Kung-Hsiang Huang


Cross-document Misinformation Detection based on Event Graph Reasoning
Xueqing Wu | Kung-Hsiang Huang | Yi Fung | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

For emerging events, human readers are often exposed to both real news and fake news. Multiple news articles may contain complementary or contradictory information that readers can leverage to help detect fake news. Inspired by this process, we propose a novel task of cross-document misinformation detection. Given a cluster of topically related news documents, we aim to detect misinformation at both document level and a more fine-grained level, event level. Due to the lack of data, we generate fake news by manipulating real news, and construct 3 new datasets with 422, 276, and 1,413 clusters of topically related documents, respectively. We further propose a graph-based detector that constructs a cross-document knowledge graph using cross-document event coreference resolution and employs a heterogeneous graph neural network to conduct detection at two levels. We then feed the event-level detection results into the document-level detector. Experimental results show that our proposed method significantly outperforms existing methods by up to 7 F1 points on this new task.

The Battlefront of Combating Misinformation and Coping with Media Bias
Yi Fung | Kung-Hsiang Huang | Preslav Nakov | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 12th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Tutorial Abstracts

Misinformation is a pressing issue in modern society. It arouses a mixture of anger, distrust, confusion, and anxiety that cause damage on our daily life judgments and public policy decisions. While recent studies have explored various fake news detection and media bias detection techniques in attempts to tackle the problem, there remain many ongoing challenges yet to be addressed, as can be witnessed from the plethora of untrue and harmful content present during the COVID-19 pandemic and the international crises of late. In this tutorial, we provide researchers and practitioners with a systematic overview of the frontier in fighting misinformation. Specifically, we dive into the important research questions of how to (i) develop a robust fake news detection system, which not only fact-check information pieces provable by background knowledge but also reason about the consistency and the reliability of subtle details for emerging events; (ii) uncover the bias and agenda of news sources to better characterize misinformation; as well as (iii) correct false information and mitigate news bias, while allowing diverse opinions to be expressed. Moreover, we discuss the remaining challenges, future research directions, and exciting opportunities to help make this world a better place, with safer and more harmonic information sharing.

CONCRETE: Improving Cross-lingual Fact-checking with Cross-lingual Retrieval
Kung-Hsiang Huang | ChengXiang Zhai | Heng Ji
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Fact-checking has gained increasing attention due to the widespread of falsified information. Most fact-checking approaches focus on claims made in English only due to the data scarcity issue in other languages. The lack of fact-checking datasets in low-resource languages calls for an effective cross-lingual transfer technique for fact-checking. Additionally, trustworthy information in different languages can be complementary and helpful in verifying facts. To this end, we present the first fact-checking framework augmented with cross-lingual retrieval that aggregates evidence retrieved from multiple languages through a cross-lingual retriever. Given the absence of cross-lingual information retrieval datasets with claim-like queries, we train the retriever with our proposed Cross-lingual Inverse Cloze Task (X-ICT), a self-supervised algorithm that creates training instances by translating the title of a passage. The goal for X-ICT is to learn cross-lingual retrieval in which the model learns to identify the passage corresponding to a given translated title. On the X-Fact dataset, our approach achieves 2.23% absolute F1 improvement in the zero-shot cross-lingual setup over prior systems. The source code and data are publicly available at https://github.com/khuangaf/CONCRETE.


Document-level Entity-based Extraction as Template Generation
Kung-Hsiang Huang | Sam Tang | Nanyun Peng
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Document-level entity-based extraction (EE), aiming at extracting entity-centric information such as entity roles and entity relations, is key to automatic knowledge acquisition from text corpora for various domains. Most document-level EE systems build extractive models, which struggle to model long-term dependencies among entities at the document level. To address this issue, we propose a generative framework for two document-level EE tasks: role-filler entity extraction (REE) and relation extraction (RE). We first formulate them as a template generation problem, allowing models to efficiently capture cross-entity dependencies, exploit label semantics, and avoid the exponential computation complexity of identifying N-ary relations. A novel cross-attention guided copy mechanism, TopK Copy, is incorporated into a pre-trained sequence-to-sequence model to enhance the capabilities of identifying key information in the input document. Experiments done on the MUC-4 and SciREX dataset show new state-of-the-art results on REE (+3.26%), binary RE (+4.8%), and 4-ary RE (+2.7%) in F1 score.

Document-level Event Extraction with Efficient End-to-end Learning of Cross-event Dependencies
Kung-Hsiang Huang | Nanyun Peng
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Narrative Understanding

Fully understanding narratives often requires identifying events in the context of whole documents and modeling the event relations. However, document-level event extraction is a challenging task as it requires the extraction of event and entity coreference, and capturing arguments that span across different sentences. Existing works on event extraction usually confine on extracting events from single sentences, which fail to capture the relationships between the event mentions at the scale of a document, as well as the event arguments that appear in a different sentence than the event trigger. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end model leveraging Deep Value Networks (DVN), a structured prediction algorithm, to efficiently capture cross-event dependencies for document-level event extraction. Experimental results show that our approach achieves comparable performance to CRF-based models on ACE05, while enjoys significantly higher computational efficiency.

EventPlus: A Temporal Event Understanding Pipeline
Mingyu Derek Ma | Jiao Sun | Mu Yang | Kung-Hsiang Huang | Nuan Wen | Shikhar Singh | Rujun Han | Nanyun Peng
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Demonstrations

We present EventPlus, a temporal event understanding pipeline that integrates various state-of-the-art event understanding components including event trigger and type detection, event argument detection, event duration and temporal relation extraction. Event information, especially event temporal knowledge, is a type of common sense knowledge that helps people understand how stories evolve and provides predictive hints for future events. EventPlus as the first comprehensive temporal event understanding pipeline provides a convenient tool for users to quickly obtain annotations about events and their temporal information for any user-provided document. Furthermore, we show EventPlus can be easily adapted to other domains (e.g., biomedical domain). We make EventPlus publicly available to facilitate event-related information extraction and downstream applications.


Biomedical Event Extraction with Hierarchical Knowledge Graphs
Kung-Hsiang Huang | Mu Yang | Nanyun Peng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Biomedical event extraction is critical in understanding biomolecular interactions described in scientific corpus. One of the main challenges is to identify nested structured events that are associated with non-indicative trigger words. We propose to incorporate domain knowledge from Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to a pre-trained language model via Graph Edge-conditioned Attention Networks (GEANet) and hierarchical graph representation. To better recognize the trigger words, each sentence is first grounded to a sentence graph based on a jointly modeled hierarchical knowledge graph from UMLS. The grounded graphs are then propagated by GEANet, a novel graph neural networks for enhanced capabilities in inferring complex events. On BioNLP 2011 GENIA Event Extraction task, our approach achieved 1.41% F1 and 3.19% F1 improvements on all events and complex events, respectively. Ablation studies confirm the importance of GEANet and hierarchical KG.