Hongsong Zhu


Enhancing Chinese Pre-trained Language Model via Heterogeneous Linguistics Graph
Yanzeng Li | Jiangxia Cao | Xin Cong | Zhenyu Zhang | Bowen Yu | Hongsong Zhu | Tingwen Liu
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Chinese pre-trained language models usually exploit contextual character information to learn representations, while ignoring the linguistics knowledge, e.g., word and sentence information. Hence, we propose a task-free enhancement module termed as Heterogeneous Linguistics Graph (HLG) to enhance Chinese pre-trained language models by integrating linguistics knowledge. Specifically, we construct a hierarchical heterogeneous graph to model the characteristics linguistics structure of Chinese language, and conduct a graph-based method to summarize and concretize information on different granularities of Chinese linguistics hierarchies.Experimental results demonstrate our model has the ability to improve the performance of vanilla BERT, BERTwwm and ERNIE 1.0 on 6 natural language processing tasks with 10 benchmark datasets. Further, the detailed experimental analyses have proven that this kind of modelization achieves more improvements compared with previous strong baseline MWA. Meanwhile, our model introduces far fewer parameters (about half of MWA) and the training/inference speed is about 7x faster than MWA.


Maximal Clique Based Non-Autoregressive Open Information Extraction
Bowen Yu | Yucheng Wang | Tingwen Liu | Hongsong Zhu | Limin Sun | Bin Wang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Open Information Extraction (OpenIE) aims to discover textual facts from a given sentence. In essence, the facts contained in plain text are unordered. However, the popular OpenIE systems usually output facts sequentially in the way of predicting the next fact conditioned on the previous decoded ones, which enforce an unnecessary order on the facts and involve the error accumulation between autoregressive steps. To break this bottleneck, we propose MacroIE, a novel non-autoregressive framework for OpenIE. MacroIE firstly constructs a fact graph based on the table filling scheme, in which each node denotes a fact element, and an edge links two nodes that belong to the same fact. Then OpenIE can be reformulated as a non-parametric process of finding maximal cliques from the graph. It directly outputs the final set of facts in one go, thus getting rid of the burden of predicting fact order, as well as the error propagation between facts. Experiments conducted on two benchmark datasets show that our proposed model significantly outperforms current state-of-the-art methods, beats the previous systems by as much as 5.7 absolute gain in F1 score.

Discontinuous Named Entity Recognition as Maximal Clique Discovery
Yucheng Wang | Bowen Yu | Hongsong Zhu | Tingwen Liu | Nan Yu | Limin Sun
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Named entity recognition (NER) remains challenging when entity mentions can be discontinuous. Existing methods break the recognition process into several sequential steps. In training, they predict conditioned on the golden intermediate results, while at inference relying on the model output of the previous steps, which introduces exposure bias. To solve this problem, we first construct a segment graph for each sentence, in which each node denotes a segment (a continuous entity on its own, or a part of discontinuous entities), and an edge links two nodes that belong to the same entity. The nodes and edges can be generated respectively in one stage with a grid tagging scheme and learned jointly using a novel architecture named Mac. Then discontinuous NER can be reformulated as a non-parametric process of discovering maximal cliques in the graph and concatenating the spans in each clique. Experiments on three benchmarks show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art (SOTA) results, with up to 3.5 percentage points improvement on F1, and achieves 5x speedup over the SOTA model.


TPLinker: Single-stage Joint Extraction of Entities and Relations Through Token Pair Linking
Yucheng Wang | Bowen Yu | Yueyang Zhang | Tingwen Liu | Hongsong Zhu | Limin Sun
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Extracting entities and relations from unstructured text has attracted increasing attention in recent years but remains challenging, due to the intrinsic difficulty in identifying overlapping relations with shared entities. Prior works show that joint learning can result in a noticeable performance gain. However, they usually involve sequential interrelated steps and suffer from the problem of exposure bias. At training time, they predict with the ground truth conditions while at inference it has to make extraction from scratch. This discrepancy leads to error accumulation. To mitigate the issue, we propose in this paper a one-stage joint extraction model, namely, TPLinker, which is capable of discovering overlapping relations sharing one or both entities while being immune from the exposure bias. TPLinker formulates joint extraction as a token pair linking problem and introduces a novel handshaking tagging scheme that aligns the boundary tokens of entity pairs under each relation type. Experiment results show that TPLinker performs significantly better on overlapping and multiple relation extraction, and achieves state-of-the-art performance on two public datasets.