Jifan Chen


Generating Literal and Implied Subquestions to Fact-check Complex Claims
Jifan Chen | Aniruddh Sriram | Eunsol Choi | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Verifying political claims is a challenging task, as politicians can use various tactics to subtly misrepresent the facts for their agenda. Existing automatic fact-checking systems fall short here, and their predictions like “half-true” are not very useful in isolation, since it is unclear which parts of a claim are true and which are not. In this work, we focus on decomposing a complex claim into a comprehensive set of yes-no subquestions whose answers influence the veracity of the claim. We present CLAIMDECOMP, a dataset of decompositions for over 1000 claims. Given a claim and its verification paragraph written by fact-checkers, our trained annotators write subquestions covering both explicit propositions of the original claim and its implicit facets, such as asking about additional political context that changes our view of the claim’s veracity. We study whether state-of-the-art models can generate such subquestions, showing that these models generate reasonable questions to ask, but predicting the comprehensive set of subquestions from the original claim without evidence remains challenging. We further show that these subquestions can help identify relevant evidence to fact-check the full claim and derive the veracity through their answers, suggesting that they can be useful pieces of a fact-checking pipeline.

longhorns at DADC 2022: How many linguists does it take to fool a Question Answering model? A systematic approach to adversarial attacks.
Venelin Kovatchev | Trina Chatterjee | Venkata S Govindarajan | Jifan Chen | Eunsol Choi | Gabriella Chronis | Anubrata Das | Katrin Erk | Matthew Lease | Junyi Jessy Li | Yating Wu | Kyle Mahowald
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Dynamic Adversarial Data Collection

Developing methods to adversarially challenge NLP systems is a promising avenue for improving both model performance and interpretability. Here, we describe the approach of the team “longhorns” on Task 1 of the The First Workshop on Dynamic Adversarial Data Collection (DADC), which asked teams to manually fool a model on an Extractive Question Answering task. Our team finished first (pending validation), with a model error rate of 62%. We advocate for a systematic, linguistically informed approach to formulating adversarial questions, and we describe the results of our pilot experiments, as well as our official submission.


Can NLI Models Verify QA Systems’ Predictions?
Jifan Chen | Eunsol Choi | Greg Durrett
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

To build robust question answering systems, we need the ability to verify whether answers to questions are truly correct, not just “good enough” in the context of imperfect QA datasets. We explore the use of natural language inference (NLI) as a way to achieve this goal, as NLI inherently requires the premise (document context) to contain all necessary information to support the hypothesis (proposed answer to the question). We leverage large pre-trained models and recent prior datasets to construct powerful question conversion and decontextualization modules, which can reformulate QA instances as premise-hypothesis pairs with very high reliability. Then, by combining standard NLI datasets with NLI examples automatically derived from QA training data, we can train NLI models to evaluate QA models’ proposed answers. We show that our approach improves the confidence estimation of a QA model across different domains, evaluated in a selective QA setting. Careful manual analysis over the predictions of our NLI model shows that it can further identify cases where the QA model produces the right answer for the wrong reason, i.e., when the answer sentence cannot address all aspects of the question.

Robust Question Answering Through Sub-part Alignment
Jifan Chen | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Current textual question answering (QA) models achieve strong performance on in-domain test sets, but often do so by fitting surface-level patterns, so they fail to generalize to out-of-distribution settings. To make a more robust and understandable QA system, we model question answering as an alignment problem. We decompose both the question and context into smaller units based on off-the-shelf semantic representations (here, semantic roles), and align the question to a subgraph of the context in order to find the answer. We formulate our model as a structured SVM, with alignment scores computed via BERT, and we can train end-to-end despite using beam search for approximate inference. Our use of explicit alignments allows us to explore a set of constraints with which we can prohibit certain types of bad model behavior arising in cross-domain settings. Furthermore, by investigating differences in scores across different potential answers, we can seek to understand what particular aspects of the input lead the model to choose the answer without relying on post-hoc explanation techniques. We train our model on SQuAD v1.1 and test it on several adversarial and out-of-domain datasets. The results show that our model is more robust than the standard BERT QA model, and constraints derived from alignment scores allow us to effectively trade off coverage and accuracy.

Contemporary NLP Modeling in Six Comprehensive Programming Assignments
Greg Durrett | Jifan Chen | Shrey Desai | Tanya Goyal | Lucas Kabela | Yasumasa Onoe | Jiacheng Xu
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Teaching NLP

We present a series of programming assignments, adaptable to a range of experience levels from advanced undergraduate to PhD, to teach students design and implementation of modern NLP systems. These assignments build from the ground up and emphasize full-stack understanding of machine learning models: initially, students implement inference and gradient computation by hand, then use PyTorch to build nearly state-of-the-art neural networks using current best practices. Topics are chosen to cover a wide range of modeling and inference techniques that one might encounter, ranging from linear models suitable for industry applications to state-of-the-art deep learning models used in NLP research. The assignments are customizable, with constrained options to guide less experienced students or open-ended options giving advanced students freedom to explore. All of them can be deployed in a fully autogradable fashion, and have collectively been tested on over 300 students across several semesters.


Understanding Dataset Design Choices for Multi-hop Reasoning
Jifan Chen | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Learning multi-hop reasoning has been a key challenge for reading comprehension models, leading to the design of datasets that explicitly focus on it. Ideally, a model should not be able to perform well on a multi-hop question answering task without doing multi-hop reasoning. In this paper, we investigate two recently proposed datasets, WikiHop and HotpotQA. First, we explore sentence-factored models for these tasks; by design, these models cannot do multi-hop reasoning, but they are still able to solve a large number of examples in both datasets. Furthermore, we find spurious correlations in the unmasked version of WikiHop, which make it easy to achieve high performance considering only the questions and answers. Finally, we investigate one key difference between these datasets, namely span-based vs. multiple-choice formulations of the QA task. Multiple-choice versions of both datasets can be easily gamed, and two models we examine only marginally exceed a baseline in this setting. Overall, while these datasets are useful testbeds, high-performing models may not be learning as much multi-hop reasoning as previously thought.


Modelling Interaction of Sentence Pair with Coupled-LSTMs
Pengfei Liu | Xipeng Qiu | Yaqian Zhou | Jifan Chen | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Deep Fusion LSTMs for Text Semantic Matching
Pengfei Liu | Xipeng Qiu | Jifan Chen | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Implicit Discourse Relation Detection via a Deep Architecture with Gated Relevance Network
Jifan Chen | Qi Zhang | Pengfei Liu | Xipeng Qiu | Xuanjing Huang
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)