Fabián Villena


A Knowledge-Graph-Based Intrinsic Test for Benchmarking Medical Concept Embeddings and Pretrained Language Models
Claudio Aracena | Fabián Villena | Matias Rojas | Jocelyn Dunstan
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Health Text Mining and Information Analysis (LOUHI)

Using language models created from large data sources has improved the performance of several deep learning-based architectures, obtaining state-of-the-art results in several NLP extrinsic tasks. However, little research is related to creating intrinsic tests that allow us to compare the quality of different language models when obtaining contextualized embeddings. This gap increases even more when working on specific domains in languages other than English. This paper proposes a novel graph-based intrinsic test that allows us to measure the quality of different language models in clinical and biomedical domains in Spanish. Our results show that our intrinsic test performs better for clinical and biomedical language models than a general one. Also, it correlates with better outcomes for a NER task using a probing model over contextualized embeddings. We hope our work will help the clinical NLP research community to evaluate and compare new language models in other languages and find the most suitable models for solving downstream tasks.

Clinical Flair: A Pre-Trained Language Model for Spanish Clinical Natural Language Processing
Matías Rojas | Jocelyn Dunstan | Fabián Villena
Proceedings of the 4th Clinical Natural Language Processing Workshop

Word embeddings have been widely used in Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. Although these representations can capture the semantic information of words, they cannot learn the sequence-level semantics. This problem can be handled using contextual word embeddings derived from pre-trained language models, which have contributed to significant improvements in several NLP tasks. Further improvements are achieved when pre-training these models on domain-specific corpora. In this paper, we introduce Clinical Flair, a domain-specific language model trained on Spanish clinical narratives. To validate the quality of the contextual representations retrieved from our model, we tested them on four named entity recognition datasets belonging to the clinical and biomedical domains. Our experiments confirm that incorporating domain-specific embeddings into classical sequence labeling architectures improves model performance dramatically compared to general-domain embeddings, demonstrating the importance of having these resources available.


The Chilean Waiting List Corpus: a new resource for clinical Named Entity Recognition in Spanish
Pablo Báez | Fabián Villena | Matías Rojas | Manuel Durán | Jocelyn Dunstan
Proceedings of the 3rd Clinical Natural Language Processing Workshop

In this work we describe the Waiting List Corpus consisting of de-identified referrals for several specialty consultations from the waiting list in Chilean public hospitals. A subset of 900 referrals was manually annotated with 9,029 entities, 385 attributes, and 284 pairs of relations with clinical relevance. A trained medical doctor annotated these referrals, and then together with other three researchers, consolidated each of the annotations. The annotated corpus has nested entities, with 32.2% of entities embedded in other entities. We use this annotated corpus to obtain preliminary results for Named Entity Recognition (NER). The best results were achieved by using a biLSTM-CRF architecture using word embeddings trained over Spanish Wikipedia together with clinical embeddings computed by the group. NER models applied to this corpus can leverage statistics of diseases and pending procedures within this waiting list. This work constitutes the first annotated corpus using clinical narratives from Chile, and one of the few for the Spanish language. The annotated corpus, the clinical word embeddings, and the annotation guidelines are freely released to the research community.