Mayur Patidar


Intent Detection and Discovery from User Logs via Deep Semi-Supervised Contrastive Clustering
Rajat Kumar | Mayur Patidar | Vaibhav Varshney | Lovekesh Vig | Gautam Shroff
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Intent Detection is a crucial component of Dialogue Systems wherein the objective is to classify a user utterance into one of multiple pre-defined intents. A pre-requisite for developing an effective intent identifier is a training dataset labeled with all possible user intents. However, even skilled domain experts are often unable to foresee all possible user intents at design time and for practical applications, novel intents may have to be inferred incrementally on-the-fly from user utterances. Therefore, for any real-world dialogue system, the number of intents increases over time and new intents have to be discovered by analyzing the utterances outside the existing set of intents. In this paper, our objective is to i) detect known intent utterances from a large number of unlabeled utterance samples given a few labeled samples and ii) discover new unknown intents from the remaining unlabeled samples. Existing SOTA approaches address this problem via alternate representation learning and clustering wherein pseudo labels are used for updating the representations and clustering is used for generating the pseudo labels. Unlike existing approaches that rely on epoch wise cluster alignment, we propose an end-to-end deep contrastive clustering algorithm that jointly updates model parameters and cluster centers via supervised and self-supervised learning and optimally utilizes both labeled and unlabeled data. Our proposed approach outperforms competitive baselines on five public datasets for both settings: (i) where the number of undiscovered intents are known in advance, and (ii) where the number of intents are estimated by an algorithm. We also propose a human-in-the-loop variant of our approach for practical deployment which does not require an estimate of new intents and outperforms the end-to-end approach.

Prompt Augmented Generative Replay via Supervised Contrastive Learning for Lifelong Intent Detection
Vaibhav Varshney | Mayur Patidar | Rajat Kumar | Lovekesh Vig | Gautam Shroff
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Identifying all possible user intents for a dialog system at design time is challenging even for skilled domain experts. For practical applications, novel intents may have to be inferred incrementally on the fly. This typically entails repeated retraining of the intent detector on both the existing and novel intents which can be expensive and would require storage of all past data corresponding to prior intents. In this paper, the objective is to continually train an intent detector on new intents while maintaining performance on prior intents without mandating access to prior intent data. Several data replay-based approaches have been introduced to avoid catastrophic forgetting during continual learning, including exemplar and generative replay. Current generative replay approaches struggle to generate representative samples because the generation is conditioned solely on the class/task label. Motivated by the recent work around prompt-based generation via pre-trained language models (PLMs), we employ generative replay using PLMs for incremental intent detection. Unlike exemplar replay, we only store the relevant contexts per intent in memory and use these stored contexts (with the class label) as prompts for generating intent-specific utterances. We use a common model for both generation and classification to promote optimal sharing of knowledge across both tasks. To further improve generation, we employ supervised contrastive fine-tuning of the PLM. Our proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art (SOTA) for lifelong intent detection on four public datasets and even outperforms exemplar replay-based approaches. The technique also achieves SOTA on a lifelong relation extraction task, suggesting that the approach is extendable to other continual learning tasks beyond intent detection.


Domain Adaptation for NMT via Filtered Iterative Back-Translation
Surabhi Kumari | Nikhil Jaiswal | Mayur Patidar | Manasi Patwardhan | Shirish Karande | Puneet Agarwal | Lovekesh Vig
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Domain Adaptation for NLP

Domain-specific Neural Machine Translation (NMT) model can provide improved performance, however, it is difficult to always access a domain-specific parallel corpus. Iterative Back-Translation can be used for fine-tuning an NMT model for a domain even if only a monolingual domain corpus is available. The quality of synthetic parallel corpora in terms of closeness to in-domain sentences can play an important role in the performance of the translation model. Recent works have shown that filtering at different stages of the back translation and weighting the sentences can provide state-of-the-art performance. In comparison, in this work, we observe that a simpler filtering approach based on a domain classifier, applied only to the pseudo-training data can consistently perform better, providing performance gains of 1.40, 1.82 and 0.76 in terms of BLEU score for Medical, Law and IT in one direction, and 1.28, 1.60 and 1.60 in the other direction in low resource scenario over competitive baselines. In the high resource scenario, our approach is at par with competitive baselines.

Complex Question Answering on knowledge graphs using machine translation and multi-task learning
Saurabh Srivastava | Mayur Patidar | Sudip Chowdhury | Puneet Agarwal | Indrajit Bhattacharya | Gautam Shroff
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Question answering (QA) over a knowledge graph (KG) is a task of answering a natural language (NL) query using the information stored in KG. In a real-world industrial setting, this involves addressing multiple challenges including entity linking, multi-hop reasoning over KG, etc. Traditional approaches handle these challenges in a modularized sequential manner where errors in one module lead to the accumulation of errors in downstream modules. Often these challenges are inter-related and the solutions to them can reinforce each other when handled simultaneously in an end-to-end learning setup. To this end, we propose a multi-task BERT based Neural Machine Translation (NMT) model to address these challenges. Through experimental analysis, we demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed approach on one publicly available and one proprietary dataset.

Stylistic MR-to-Text Generation Using Pre-trained Language Models
Kunal Pagarey | Kanika Kalra | Abhay Garg | Saumajit Saha | Mayur Patidar | Shirish Karande
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICON)

We explore the ability of pre-trained language models BART, an encoder-decoder model, GPT2 and GPT-Neo, both decoder-only models for generating sentences from structured MR tags as input. We observe best results on several metrics for the YelpNLG and E2E datasets. Style based implicit tags such as emotion, sentiment, length etc., allows for controlled generation but it is typically not present in MR. We present an analysis on YelpNLG showing BART can express the content with stylistic variations in the structure of the sentence. Motivated with the results, we define a new task of emotional situation generation from various POS tags and emotion label values as MR using EmpatheticDialogues dataset and report a baseline. Encoder-Decoder attention analysis shows that BART learns different aspects in MR at various layers and heads.


Improving NMT via Filtered Back Translation
Nikhil Jaiswal | Mayur Patidar | Surabhi Kumari | Manasi Patwardhan | Shirish Karande | Puneet Agarwal | Lovekesh Vig
Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Asian Translation

Document-Level Machine Translation (MT) has become an active research area among the NLP community in recent years. Unlike sentence-level MT, which translates the sentences independently, document-level MT aims to utilize contextual information while translating a given source sentence. This paper demonstrates our submission (Team ID - DEEPNLP) to the Document-Level Translation task organized by WAT 2020. This task focuses on translating texts from a business dialog corpus while optionally utilizing the context present in the dialog. In our proposed approach, we utilize publicly available parallel corpus from different domains to train an open domain base NMT model. We then use monolingual target data to create filtered pseudo parallel data and employ Back-Translation to fine-tune the base model. This is further followed by fine-tuning on the domain-specific corpus. We also ensemble various models to improvise the translation performance. Our best models achieve a BLEU score of 26.59 and 22.83 in an unconstrained setting and 15.10 and 10.91 in the constrained settings for En->Ja & Ja->En direction, respectively.


From Monolingual to Multilingual FAQ Assistant using Multilingual Co-training
Mayur Patidar | Surabhi Kumari | Manasi Patwardhan | Shirish Karande | Puneet Agarwal | Lovekesh Vig | Gautam Shroff
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning Approaches for Low-Resource NLP (DeepLo 2019)

Recent research on cross-lingual transfer show state-of-the-art results on benchmark datasets using pre-trained language representation models (PLRM) like BERT. These results are achieved with the traditional training approaches, such as Zero-shot with no data, Translate-train or Translate-test with machine translated data. In this work, we propose an approach of “Multilingual Co-training” (MCT) where we augment the expert annotated dataset in the source language (English) with the corresponding machine translations in the target languages (e.g. Arabic, Spanish) and fine-tune the PLRM jointly. We observe that the proposed approach provides consistent gains in the performance of BERT for multiple benchmark datasets (e.g. 1.0% gain on MLDocs, and 1.2% gain on XNLI over translate-train with BERT), while requiring a single model for multiple languages. We further consider a FAQ dataset where the available English test dataset is translated by experts into Arabic and Spanish. On such a dataset, we observe an average gain of 4.9% over all other cross-lingual transfer protocols with BERT. We further observe that domain-specific joint pre-training of the PLRM using HR policy documents in English along with the machine translations in the target languages, followed by the joint finetuning, provides a further improvement of 2.8% in average accuracy.