Jian Yang


BlonDe: An Automatic Evaluation Metric for Document-level Machine Translation
Yuchen Jiang | Tianyu Liu | Shuming Ma | Dongdong Zhang | Jian Yang | Haoyang Huang | Rico Sennrich | Ryan Cotterell | Mrinmaya Sachan | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Standard automatic metrics, e.g. BLEU, are not reliable for document-level MT evaluation. They can neither distinguish document-level improvements in translation quality from sentence-level ones, nor identify the discourse phenomena that cause context-agnostic translations. This paper introduces a novel automatic metric BlonDe to widen the scope of automatic MT evaluation from sentence to document level. BlonDe takes discourse coherence into consideration by categorizing discourse-related spans and calculating the similarity-based F1 measure of categorized spans. We conduct extensive comparisons on a newly constructed dataset BWB. The experimental results show that BlonDe possesses better selectivity and interpretability at the document-level, and is more sensitive to document-level nuances. In a large-scale human study, BlonDe also achieves significantly higher Pearson’s r correlation with human judgments compared to previous metrics.

CROP: Zero-shot Cross-lingual Named Entity Recognition with Multilingual Labeled Sequence Translation
Jian Yang | Shaohan Huang | Shuming Ma | Yuwei Yin | Li Dong | Dongdong Zhang | Hongcheng Guo | Zhoujun Li | Furu Wei
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Named entity recognition (NER) suffers from the scarcity of annotated training data, especially for low-resource languages without labeled data. Cross-lingual NER has been proposed to alleviate this issue by transferring knowledge from high-resource languages to low-resource languages via aligned cross-lingual representations or machine translation results. However, the performance of cross-lingual NER methods is severely affected by the unsatisfactory quality of translation or label projection. To address these problems, we propose a Cross-lingual Entity Projection framework (CROP) to enable zero-shot cross-lingual NER with the help of a multilingual labeled sequence translation model. Specifically, the target sequence is first translated into the source language and then tagged by a source NER model. We further adopt a labeled sequence translation model to project the tagged sequence back to the target language and label the target raw sentence. Ultimately, the whole pipeline is integrated into an end-to-end model by the way of self-training. Experimental results on two benchmarks demonstrate that our method substantially outperforms the previous strong baseline by a large margin of +3 7 F1 scores and achieves state-of-the-art performance.

Learning From the Source Document: Unsupervised Abstractive Summarization
Haojie Zhuang | Wei Emma Zhang | Jian Yang | Congbo Ma | Yutong Qu | Quan Z. Sheng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Most of the state-of-the-art methods for abstractive text summarization are under supervised learning settings, while heavily relying on high-quality and large-scale parallel corpora. In this paper, we remove the need for reference summaries and present an unsupervised learning method SCR (Summarize, Contrast and Review) for abstractive summarization, which leverages contrastive learning and is the first work to apply contrastive learning for unsupervised abstractive summarization. Particularly, we use the true source documents as positive source document examples, and strategically generated fake source documents as negative source document examples to train the model to generate good summaries. Furthermore, we consider and improve the writing quality of the generated summaries by guiding them to be similar to human-written texts. The promising results on extensive experiments show that SCR outperforms other unsupervised abstractive summarization baselines, which demonstrates its effectiveness.

LVP-M3: Language-aware Visual Prompt for Multilingual Multimodal Machine Translation
Hongcheng Guo | Jiaheng Liu | Haoyang Huang | Jian Yang | Zhoujun Li | Dongdong Zhang | Zheng Cui
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Multimodal Machine Translation (MMT) focuses on enhancing text-only translation with visual features, which has attracted considerable attention from both natural language processing and computer vision communities. Recent advances still struggle to train a separate model for each language pair, which is costly and unaffordable when the number of languages increases in the real world. In other words, the multilingual multimodal machine translation (Multilingual MMT) task has not been investigated, which aims to handle the aforementioned issues by providing a shared semantic space for multiple languages. Besides, the image modality has no language boundaries, which is superior to bridging the semantic gap between languages. To this end,we first propose the Multilingual MMT task by establishing two new Multilingual MMT benchmark datasets covering seven languages.Then, an effective baseline LVP-M3 using visual prompts is proposed to support translations between different languages,which includes three stages (token encoding, language-aware visual prompt generation, and language translation). Extensive experimental results on our constructed benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of LVP-M3 method for Multilingual MMT.

PAEG: Phrase-level Adversarial Example Generation for Neural Machine Translation
Juncheng Wan | Jian Yang | Shuming Ma | Dongdong Zhang | Weinan Zhang | Yong Yu | Zhoujun Li
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

While end-to-end neural machine translation (NMT) has achieved impressive progress, noisy input usually leads models to become fragile and unstable. Generating adversarial examples as the augmented data has been proved to be useful to alleviate this problem. Existing methods for adversarial example generation (AEG) are word-level or character-level, which ignore the ubiquitous phrase structure. In this paper, we propose a Phrase-level Adversarial Example Generation (PAEG) framework to enhance the robustness of the translation model. Our method further improves the gradient-based word-level AEG method by adopting a phrase-level substitution strategy. We verify our method on three benchmarks, including LDC Chinese-English, IWSLT14 German-English, and WMT14 English-German tasks. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach significantly improves translation performance and robustness to noise compared to previous strong baselines.


Multilingual Agreement for Multilingual Neural Machine Translation
Jian Yang | Yuwei Yin | Shuming Ma | Haoyang Huang | Dongdong Zhang | Zhoujun Li | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Although multilingual neural machine translation (MNMT) enables multiple language translations, the training process is based on independent multilingual objectives. Most multilingual models can not explicitly exploit different language pairs to assist each other, ignoring the relationships among them. In this work, we propose a novel agreement-based method to encourage multilingual agreement among different translation directions, which minimizes the differences among them. We combine the multilingual training objectives with the agreement term by randomly substituting some fragments of the source language with their counterpart translations of auxiliary languages. To examine the effectiveness of our method, we conduct experiments on the multilingual translation task of 10 language pairs. Experimental results show that our method achieves significant improvements over the previous multilingual baselines.

Smart-Start Decoding for Neural Machine Translation
Jian Yang | Shuming Ma | Dongdong Zhang | Juncheng Wan | Zhoujun Li | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Most current neural machine translation models adopt a monotonic decoding order of either left-to-right or right-to-left. In this work, we propose a novel method that breaks up the limitation of these decoding orders, called Smart-Start decoding. More specifically, our method first predicts a median word. It starts to decode the words on the right side of the median word and then generates words on the left. We evaluate the proposed Smart-Start decoding method on three datasets. Experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly outperform strong baseline models.

Multilingual Machine Translation Systems from Microsoft for WMT21 Shared Task
Jian Yang | Shuming Ma | Haoyang Huang | Dongdong Zhang | Li Dong | Shaohan Huang | Alexandre Muzio | Saksham Singhal | Hany Hassan | Xia Song | Furu Wei
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This report describes Microsoft’s machine translation systems for the WMT21 shared task on large-scale multilingual machine translation. We participated in all three evaluation tracks including Large Track and two Small Tracks where the former one is unconstrained and the latter two are fully constrained. Our model submissions to the shared task were initialized with DeltaLM, a generic pre-trained multilingual encoder-decoder model, and fine-tuned correspondingly with the vast collected parallel data and allowed data sources according to track settings, together with applying progressive learning and iterative back-translation approaches to further improve the performance. Our final submissions ranked first on three tracks in terms of the automatic evaluation metric.


Improving Neural Machine Translation with Soft Template Prediction
Jian Yang | Shuming Ma | Dongdong Zhang | Zhoujun Li | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Although neural machine translation (NMT) has achieved significant progress in recent years, most previous NMT models only depend on the source text to generate translation. Inspired by the success of template-based and syntax-based approaches in other fields, we propose to use extracted templates from tree structures as soft target templates to guide the translation procedure. In order to learn the syntactic structure of the target sentences, we adopt constituency-based parse tree to generate candidate templates. We incorporate the template information into the encoder-decoder framework to jointly utilize the templates and source text. Experiments show that our model significantly outperforms the baseline models on four benchmarks and demonstrates the effectiveness of soft target templates.


Low-Resource Response Generation with Template Prior
Ze Yang | Wei Wu | Jian Yang | Can Xu | Zhoujun Li
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

We study open domain response generation with limited message-response pairs. The problem exists in real-world applications but is less explored by the existing work. Since the paired data now is no longer enough to train a neural generation model, we consider leveraging the large scale of unpaired data that are much easier to obtain, and propose response generation with both paired and unpaired data. The generation model is defined by an encoder-decoder architecture with templates as prior, where the templates are estimated from the unpaired data as a neural hidden semi-markov model. By this means, response generation learned from the small paired data can be aided by the semantic and syntactic knowledge in the large unpaired data. To balance the effect of the prior and the input message to response generation, we propose learning the whole generation model with an adversarial approach. Empirical studies on question response generation and sentiment response generation indicate that when only a few pairs are available, our model can significantly outperform several state-of-the-art response generation models in terms of both automatic and human evaluation.


A Hybrid Transliteration Model for Chinese/English Named Entities —BJTU-NLP Report for the 5th Named Entities Workshop
Dandan Wang | Xiaohui Yang | Jinan Xu | Yufeng Chen | Nan Wang | Bojia Liu | Jian Yang | Yujie Zhang
Proceedings of the Fifth Named Entity Workshop


Towards Internet-Age Pharmacovigilance: Extracting Adverse Drug Reactions from User Posts in Health-Related Social Networks
Robert Leaman | Laura Wojtulewicz | Ryan Sullivan | Annie Skariah | Jian Yang | Graciela Gonzalez
Proceedings of the 2010 Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing