE model trained on the masked Fake News Challenge (Pomerleau and Rao, 2017) data and evaluated on Fact Extraction and Verification (Thorne et al., 2018) data improved by over 10% in accuracy score compared to the fully lexicalized model.


Grounding Gradable Adjectives through Crowdsourcing
Rebecca Sharp | Mithun Paul | Ajay Nagesh | Dane Bell | Mihai Surdeanu
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

A mostly unlexicalized model for recognizing textual entailment
Mithun Paul | Rebecca Sharp | Mihai Surdeanu
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Fact Extraction and VERification (FEVER)

Many approaches to automatically recognizing entailment relations have employed classifiers over hand engineered lexicalized features, or deep learning models that implicitly capture lexicalization through word embeddings. This reliance on lexicalization may complicate the adaptation of these tools between domains. For example, such a system trained in the news domain may learn that a sentence like “Palestinians recognize Texas as part of Mexico” tends to be unsupported, but this fact (and its corresponding lexicalized cues) have no value in, say, a scientific domain. To mitigate this dependence on lexicalized information, in this paper we propose a model that reads two sentences, from any given domain, to determine entailment without using lexicalized features. Instead our model relies on features that are either unlexicalized or are domain independent such as proportion of negated verbs, antonyms, or noun overlap. In its current implementation, this model does not perform well on the FEVER dataset, due to two reasons. First, for the information retrieval portion of the task we used the baseline system provided, since this was not the aim of our project. Second, this is work in progress and we still are in the process of identifying more features and gradually increasing the accuracy of our model. In the end, we hope to build a generic end-to-end classifier, which can be used in a domain outside the one in which it was trained, with no or minimal re-training.