Li-Hsin Chang


Towards Automatic Short Answer Assessment for Finnish as a Paraphrase Retrieval Task
Li-Hsin Chang | Jenna Kanerva | Filip Ginter
Proceedings of the 17th Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications (BEA 2022)

Automatic grouping of textual answers has the potential of allowing batch grading, but is challenging because the answers, especially longer essays, have many claims. To explore the feasibility of grouping together answers based on their semantic meaning, this paper investigates the grouping of short textual answers, proxies of single claims. This is approached as a paraphrase identification task, where neural and non-neural sentence embeddings and a paraphrase identification model are tested. These methods are evaluated on a dataset consisting of over 4000 short textual answers from various disciplines. The results map out the suitable question types for the paraphrase identification model and those for the neural and non-neural methods.

TallVocabL2Fi: A Tall Dataset of 15 Finnish L2 Learners’ Vocabulary
Frankie Robertson | Li-Hsin Chang | Sini Söyrinki
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Previous work concerning measurement of second language learners has tended to focus on the knowledge of small numbers of words, often geared towards measuring vocabulary size. This paper presents a “tall” dataset containing information about a few learners’ knowledge of many words, suitable for evaluating Vocabulary Inventory Prediction (VIP) techniques, including those based on Computerised Adaptive Testing (CAT). In comparison to previous comparable datasets, the learners are from varied backgrounds, so as to reduce the risk of overfitting when used for machine learning based VIP. The dataset contains both a self-rating test and a translation test, used to derive a measure of reliability for learner responses. The dataset creation process is documented, and the relationship between variables concerning the participants, such as their completion time, their language ability level, and the triangulated reliability of their self-assessment responses, are analysed. The word list is constructed by taking into account the extensive derivation morphology of Finnish, and infrequent words are included in order to account for explanatory variables beyond word frequency.

Towards better structured and less noisy Web data: Oscar with Register annotations
Veronika Laippala | Anna Salmela | Samuel Rönnqvist | Alham Fikri Aji | Li-Hsin Chang | Asma Dhifallah | Larissa Goulart | Henna Kortelainen | Marc Pàmies | Deise Prina Dutra | Valtteri Skantsi | Lintang Sutawika | Sampo Pyysalo
Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on Noisy User-generated Text (W-NUT 2022)

Web-crawled datasets are known to be noisy, as they feature a wide range of language use covering both user-generated and professionally edited content as well as noise originating from the crawling process. This article presents one solution to reduce this noise by using automatic register (genre) identification -whether the texts are, e.g., forum discussions, lyrical or how-to pages. We apply the multilingual register identification model by Rönnqvist et al. (2021) and label the widely used Oscar dataset. Additionally, we evaluate the model against eight new languages, showing that the performance is comparable to previous findings on a restricted set of languages. Finally, we present and apply a machine learning method for further cleaning text files originating from Web crawls from remains of boilerplate and other elements not belonging to the main text of the Web page. The register labeled and cleaned dataset covers 351 million documents in 14 languages and is available at


Quantitative Evaluation of Alternative Translations in a Corpus of Highly Dissimilar Finnish Paraphrases
Li-Hsin Chang | Sampo Pyysalo | Jenna Kanerva | Filip Ginter
Proceedings for the First Workshop on Modelling Translation: Translatology in the Digital Age

Fine-grained Named Entity Annotation for Finnish
Jouni Luoma | Li-Hsin Chang | Filip Ginter | Sampo Pyysalo
Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (NoDaLiDa)

We introduce a corpus with fine-grained named entity annotation for Finnish, following the OntoNotes guidelines to create a resource that is cross-lingually compatible with existing annotations for other languages. We combine and extend two NER corpora recently introduced for Finnish and revise their custom annotation scheme through a combination of automatic and manual processing steps. The resulting corpus consists of nearly 500,000 tokens annotated for over 50,000 mentions categorized into the 18 OntoNotes name and numeric entity types. We evaluate this resource and demonstrate its compatibility with the English OntoNotes annotations by training state-of-the-art mono-, bi- and multilingual deep learning models, finding both that the corpus allows highly accurate recognition of OntoNotes types at 93% F-score and that a comparable level of tagging accuracy can be achieved by a bilingual Finnish-English NER model.

Finnish Paraphrase Corpus
Jenna Kanerva | Filip Ginter | Li-Hsin Chang | Iiro Rastas | Valtteri Skantsi | Jemina Kilpeläinen | Hanna-Mari Kupari | Jenna Saarni | Maija Sevón | Otto Tarkka
Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (NoDaLiDa)

In this paper, we introduce the first fully manually annotated paraphrase corpus for Finnish containing 53,572 paraphrase pairs harvested from alternative subtitles and news headings. Out of all paraphrase pairs in our corpus 98% are manually classified to be paraphrases at least in their given context, if not in all contexts. Additionally, we establish a manual candidate selection method and demonstrate its feasibility in high quality paraphrase selection in terms of both cost and quality.