George Karypis


Exploring the Role of Task Transferability in Large-Scale Multi-Task Learning
Vishakh Padmakumar | Leonard Lausen | Miguel Ballesteros | Sheng Zha | He He | George Karypis
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Recent work has found that multi-task training with a large number of diverse tasks can uniformly improve downstream performance on unseen target tasks. In contrast, literature on task transferability has established that the choice of intermediate tasks can heavily affect downstream task performance. In this work, we aim to disentangle the effect of scale and relatedness of tasks in multi-task representation learning. We find that, on average, increasing the scale of multi-task learning, in terms of the number of tasks, indeed results in better learned representations than smaller multi-task setups. However, if the target tasks are known ahead of time, then training on a smaller set of related tasks is competitive to the large-scale multi-task training at a reduced computational cost.

Meta-learning via Language Model In-context Tuning
Yanda Chen | Ruiqi Zhong | Sheng Zha | George Karypis | He He
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The goal of meta-learning is to learn to adapt to a new task with only a few labeled examples. Inspired by the recent progress in large language models, we propose in-context tuning (ICT), which recasts task adaptation and prediction as a simple sequence prediction problem: to form the input sequence, we concatenate the task instruction, labeled in-context examples, and the target input to predict; to meta-train the model to learn from in-context examples, we fine-tune a pre-trained language model (LM) to predict the target label given the input sequence on a collection of tasks.We benchmark our method on two collections of text classification tasks: LAMA and BinaryClfs. Compared to MAML which adapts the model through gradient descent, our method leverages the inductive bias of pre-trained LMs to perform pattern matching, and outperforms MAML by an absolute 6% average AUC-ROC score on BinaryClfs, gaining more advantage with increasing model size. Compared to non-fine-tuned in-context learning (i.e. prompting a raw LM), in-context tuning meta-trains the model to learn from in-context examples. On BinaryClfs, ICT improves the average AUC-ROC score by an absolute 10%, and reduces the variance due to example ordering by 6x and example choices by 2x.

ReaRev: Adaptive Reasoning for Question Answering over Knowledge Graphs
Costas Mavromatis | George Karypis
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Knowledge Graph Question Answering (KGQA) involves retrieving entities as answers from a Knowledge Graph (KG) using natural language queries. The challenge is to learn to reason over question-relevant KG facts that traverse KG entities and lead to the question answers. To facilitate reasoning, the question is decoded into instructions, which are dense question representations used to guide the KG traversals. However, if the derived instructions do not exactly match the underlying KG information, they may lead to reasoning under irrelevant context.Our method, termed ReaRev, introduces a new way to KGQA reasoning with respectto both instruction decoding and execution. To improve instruction decoding, we perform reasoning in an adaptive manner, where KG-aware information is used to iteratively update the initial instructions. To improve instruction execution, we emulate breadth-first search (BFS) with graph neural networks (GNNs). The BFS strategy treats the instructions as a set and allows our method to decide on their execution order on the fly. Experimental results on three KGQA benchmarks demonstrate the ReaRev’s effectiveness compared with previous state-of-the-art, especially when the KG is incomplete or when we tackle complex questions. Our code is publicly available at


Evaluating Scholarly Impact: Towards Content-Aware Bibliometrics
Saurav Manchanda | George Karypis
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Quantitatively measuring the impact-related aspects of scientific, engineering, and technological (SET) innovations is a fundamental problem with broad applications. Traditional citation-based measures for assessing the impact of innovations and related entities do not take into account the content of the publications. This limits their ability to provide rigorous quality-related metrics because they cannot account for the reasons that led to a citation. We present approaches to estimate content-aware bibliometrics to quantitatively measure the scholarly impact of a publication. Our approaches assess the impact of a cited publication by the extent to which the cited publication informs the citing publication. We introduce a new metric, called “Content Informed Index” (CII), that uses the content of the paper as a source of distant-supervision, to quantify how much the cited-node informs the citing-node. We evaluate the weights estimated by our approach on three manually annotated datasets, where the annotations quantify the extent of information in the citation. Particularly, we evaluate how well the ranking imposed by our approach associates with the ranking imposed by the manual annotations. CII achieves up to 103% improvement in performance as compared to the second-best performing approach.

Distiller: A Systematic Study of Model Distillation Methods in Natural Language Processing
Haoyu He | Xingjian Shi | Jonas Mueller | Sheng Zha | Mu Li | George Karypis
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Simple and Efficient Natural Language Processing

Knowledge Distillation (KD) offers a natural way to reduce the latency and memory/energy usage of massive pretrained models that have come to dominate Natural Language Processing (NLP) in recent years. While numerous sophisticated variants of KD algorithms have been proposed for NLP applications, the key factors underpinning the optimal distillation performance are often confounded and remain unclear. We aim to identify how different components in the KD pipeline affect the resulting performance and how much the optimal KD pipeline varies across different datasets/tasks, such as the data augmentation policy, the loss function, and the intermediate representation for transferring the knowledge between teacher and student. To tease apart their effects, we propose Distiller, a meta KD framework that systematically combines a broad range of techniques across different stages of the KD pipeline, which enables us to quantify each component’s contribution. Within Distiller, we unify commonly used objectives for distillation of intermediate representations under a universal mutual information (MI) objective and propose a class of MI-objective functions with better bias/variance trade-off for estimating the MI between the teacher and the student. On a diverse set of NLP datasets, the best Distiller configurations are identified via large-scale hyper-parameter optimization. Our experiments reveal the following: 1) the approach used to distill the intermediate representations is the most important factor in KD performance, 2) among different objectives for intermediate distillation, MI-performs the best, and 3) data augmentation provides a large boost for small training datasets or small student networks. Moreover, we find that different datasets/tasks prefer different KD algorithms, and thus propose a simple AutoDistiller algorithm that can recommend a good KD pipeline for a new dataset.