Masaki Uto


Analytic Automated Essay Scoring Based on Deep Neural Networks Integrating Multidimensional Item Response Theory
Takumi Shibata | Masaki Uto
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Essay exams have been attracting attention as a way of measuring the higher-order abilities of examinees, but they have two major drawbacks in that grading them is expensive and raises questions about fairness. As an approach to overcome these problems, automated essay scoring (AES) is in increasing need. Many AES models based on deep neural networks have been proposed in recent years and have achieved high accuracy, but most of these models are designed to predict only a single overall score. However, to provide detailed feedback in practical situations, we often require not only the overall score but also analytic scores corresponding to various aspects of the essay.Several neural AES models that can predict both the analytic scores and the overall score have also been proposed for this very purpose. However, conventional models are designed to have complex neural architectures for each analytic score, which makes interpreting the score prediction difficult. To improve the interpretability of the prediction while maintaining scoring accuracy, we propose a new neural model for automated analytic scoring that integrates a multidimensional item response theory model, which is a popular psychometric model.


Neural Automated Essay Scoring Incorporating Handcrafted Features
Masaki Uto | Yikuan Xie | Maomi Ueno
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Automated essay scoring (AES) is the task of automatically assigning scores to essays as an alternative to grading by human raters. Conventional AES typically relies on handcrafted features, whereas recent studies have proposed AES models based on deep neural networks (DNNs) to obviate the need for feature engineering. Furthermore, hybrid methods that integrate handcrafted features in a DNN-AES model have been recently developed and have achieved state-of-the-art accuracy. One of the most popular hybrid methods is formulated as a DNN-AES model with an additional recurrent neural network (RNN) that processes a sequence of handcrafted sentence-level features. However, this method has the following problems: 1) It cannot incorporate effective essay-level features developed in previous AES research. 2) It greatly increases the numbers of model parameters and tuning parameters, increasing the difficulty of model training. 3) It has an additional RNN to process sentence-level features, enabling extension to various DNN-AES models complex. To resolve these problems, we propose a new hybrid method that integrates handcrafted essay-level features into a DNN-AES model. Specifically, our method concatenates handcrafted essay-level features to a distributed essay representation vector, which is obtained from an intermediate layer of a DNN-AES model. Our method is a simple DNN-AES extension, but significantly improves scoring accuracy.