Jianzhu Bao


Offline-to-Online Co-Evolutional User Simulator and Dialogue System
Dafeng Chi | Yuzheng Zhuang | Yao Mu | Bin Wang | Jianzhu Bao | Yasheng Wang | Yuhan Dong | Xin Jiang | Qun Liu | Jianye Hao
Proceedings of the Towards Semi-Supervised and Reinforced Task-Oriented Dialog Systems (SereTOD)

Reinforcement learning (RL) has emerged as a promising approach to fine-tune offline pretrained GPT-2 model in task-oriented dialogue (TOD) systems. In order to obtain human-like online interactions while extending the usage of RL, building pretrained user simulators (US) along with dialogue systems (DS) and facilitating jointly fine-tuning via RL becomes prevalent. However, joint training brings distributional shift problem caused by compounding exposure bias. Existing methods usually iterative update US and DS to ameliorate the ensued non-stationarity problem, which could lead to sub-optimal policy and less sample efficiency. To take a step further for tackling the problem, we introduce an Offline-to-oNline Co-Evolutional (ONCE) framework, which enables bias-aware concurrent joint update for RL-based fine-tuning whilst takes advantages from GPT-2 based end-to-end modeling on US and DS. Extensive experiments demonstrate that ONCE builds high-quality loops of policy learning and dialogues data collection, and achieves state-of-the-art online and offline evaluation results on MultiWOZ2.1 dataset. Opensourced code will be implemented with Mindspore (MS, 2022) and released on our homepage.

Have my arguments been replied to? Argument Pair Extraction as Machine Reading Comprehension
Jianzhu Bao | Jingyi Sun | Qinglin Zhu | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Argument pair extraction (APE) aims to automatically mine argument pairs from two interrelated argumentative documents. Existing studies typically identify argument pairs indirectly by predicting sentence-level relations between two documents, neglecting the modeling of the holistic argument-level interactions. Towards this issue, we propose to address APE via a machine reading comprehension (MRC) framework with two phases. The first phase employs an argument mining (AM) query to identify all arguments in two documents. The second phase considers each identified argument as an APE query to extract its paired arguments from another document, allowing to better capture the argument-level interactions. Also, this framework enables these two phases to be jointly trained in a single MRC model, thereby maximizing the mutual benefits of them. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieves the best performance, outperforming the state-of-the-art method by 7.11% in F1 score.

Probing Structural Knowledge from Pre-trained Language Model for Argumentation Relation Classification
Yang Sun | Bin Liang | Jianzhu Bao | Min Yang | Ruifeng Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Extracting fine-grained structural information between argumentation component (AC) pairs is essential for argumentation relation classification (ARC). However, most previous studies attempt to model the relationship between AC pairs using AC level similarity or semantically relevant features. They ignore the complex interaction between AC pairs and cannot effectively reason the argumentation relation deeply.Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel dual prior graph neural network (DPGNN) to jointly explore the probing knowledge derived from pre-trained language models (PLMs) and the syntactical information for comprehensively modeling the relationship between AC pairs. Specifically, we construct a probing graph by using probing knowledge derived from PLMs to recognize and align the relational information within and across the argumentation components. In addition, we propose a mutual dependency graph for the AC pair to reason the fine-grained syntactic structural information, in which the syntactical correlation between words is set by the dependency information within AC and mutual attention mechanism across ACs. The knowledge learned from the probing graph and the dependency graph are combined to comprehensively capture the aligned relationships of AC pairs for improving the results of ARC. Experimental results on three public datasets show that DPGNN outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines by a noticeable margin.

AEG: Argumentative Essay Generation via A Dual-Decoder Model with Content Planning
Jianzhu Bao | Yasheng Wang | Yitong Li | Fei Mi | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Argument generation is an important but challenging task in computational argumentation.Existing studies have mainly focused on generating individual short arguments, while research on generating long and coherent argumentative essays is still under-explored.In this paper, we propose a new task, Argumentative Essay Generation (AEG).Given a writing prompt, the goal of AEG is to automatically generate an argumentative essay with strong persuasiveness.We construct a large-scale dataset, ArgEssay, for this new task and establish a strong model based on a dual-decoder Transformer architecture.Our proposed model contains two decoders, a planning decoder (PD) and a writing decoder (WD), where PD is used to generate a sequence for essay content planning and WD incorporates the planning information to write an essay.Further, we pre-train this model on a large news dataset to enhance the plan-and-write paradigm.Automatic and human evaluation results show that our model can generate more coherent and persuasive essays with higher diversity and less repetition compared to several baselines.

A Generative Model for End-to-End Argument Mining with Reconstructed Positional Encoding and Constrained Pointer Mechanism
Jianzhu Bao | Yuhang He | Yang Sun | Bin Liang | Jiachen Du | Bing Qin | Min Yang | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Argument mining (AM) is a challenging task as it requires recognizing the complex argumentation structures involving multiple subtasks.To handle all subtasks of AM in an end-to-end fashion, previous works generally transform AM into a dependency parsing task.However, such methods largely require complex pre- and post-processing to realize the task transformation.In this paper, we investigate the end-to-end AM task from a novel perspective by proposing a generative framework, in which the expected outputs of AM are framed as a simple target sequence. Then, we employ a pre-trained sequence-to-sequence language model with a constrained pointer mechanism (CPM) to model the clues for all the subtasks of AM in the light of the target sequence. Furthermore, we devise a reconstructed positional encoding (RPE) to alleviate the order biases induced by the autoregressive generation paradigm.Experimental results show that our proposed framework achieves new state-of-the-art performance on two AM benchmarks.


Argument Pair Extraction with Mutual Guidance and Inter-sentence Relation Graph
Jianzhu Bao | Bin Liang | Jingyi Sun | Yice Zhang | Min Yang | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Argument pair extraction (APE) aims to extract interactive argument pairs from two passages of a discussion. Previous work studied this task in the context of peer review and rebuttal, and decomposed it into a sequence labeling task and a sentence relation classification task. However, despite the promising performance, such an approach obtains the argument pairs implicitly by the two decomposed tasks, lacking explicitly modeling of the argument-level interactions between argument pairs. In this paper, we tackle the APE task by a mutual guidance framework, which could utilize the information of an argument in one passage to guide the identification of arguments that can form pairs with it in another passage. In this manner, two passages can mutually guide each other in the process of APE. Furthermore, we propose an inter-sentence relation graph to effectively model the inter-relations between two sentences and thus facilitates the extraction of argument pairs. Our proposed method can better represent the holistic argument-level semantics and thus explicitly capture the complex correlations between argument pairs. Experimental results show that our approach significantly outperforms the current state-of-the-art model.

A Neural Transition-based Model for Argumentation Mining
Jianzhu Bao | Chuang Fan | Jipeng Wu | Yixue Dang | Jiachen Du | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The goal of argumentation mining is to automatically extract argumentation structures from argumentative texts. Most existing methods determine argumentative relations by exhaustively enumerating all possible pairs of argument components, which suffer from low efficiency and class imbalance. Moreover, due to the complex nature of argumentation, there is, so far, no universal method that can address both tree and non-tree structured argumentation. Towards these issues, we propose a neural transition-based model for argumentation mining, which incrementally builds an argumentation graph by generating a sequence of actions, avoiding inefficient enumeration operations. Furthermore, our model can handle both tree and non-tree structured argumentation without introducing any structural constraints. Experimental results show that our model achieves the best performance on two public datasets of different structures.


Emotion-Cause Pair Extraction as Sequence Labeling Based on A Novel Tagging Scheme
Chaofa Yuan | Chuang Fan | Jianzhu Bao | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

The task of emotion-cause pair extraction deals with finding all emotions and the corresponding causes in unannotated emotion texts. Most recent studies are based on the likelihood of Cartesian product among all clause candidates, resulting in a high computational cost. Targeting this issue, we regard the task as a sequence labeling problem and propose a novel tagging scheme with coding the distance between linked components into the tags, so that emotions and the corresponding causes can be extracted simultaneously. Accordingly, an end-to-end model is presented to process the input texts from left to right, always with linear time complexity, leading to a speed up. Experimental results show that our proposed model achieves the best performance, outperforming the state-of-the-art method by 2.26% (p<0.001) in F1 measure.