Liyan Xu


Modeling Task Interactions in Document-Level Joint Entity and Relation Extraction
Liyan Xu | Jinho Choi
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We target on the document-level relation extraction in an end-to-end setting, where the model needs to jointly perform mention extraction, coreference resolution (COREF) and relation extraction (RE) at once, and gets evaluated in an entity-centric way. Especially, we address the two-way interaction between COREF and RE that has not been the focus by previous work, and propose to introduce explicit interaction namely Graph Compatibility (GC) that is specifically designed to leverage task characteristics, bridging decisions of two tasks for direct task interference. Our experiments are conducted on DocRED and DWIE; in addition to GC, we implement and compare different multi-task settings commonly adopted in previous work, including pipeline, shared encoders, graph propagation, to examine the effectiveness of different interactions. The result shows that GC achieves the best performance by up to 2.3/5.1 F1 improvement over the baseline.

Online Coreference Resolution for Dialogue Processing: Improving Mention-Linking on Real-Time Conversations
Liyan Xu | Jinho D. Choi
Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics

This paper suggests a direction of coreference resolution for online decoding on actively generated input such as dialogue, where the model accepts an utterance and its past context, then finds mentions in the current utterance as well as their referents, upon each dialogue turn. A baseline and four incremental updated models adapted from the mention linking paradigm are proposed for this new setting, which address different aspects including the singletons, speaker-grounded encoding and cross-turn mention contextualization. Our approach is assessed on three datasets: Friends, OntoNotes, and BOLT. Results show that each aspect brings out steady improvement, and our best models outperform the baseline by over 10%, presenting an effective system for this setting. Further analysis highlights the task characteristics, such as the significance of addressing the mention recall.


Boosting Cross-Lingual Transfer via Self-Learning with Uncertainty Estimation
Liyan Xu | Xuchao Zhang | Xujiang Zhao | Haifeng Chen | Feng Chen | Jinho D. Choi
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent multilingual pre-trained language models have achieved remarkable zero-shot performance, where the model is only finetuned on one source language and directly evaluated on target languages. In this work, we propose a self-learning framework that further utilizes unlabeled data of target languages, combined with uncertainty estimation in the process to select high-quality silver labels. Three different uncertainties are adapted and analyzed specifically for the cross lingual transfer: Language Heteroscedastic/Homoscedastic Uncertainty (LEU/LOU), Evidential Uncertainty (EVI). We evaluate our framework with uncertainties on two cross-lingual tasks including Named Entity Recognition (NER) and Natural Language Inference (NLI) covering 40 languages in total, which outperforms the baselines significantly by 10 F1 for NER on average and 2.5 accuracy for NLI.

Adapted End-to-End Coreference Resolution System for Anaphoric Identities in Dialogues
Liyan Xu | Jinho D. Choi
Proceedings of the CODI-CRAC 2021 Shared Task on Anaphora, Bridging, and Discourse Deixis in Dialogue

We present an effective system adapted from the end-to-end neural coreference resolution model, targeting on the task of anaphora resolution in dialogues. Three aspects are specifically addressed in our approach, including the support of singletons, encoding speakers and turns throughout dialogue interactions, and knowledge transfer utilizing existing resources. Despite the simplicity of our adaptation strategies, they are shown to bring significant impact to the final performance, with up to 27 F1 improvement over the baseline. Our final system ranks the 1st place on the leaderboard of the anaphora resolution track in the CRAC 2021 shared task, and achieves the best evaluation results on all four datasets.


Noise Pollution in Hospital Readmission Prediction: Long Document Classification with Reinforcement Learning
Liyan Xu | Julien Hogan | Rachel E. Patzer | Jinho D. Choi
Proceedings of the 19th SIGBioMed Workshop on Biomedical Language Processing

This paper presents a reinforcement learning approach to extract noise in long clinical documents for the task of readmission prediction after kidney transplant. We face the challenges of developing robust models on a small dataset where each document may consist of over 10K tokens with full of noise including tabular text and task-irrelevant sentences. We first experiment four types of encoders to empirically decide the best document representation, and then apply reinforcement learning to remove noisy text from the long documents, which models the noise extraction process as a sequential decision problem. Our results show that the old bag-of-words encoder outperforms deep learning-based encoders on this task, and reinforcement learning is able to improve upon baseline while pruning out 25% text segments. Our analysis depicts that reinforcement learning is able to identify both typical noisy tokens and task-specific noisy text.

Revealing the Myth of Higher-Order Inference in Coreference Resolution
Liyan Xu | Jinho D. Choi
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

This paper analyzes the impact of higher-order inference (HOI) on the task of coreference resolution. HOI has been adapted by almost all recent coreference resolution models without taking much investigation on its true effectiveness over representation learning. To make a comprehensive analysis, we implement an end-to-end coreference system as well as four HOI approaches, attended antecedent, entity equalization, span clustering, and cluster merging, where the latter two are our original methods. We find that given a high-performing encoder such as SpanBERT, the impact of HOI is negative to marginal, providing a new perspective of HOI to this task. Our best model using cluster merging shows the Avg-F1 of 80.2 on the CoNLL 2012 shared task dataset in English.