Kyle Williams


MedicalSum: A Guided Clinical Abstractive Summarization Model for Generating Medical Reports from Patient-Doctor Conversations
George Michalopoulos | Kyle Williams | Gagandeep Singh | Thomas Lin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

We introduce MedicalSum, a transformer-based sequence-to-sequence architecture for summarizing medical conversations by integrating medical domain knowledge from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The novel knowledge augmentation is performed in three ways: (i) introducing a guidance signal that consists of the medical words in the input sequence, (ii) leveraging semantic type knowledge in UMLS to create clinically meaningful input embeddings, and (iii) making use of a novel weighted loss function that provides a stronger incentive for the model to correctly predict words with a medical meaning. By applying these three strategies, MedicalSum takes clinical knowledge into consideration during the summarization process and achieves state-of-the-art ROUGE score improvements of 0.8-2.1 points (including 6.2% ROUGE-1 error reduction in the PE section) when producing medical summaries of patient-doctor conversations.


Neural Lexicons for Slot Tagging in Spoken Language Understanding
Kyle Williams
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Industry Papers)

We explore the use of lexicons or gazettes in neural models for slot tagging in spoken language understanding. We develop models that encode lexicon information as neural features for use in a Long-short term memory neural network. Experiments are performed on data from 4 domains from an intelligent assistant under conditions that often occur in an industry setting, where there may be: 1) large amounts of training data, 2) limited amounts of training data for new domains, and 3) cross domain training. Results show that the use of neural lexicon information leads to a significant improvement in slot tagging, with improvements in the F-score of up to 12%. Our findings have implications for how lexicons can be used to improve the performance of neural slot tagging models.

Slot Tagging for Task Oriented Spoken Language Understanding in Human-to-Human Conversation Scenarios
Kunho Kim | Rahul Jha | Kyle Williams | Alex Marin | Imed Zitouni
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

Task oriented language understanding (LU) in human-to-machine (H2M) conversations has been extensively studied for personal digital assistants. In this work, we extend the task oriented LU problem to human-to-human (H2H) conversations, focusing on the slot tagging task. Recent advances on LU in H2M conversations have shown accuracy improvements by adding encoded knowledge from different sources. Inspired by this, we explore several variants of a bidirectional LSTM architecture that relies on different knowledge sources, such as Web data, search engine click logs, expert feedback from H2M models, as well as previous utterances in the conversation. We also propose ensemble techniques that aggregate these different knowledge sources into a single model. Experimental evaluation on a four-turn Twitter dataset in the restaurant and music domains shows improvements in the slot tagging F1-score of up to 6.09% compared to existing approaches.