Kun Bai


Demographics Should Not Be the Reason of Toxicity: Mitigating Discrimination in Text Classifications with Instance Weighting
Guanhua Zhang | Bing Bai | Junqi Zhang | Kun Bai | Conghui Zhu | Tiejun Zhao
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

With the recent proliferation of the use of text classifications, researchers have found that there are certain unintended biases in text classification datasets. For example, texts containing some demographic identity-terms (e.g., “gay”, “black”) are more likely to be abusive in existing abusive language detection datasets. As a result, models trained with these datasets may consider sentences like “She makes me happy to be gay” as abusive simply because of the word “gay.” In this paper, we formalize the unintended biases in text classification datasets as a kind of selection bias from the non-discrimination distribution to the discrimination distribution. Based on this formalization, we further propose a model-agnostic debiasing training framework by recovering the non-discrimination distribution using instance weighting, which does not require any extra resources or annotations apart from a pre-defined set of demographic identity-terms. Experiments demonstrate that our method can effectively alleviate the impacts of the unintended biases without significantly hurting models’ generalization ability.


Selection Bias Explorations and Debias Methods for Natural Language Sentence Matching Datasets
Guanhua Zhang | Bing Bai | Jian Liang | Kun Bai | Shiyu Chang | Mo Yu | Conghui Zhu | Tiejun Zhao
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Natural Language Sentence Matching (NLSM) has gained substantial attention from both academics and the industry, and rich public datasets contribute a lot to this process. However, biased datasets can also hurt the generalization performance of trained models and give untrustworthy evaluation results. For many NLSM datasets, the providers select some pairs of sentences into the datasets, and this sampling procedure can easily bring unintended pattern, i.e., selection bias. One example is the QuoraQP dataset, where some content-independent naive features are unreasonably predictive. Such features are the reflection of the selection bias and termed as the “leakage features.” In this paper, we investigate the problem of selection bias on six NLSM datasets and find that four out of them are significantly biased. We further propose a training and evaluation framework to alleviate the bias. Experimental results on QuoraQP suggest that the proposed framework can improve the generalization ability of trained models, and give more trustworthy evaluation results for real-world adoptions.

Improving Open-Domain Dialogue Systems via Multi-Turn Incomplete Utterance Restoration
Zhufeng Pan | Kun Bai | Yan Wang | Lianqiang Zhou | Xiaojiang Liu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

In multi-turn dialogue, utterances do not always take the full form of sentences. These incomplete utterances will greatly reduce the performance of open-domain dialogue systems. Restoring more incomplete utterances from context could potentially help the systems generate more relevant responses. To facilitate the study of incomplete utterance restoration for open-domain dialogue systems, a large-scale multi-turn dataset Restoration-200K is collected and manually labeled with the explicit relation between an utterance and its context. We also propose a “pick-and-combine” model to restore the incomplete utterance from its context. Experimental results demonstrate that the annotated dataset and the proposed approach significantly boost the response quality of both single-turn and multi-turn dialogue systems.


Improving Reinforcement Learning Based Image Captioning with Natural Language Prior
Tszhang Guo | Shiyu Chang | Mo Yu | Kun Bai
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recently, Reinforcement Learning (RL) approaches have demonstrated advanced performance in image captioning by directly optimizing the metric used for testing. However, this shaped reward introduces learning biases, which reduces the readability of generated text. In addition, the large sample space makes training unstable and slow.To alleviate these issues, we propose a simple coherent solution that constrains the action space using an n-gram language prior. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on benchmarks show that RL with the simple add-on module performs favorably against its counterpart in terms of both readability and speed of convergence. Human evaluation results show that our model is more human readable and graceful. The implementation will become publicly available upon the acceptance of the paper.