Junjie Cao


Entity Relation Extraction as Dependency Parsing in Visually Rich Documents
Yue Zhang | Zhang Bo | Rui Wang | Junjie Cao | Chen Li | Zuyi Bao
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Previous works on key information extraction from visually rich documents (VRDs) mainly focus on labeling the text within each bounding box (i.e.,semantic entity), while the relations in-between are largely unexplored. In this paper, we adapt the popular dependency parsing model, the biaffine parser, to this entity relation extraction task. Being different from the original dependency parsing model which recognizes dependency relations between words, we identify relations between groups of words with layout information instead. We have compared different representations of the semantic entity, different VRD encoders, and different relation decoders. For the model training, we explore multi-task learning to combine entity labeling and relation extraction tasks; and for the evaluation, we conduct experiments on different datasets with filtering and augmentation. The results demonstrate that our proposed model achieves 65.96% F1 score on the FUNSD dataset. As for the real-world application, our model has been applied to the in-house customs data, achieving reliable performance in the production setting.

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Comparing Knowledge-Intensive and Data-Intensive Models for English Resource Semantic Parsing
Junjie Cao | Zi Lin | Weiwei Sun | Xiaojun Wan
Computational Linguistics, Volume 47, Issue 1 - March 2021

Abstract In this work, we present a phenomenon-oriented comparative analysis of the two dominant approaches in English Resource Semantic (ERS) parsing: classic, knowledge-intensive and neural, data-intensive models. To reflect state-of-the-art neural NLP technologies, a factorization-based parser is introduced that can produce Elementary Dependency Structures much more accurately than previous data-driven parsers. We conduct a suite of tests for different linguistic phenomena to analyze the grammatical competence of different parsers, where we show that, despite comparable performance overall, knowledge- and data-intensive models produce different types of errors, in a way that can be explained by their theoretical properties. This analysis is beneficial to in-depth evaluation of several representative parsing techniques and leads to new directions for parser development.


Semantic Parsing for English as a Second Language
Yuanyuan Zhao | Weiwei Sun | Junjie Cao | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

This paper is concerned with semantic parsing for English as a second language (ESL). Motivated by the theoretical emphasis on the learning challenges that occur at the syntax-semantics interface during second language acquisition, we formulate the task based on the divergence between literal and intended meanings. We combine the complementary strengths of English Resource Grammar, a linguistically-precise hand-crafted deep grammar, and TLE, an existing manually annotated ESL UD-TreeBank with a novel reranking model. Experiments demonstrate that in comparison to human annotations, our method can obtain a very promising SemBanking quality. By means of the newly created corpus, we evaluate state-of-the-art semantic parsing as well as grammatical error correction models. The evaluation profiles the performance of neural NLP techniques for handling ESL data and suggests some research directions.


SUDA-Alibaba at MRP 2019: Graph-Based Models with BERT
Yue Zhang | Wei Jiang | Qingrong Xia | Junjie Cao | Rui Wang | Zhenghua Li | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the Shared Task on Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing at the 2019 Conference on Natural Language Learning

In this paper, we describe our participating systems in the shared task on Cross- Framework Meaning Representation Parsing (MRP) at the 2019 Conference for Computational Language Learning (CoNLL). The task includes five frameworks for graph-based meaning representations, i.e., DM, PSD, EDS, UCCA, and AMR. One common characteristic of our systems is that we employ graph-based methods instead of transition-based methods when predicting edges between nodes. For SDP, we jointly perform edge prediction, frame tagging, and POS tagging via multi-task learning (MTL). For UCCA, we also jointly model a constituent tree parsing and a remote edge recovery task. For both EDS and AMR, we produce nodes first and edges second in a pipeline fashion. External resources like BERT are found helpful for all frameworks except AMR. Our final submission ranks the third on the overall MRP evaluation metric, the first on EDS and the second on UCCA.


Neural Maximum Subgraph Parsing for Cross-Domain Semantic Dependency Analysis
Yufei Chen | Sheng Huang | Fang Wang | Junjie Cao | Weiwei Sun | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

We present experiments for cross-domain semantic dependency analysis with a neural Maximum Subgraph parser. Our parser targets 1-endpoint-crossing, pagenumber-2 graphs which are a good fit to semantic dependency graphs, and utilizes an efficient dynamic programming algorithm for decoding. For disambiguation, the parser associates words with BiLSTM vectors and utilizes these vectors to assign scores to candidate dependencies. We conduct experiments on the data sets from SemEval 2015 as well as Chinese CCGBank. Our parser achieves very competitive results for both English and Chinese. To improve the parsing performance on cross-domain texts, we propose a data-oriented method to explore the linguistic generality encoded in English Resource Grammar, which is a precisionoriented, hand-crafted HPSG grammar, in an implicit way. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our data-oriented method across a wide range of conditions.


Semantic Dependency Parsing via Book Embedding
Weiwei Sun | Junjie Cao | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We model a dependency graph as a book, a particular kind of topological space, for semantic dependency parsing. The spine of the book is made up of a sequence of words, and each page contains a subset of noncrossing arcs. To build a semantic graph for a given sentence, we design new Maximum Subgraph algorithms to generate noncrossing graphs on each page, and a Lagrangian Relaxation-based algorithm tocombine pages into a book. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the bookembedding framework across a wide range of conditions. Our parser obtains comparable results with a state-of-the-art transition-based parser.

Parsing to 1-Endpoint-Crossing, Pagenumber-2 Graphs
Junjie Cao | Sheng Huang | Weiwei Sun | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We study the Maximum Subgraph problem in deep dependency parsing. We consider two restrictions to deep dependency graphs: (a) 1-endpoint-crossing and (b) pagenumber-2. Our main contribution is an exact algorithm that obtains maximum subgraphs satisfying both restrictions simultaneously in time O(n5). Moreover, ignoring one linguistically-rare structure descreases the complexity to O(n4). We also extend our quartic-time algorithm into a practical parser with a discriminative disambiguation model and evaluate its performance on four linguistic data sets used in semantic dependency parsing.

Quasi-Second-Order Parsing for 1-Endpoint-Crossing, Pagenumber-2 Graphs
Junjie Cao | Sheng Huang | Weiwei Sun | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We propose a new Maximum Subgraph algorithm for first-order parsing to 1-endpoint-crossing, pagenumber-2 graphs. Our algorithm has two characteristics: (1) it separates the construction for noncrossing edges and crossing edges; (2) in a single construction step, whether to create a new arc is deterministic. These two characteristics make our algorithm relatively easy to be extended to incorporiate crossing-sensitive second-order features. We then introduce a new algorithm for quasi-second-order parsing. Experiments demonstrate that second-order features are helpful for Maximum Subgraph parsing.