Kamal Kumar Gupta


Pre-training Synthetic Cross-lingual Decoder for Multilingual Samples Adaptation in E-Commerce Neural Machine Translation
Kamal Kumar Gupta | Soumya Chennabasavraj | Nikesh Garera | Asif Ekbal
Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

Availability of the user reviews in vernacular languages is helpful for the users to get information regarding the products. Since most of the e-commerce websites allow the reviews in English language only, it is important to provide the translated versions of the reviews to the non-English speaking users. Translation of the user reviews from English to vernacular languages is a challenging task, predominantly due to the lack of sufficient in-domain datasets. In this paper, we present a pre-training based efficient technique which is used to adapt and improve the single multilingual neural machine translation (NMT) model for the low-resource language pairs. The pre-trained model contains a special synthetic cross-lingual decoder. The decoder for the pre-training is trained over the cross-lingual target samples where the phrases are replaced with their translated counterparts. After pre-training, the model is adapted to multiple samples of the low-resource language pairs using incremental learning that does not require full training from the very scratch. We perform the experiments over eight low-resource and three high resource language pairs from the generic domain, and two language pairs from the product review domains. Through our synthetic multilingual decoder based pre-training, we achieve improvements of upto 4.35 BLEU points compared to the baseline and 2.13 BLEU points compared to the previous code-switched pre-trained models. The review domain outputs from the proposed model are evaluated in real time by human evaluators in the e-commerce company Flipkart.


Product Review Translation: Parallel Corpus Creation and Robustness towards User-generated Noisy Text
Kamal Kumar Gupta | Soumya Chennabasavaraj | Nikesh Garera | Asif Ekbal
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on e-Commerce and NLP

Reviews written by the users for a particular product or service play an influencing role for the customers to make an informative decision. Although online e-commerce portals have immensely impacted our lives, available contents predominantly are in English language- often limiting its widespread usage. There is an exponential growth in the number of e-commerce users who are not proficient in English. Hence, there is a necessity to make these services available in non-English languages, especially in a multilingual country like India. This can be achieved by an in-domain robust machine translation (MT) system. However, the reviews written by the users pose unique challenges to MT, such as misspelled words, ungrammatical constructions, presence of colloquial terms, lack of resources such as in-domain parallel corpus etc. We address the above challenges by presenting an English–Hindi review domain parallel corpus. We train an English–to–Hindi neural machine translation (NMT) system to translate the product reviews available on e-commerce websites. By training the Transformer based NMT model over the generated data, we achieve a score of 33.26 BLEU points for English–to–Hindi translation. In order to make our NMT model robust enough to handle the noisy tokens in the reviews, we integrate a character based language model to generate word vectors and map the noisy tokens with their correct forms. Experiments on four language pairs, viz. English-Hindi, English-German, English-French, and English-Czech show the BLUE scores of 35.09, 28.91, 34.68 and 14.52 which are the improvements of 1.61, 1.05, 1.63 and 1.94, respectively, over the baseline.

IITP-MT at WAT2021: Indic-English Multilingual Neural Machine Translation using Romanized Vocabulary
Ramakrishna Appicharla | Kamal Kumar Gupta | Asif Ekbal | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Asian Translation (WAT2021)

This paper describes the systems submitted to WAT 2021 MultiIndicMT shared task by IITP-MT team. We submit two multilingual Neural Machine Translation (NMT) systems (Indic-to-English and English-to-Indic). We romanize all Indic data and create subword vocabulary which is shared between all Indic languages. We use back-translation approach to generate synthetic data which is appended to parallel corpus and used to train our models. The models are evaluated using BLEU, RIBES and AMFM scores with Indic-to-English model achieving 40.08 BLEU for Hindi-English pair and English-to-Indic model achieving 34.48 BLEU for English-Hindi pair. However, we observe that the shared romanized subword vocabulary is not helping English-to-Indic model at the time of generation, leading it to produce poor quality translations for Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam to English pairs with BLEU score of 8.51, 6.25 and 3.79 respectively.

IITP-MT at CALCS2021: English to Hinglish Neural Machine Translation using Unsupervised Synthetic Code-Mixed Parallel Corpus
Ramakrishna Appicharla | Kamal Kumar Gupta | Asif Ekbal | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Computational Approaches to Linguistic Code-Switching

This paper describes the system submitted by IITP-MT team to Computational Approaches to Linguistic Code-Switching (CALCS 2021) shared task on MT for English→Hinglish. We submit a neural machine translation (NMT) system which is trained on the synthetic code-mixed (cm) English-Hinglish parallel corpus. We propose an approach to create code-mixed parallel corpus from a clean parallel corpus in an unsupervised manner. It is an alignment based approach and we do not use any linguistic resources for explicitly marking any token for code-switching. We also train NMT model on the gold corpus provided by the workshop organizers augmented with the generated synthetic code-mixed parallel corpus. The model trained over the generated synthetic cm data achieves 10.09 BLEU points over the given test set.


Modelling Source- and Target- Language Syntactic Information as Conditional Context in Interactive Neural Machine Translation
Kamal Kumar Gupta | Rejwanul Haque | Asif Ekbal | Pushpak Bhattacharyya | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

In interactive machine translation (MT), human translators correct errors in automatic translations in collaboration with the MT systems, which is seen as an effective way to improve the productivity gain in translation. In this study, we model source-language syntactic constituency parse and target-language syntactic descriptions in the form of supertags as conditional context for interactive prediction in neural MT (NMT). We found that the supertags significantly improve productivity gain in translation in interactive-predictive NMT (INMT), while syntactic parsing somewhat found to be effective in reducing human effort in translation. Furthermore, when we model this source- and target-language syntactic information together as the conditional context, both types complement each other and our fully syntax-informed INMT model statistically significantly reduces human efforts in a French–to–English translation task, achieving 4.30 points absolute (corresponding to 9.18% relative) improvement in terms of word prediction accuracy (WPA) and 4.84 points absolute (corresponding to 9.01% relative) reduction in terms of word stroke ratio (WSR) over the baseline.


IITP-MT System for Gujarati-English News Translation Task at WMT 2019
Sukanta Sen | Kamal Kumar Gupta | Asif Ekbal | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)

We describe our submission to WMT 2019 News translation shared task for Gujarati-English language pair. We submit constrained systems, i.e, we rely on the data provided for this language pair and do not use any external data. We train Transformer based subword-level neural machine translation (NMT) system using original parallel corpus along with synthetic parallel corpus obtained through back-translation of monolingual data. Our primary systems achieve BLEU scores of 10.4 and 8.1 for Gujarati→English and English→Gujarati, respectively. We observe that incorporating monolingual data through back-translation improves the BLEU score significantly over baseline NMT and SMT systems for this language pair.

Multilingual Unsupervised NMT using Shared Encoder and Language-Specific Decoders
Sukanta Sen | Kamal Kumar Gupta | Asif Ekbal | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we propose a multilingual unsupervised NMT scheme which jointly trains multiple languages with a shared encoder and multiple decoders. Our approach is based on denoising autoencoding of each language and back-translating between English and multiple non-English languages. This results in a universal encoder which can encode any language participating in training into an inter-lingual representation, and language-specific decoders. Our experiments using only monolingual corpora show that multilingual unsupervised model performs better than the separately trained bilingual models achieving improvement of up to 1.48 BLEU points on WMT test sets. We also observe that even if we do not train the network for all possible translation directions, the network is still able to translate in a many-to-many fashion leveraging encoder’s ability to generate interlingual representation.


IITP-MT at WAT2018: Transformer-based Multilingual Indic-English Neural Machine Translation System
Sukanta Sen | Kamal Kumar Gupta | Asif Ekbal | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 32nd Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation: 5th Workshop on Asian Translation: 5th Workshop on Asian Translation