Jaspreet Singh


Asynchronous Convergence in Multi-Task Learning via Knowledge Distillation from Converged Tasks
Weiyi Lu | Sunny Rajagopalan | Priyanka Nigam | Jaspreet Singh | Xiaodi Sun | Yi Xu | Belinda Zeng | Trishul Chilimbi
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Industry Track

Multi-task learning (MTL) aims to solve multiple tasks jointly by sharing a base representation among them. This can lead to more efficient learning and better generalization, as compared to learning each task individually. However, one issue that often arises in MTL is the convergence speed between tasks varies due to differences in task difficulty, so it can be a challenge to simultaneously achieve the best performance on all tasks with a single model checkpoint. Various techniques have been proposed to address discrepancies in task convergence rate, including weighting the per-task losses and modifying task gradients. In this work, we propose a novel approach that avoids the problem of requiring all tasks to converge at the same rate, but rather allows for “asynchronous” convergence among the tasks where each task can converge on its own schedule. As our main contribution, we monitor per-task validation metrics and switch to a knowledge distillation loss once a task has converged instead of continuing to train on the true labels. This prevents the model from overfitting on converged tasks while it learns the remaining tasks. We evaluate the proposed method in two 5-task MTL setups consisting of internal e-commerce datasets. The results show that our method consistently outperforms existing loss weighting and gradient balancing approaches, achieving average improvements of 0.9% and 1.5% over the best performing baseline model in the two setups, respectively.


BERTnesia: Investigating the capture and forgetting of knowledge in BERT
Jonas Wallat | Jaspreet Singh | Avishek Anand
Proceedings of the Third BlackboxNLP Workshop on Analyzing and Interpreting Neural Networks for NLP

Probing complex language models has recently revealed several insights into linguistic and semantic patterns found in the learned representations. In this paper, we probe BERT specifically to understand and measure the relational knowledge it captures. We utilize knowledge base completion tasks to probe every layer of pre-trained as well as fine-tuned BERT (ranking, question answering, NER). Our findings show that knowledge is not just contained in BERT’s final layers. Intermediate layers contribute a significant amount (17-60%) to the total knowledge found. Probing intermediate layers also reveals how different types of knowledge emerge at varying rates. When BERT is fine-tuned, relational knowledge is forgotten but the extent of forgetting is impacted by the fine-tuning objective but not the size of the dataset. We found that ranking models forget the least and retain more knowledge in their final layer.

AMUSED: A Multi-Stream Vector Representation Method for Use in Natural Dialogue
Gaurav Kumar | Rishabh Joshi | Jaspreet Singh | Promod Yenigalla
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

The problem of building a coherent and non-monotonous conversational agent with proper discourse and coverage is still an area of open research. Current architectures only take care of semantic and contextual information for a given query and fail to completely account for syntactic and external knowledge which are crucial for generating responses in a chit-chat system. To overcome this problem, we propose an end to end multi-stream deep learning architecture that learns unified embeddings for query-response pairs by leveraging contextual information from memory networks and syntactic information by incorporating Graph Convolution Networks (GCN) over their dependency parse. A stream of this network also utilizes transfer learning by pre-training a bidirectional transformer to extract semantic representation for each input sentence and incorporates external knowledge through the neighborhood of the entities from a Knowledge Base (KB). We benchmark these embeddings on the next sentence prediction task and significantly improve upon the existing techniques. Furthermore, we use AMUSED to represent query and responses along with its context to develop a retrieval based conversational agent which has been validated by expert linguists to have comprehensive engagement with humans.