David Wan


FactPEGASUS: Factuality-Aware Pre-training and Fine-tuning for Abstractive Summarization
David Wan | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We present FactPEGASUS, an abstractive summarization model that addresses the problem of factuality during pre-training and fine-tuning: (1) We augment the sentence selection strategy of PEGASUS’s (Zhang et al., 2019) pre-training objective to create pseudo-summaries that are both important and factual; (2) We introduce three complementary components for fine-tuning. The corrector removes hallucinations present in the reference summary, the contrastor uses contrastive learning to better differentiate nonfactual summaries from factual ones, and the connector bridges the gap between the pre-training and fine-tuning for better transfer of knowledge. Experiments on three downstream tasks demonstrate that FactPEGASUS substantially improves factuality evaluated by multiple automatic metrics and humans. Our thorough analysis suggests that FactPEGASUS is more factual than using the original pre-training objective in zero-shot and few-shot settings, retains factual behavior more robustly than strong baselines, and does not rely entirely on becoming more extractive to improve factuality.

Evaluating and Improving Factuality in Multimodal Abstractive Summarization
David Wan | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Current metrics for evaluating factuality for abstractive document summarization have achieved high correlations with human judgment, but they do not account for the vision modality and thus are not adequate for vision-and-language summarization. We propose CLIPBERTSCORE, a simple weighted combination of CLIPScore and BERTScore to leverage the robustness and strong factuality detection performance between image-summary and document-summary, respectively. Next, due to the lack of meta-evaluation benchmarks to evaluate the quality of multimodal factuality metrics, we collect human judgments of factuality with respect to documents and images. We show that this simple combination of two metrics in the zero-shot setting achieves higher correlations than existing factuality metrics for document summarization, outperforms an existing multimodal summarization metric, and performs competitively with strong multimodal factuality metrics specifically fine-tuned for the task. Our thorough analysis demonstrates the robustness and high correlation of CLIPBERTSCORE and its components on four factuality metric-evaluation benchmarks. Finally, we demonstrate two practical downstream applications of our CLIPBERTSCORE metric: for selecting important images to focus on during training, and as a reward for reinforcement learning to improve factuality of multimodal summary generation w.r.t automatic and human evaluation.

Constrained Regeneration for Cross-Lingual Query-Focused Extractive Summarization
Elsbeth Turcan | David Wan | Faisal Ladhak | Petra Galuscakova | Sukanta Sen | Svetlana Tchistiakova | Weijia Xu | Marine Carpuat | Kenneth Heafield | Douglas Oard | Kathleen McKeown
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Query-focused summaries of foreign-language, retrieved documents can help a user understand whether a document is actually relevant to the query term. A standard approach to this problem is to first translate the source documents and then perform extractive summarization to find relevant snippets. However, in a cross-lingual setting, the query term does not necessarily appear in the translations of relevant documents. In this work, we show that constrained machine translation and constrained post-editing can improve human relevance judgments by including a query term in a summary when its translation appears in the source document. We also present several strategies for selecting only certain documents for regeneration which yield further improvements


Segmenting Subtitles for Correcting ASR Segmentation Errors
David Wan | Chris Kedzie | Faisal Ladhak | Elsbeth Turcan | Petra Galuscakova | Elena Zotkina | Zhengping Jiang | Peter Bell | Kathleen McKeown
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Typical ASR systems segment the input audio into utterances using purely acoustic information, which may not resemble the sentence-like units that are expected by conventional machine translation (MT) systems for Spoken Language Translation. In this work, we propose a model for correcting the acoustic segmentation of ASR models for low-resource languages to improve performance on downstream tasks. We propose the use of subtitles as a proxy dataset for correcting ASR acoustic segmentation, creating synthetic acoustic utterances by modeling common error modes. We train a neural tagging model for correcting ASR acoustic segmentation and show that it improves downstream performance on MT and audio-document cross-language information retrieval (CLIR).


Incorporating Terminology Constraints in Automatic Post-Editing
David Wan | Chris Kedzie | Faisal Ladhak | Marine Carpuat | Kathleen McKeown
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

Users of machine translation (MT) may want to ensure the use of specific lexical terminologies. While there exist techniques for incorporating terminology constraints during inference for MT, current APE approaches cannot ensure that they will appear in the final translation. In this paper, we present both autoregressive and non-autoregressive models for lexically constrained APE, demonstrating that our approach enables preservation of 95% of the terminologies and also improves translation quality on English-German benchmarks. Even when applied to lexically constrained MT output, our approach is able to improve preservation of the terminologies. However, we show that our models do not learn to copy constraints systematically and suggest a simple data augmentation technique that leads to improved performance and robustness.

Subtitles to Segmentation: Improving Low-Resource Speech-to-TextTranslation Pipelines
David Wan | Zhengping Jiang | Chris Kedzie | Elsbeth Turcan | Peter Bell | Kathy McKeown
Proceedings of the workshop on Cross-Language Search and Summarization of Text and Speech (CLSSTS2020)

In this work, we focus on improving ASR output segmentation in the context of low-resource language speech-to-text translation. ASR output segmentation is crucial, as ASR systems segment the input audio using purely acoustic information and are not guaranteed to output sentence-like segments. Since most MT systems expect sentences as input, feeding in longer unsegmented passages can lead to sub-optimal performance. We explore the feasibility of using datasets of subtitles from TV shows and movies to train better ASR segmentation models. We further incorporate part-of-speech (POS) tag and dependency label information (derived from the unsegmented ASR outputs) into our segmentation model. We show that this noisy syntactic information can improve model accuracy. We evaluate our models intrinsically on segmentation quality and extrinsically on downstream MT performance, as well as downstream tasks including cross-lingual information retrieval (CLIR) tasks and human relevance assessments. Our model shows improved performance on downstream tasks for Lithuanian and Bulgarian.