Michael Bugert


Event Coreference Data (Almost) for Free: Mining Hyperlinks from Online News
Michael Bugert | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Cross-document event coreference resolution (CDCR) is the task of identifying which event mentions refer to the same events throughout a collection of documents. Annotating CDCR data is an arduous and expensive process, explaining why existing corpora are small and lack domain coverage. To overcome this bottleneck, we automatically extract event coreference data from hyperlinks in online news: When referring to a significant real-world event, writers often add a hyperlink to another article covering this event. We demonstrate that collecting hyperlinks which point to the same article(s) produces extensive and high-quality CDCR data and create a corpus of 2M documents and 2.7M silver-standard event mentions called HyperCoref. We evaluate a state-of-the-art system on three CDCR corpora and find that models trained on small subsets of HyperCoref are highly competitive, with performance similar to models trained on gold-standard data. With our work, we free CDCR research from depending on costly human-annotated training data and open up possibilities for research beyond English CDCR, as our data extraction approach can be easily adapted to other languages.

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Generalizing Cross-Document Event Coreference Resolution Across Multiple Corpora
Michael Bugert | Nils Reimers | Iryna Gurevych
Computational Linguistics, Volume 47, Issue 3 - November 2021

Cross-document event coreference resolution (CDCR) is an NLP task in which mentions of events need to be identified and clustered throughout a collection of documents. CDCR aims to benefit downstream multidocument applications, but despite recent progress on corpora and system development, downstream improvements from applying CDCR have not been shown yet. We make the observation that every CDCR system to date was developed, trained, and tested only on a single respective corpus. This raises strong concerns on their generalizability—a must-have for downstream applications where the magnitude of domains or event mentions is likely to exceed those found in a curated corpus. To investigate this assumption, we define a uniform evaluation setup involving three CDCR corpora: ECB+, the Gun Violence Corpus, and the Football Coreference Corpus (which we reannotate on token level to make our analysis possible). We compare a corpus-independent, feature-based system against a recent neural system developed for ECB+. Although being inferior in absolute numbers, the feature-based system shows more consistent performance across all corpora whereas the neural system is hit-or-miss. Via model introspection, we find that the importance of event actions, event time, and so forth, for resolving coreference in practice varies greatly between the corpora. Additional analysis shows that several systems overfit on the structure of the ECB+ corpus. We conclude with recommendations on how to achieve generally applicable CDCR systems in the future—the most important being that evaluation on multiple CDCR corpora is strongly necessary. To facilitate future research, we release our dataset, annotation guidelines, and system implementation to the public.1


Revisiting Joint Modeling of Cross-document Entity and Event Coreference Resolution
Shany Barhom | Vered Shwartz | Alon Eirew | Michael Bugert | Nils Reimers | Ido Dagan
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Recognizing coreferring events and entities across multiple texts is crucial for many NLP applications. Despite the task’s importance, research focus was given mostly to within-document entity coreference, with rather little attention to the other variants. We propose a neural architecture for cross-document coreference resolution. Inspired by Lee et al. (2012), we jointly model entity and event coreference. We represent an event (entity) mention using its lexical span, surrounding context, and relation to entity (event) mentions via predicate-arguments structures. Our model outperforms the previous state-of-the-art event coreference model on ECB+, while providing the first entity coreference results on this corpus. Our analysis confirms that all our representation elements, including the mention span itself, its context, and the relation to other mentions contribute to the model’s success.


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The INCEpTION Platform: Machine-Assisted and Knowledge-Oriented Interactive Annotation
Jan-Christoph Klie | Michael Bugert | Beto Boullosa | Richard Eckart de Castilho | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

We introduce INCEpTION, a new annotation platform for tasks including interactive and semantic annotation (e.g., concept linking, fact linking, knowledge base population, semantic frame annotation). These tasks are very time consuming and demanding for annotators, especially when knowledge bases are used. We address these issues by developing an annotation platform that incorporates machine learning capabilities which actively assist and guide annotators. The platform is both generic and modular. It targets a range of research domains in need of semantic annotation, such as digital humanities, bioinformatics, or linguistics. INCEpTION is publicly available as open-source software.


LSDSem 2017: Exploring Data Generation Methods for the Story Cloze Test
Michael Bugert | Yevgeniy Puzikov | Andreas Rücklé | Judith Eckle-Kohler | Teresa Martin | Eugenio Martínez-Cámara | Daniil Sorokin | Maxime Peyrard | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Linking Models of Lexical, Sentential and Discourse-level Semantics

The Story Cloze test is a recent effort in providing a common test scenario for text understanding systems. As part of the LSDSem 2017 shared task, we present a system based on a deep learning architecture combined with a rich set of manually-crafted linguistic features. The system outperforms all known baselines for the task, suggesting that the chosen approach is promising. We additionally present two methods for generating further training data based on stories from the ROCStories corpus.