Dan Friedman


Finding Dataset Shortcuts with Grammar Induction
Dan Friedman | Alexander Wettig | Danqi Chen
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Many NLP datasets have been found to contain shortcuts: simple decision rules that achieve surprisingly high accuracy. However, it is difficult to discover shortcuts automatically. Prior work on automatic shortcut detection has focused on enumerating features like unigrams or bigrams, which can find only low-level shortcuts, or relied on post-hoc model interpretability methods like saliency maps, which reveal qualitative patterns without a clear statistical interpretation. In this work, we propose to use probabilistic grammars to characterize and discover shortcuts in NLP datasets. Specifically, we use a context-free grammar to model patterns in sentence classification datasets and use a synchronous context-free grammar to model datasets involving sentence pairs. The resulting grammars reveal interesting shortcut features in a number of datasets, including both simple and high-level features, and automatically identify groups of test examples on which conventional classifiers fail. Finally, we show that the features we discover can be used to generate diagnostic contrast examples and incorporated into standard robust optimization methods to improve worst-group accuracy.


Single-dataset Experts for Multi-dataset Question Answering
Dan Friedman | Ben Dodge | Danqi Chen
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Many datasets have been created for training reading comprehension models, and a natural question is whether we can combine them to build models that (1) perform better on all of the training datasets and (2) generalize and transfer better to new datasets. Prior work has addressed this goal by training one network simultaneously on multiple datasets, which works well on average but is prone to over- or under-fitting different sub- distributions and might transfer worse compared to source models with more overlap with the target dataset. Our approach is to model multi-dataset question answering with an ensemble of single-dataset experts, by training a collection of lightweight, dataset-specific adapter modules (Houlsby et al., 2019) that share an underlying Transformer model. We find that these Multi-Adapter Dataset Experts (MADE) outperform all our baselines in terms of in-distribution accuracy, and simple methods based on parameter-averaging lead to better zero-shot generalization and few-shot transfer performance, offering a strong and versatile starting point for building new reading comprehension systems.

Factual Probing Is [MASK]: Learning vs. Learning to Recall
Zexuan Zhong | Dan Friedman | Danqi Chen
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Petroni et al. (2019) demonstrated that it is possible to retrieve world facts from a pre-trained language model by expressing them as cloze-style prompts and interpret the model’s prediction accuracy as a lower bound on the amount of factual information it encodes. Subsequent work has attempted to tighten the estimate by searching for better prompts, using a disjoint set of facts as training data. In this work, we make two complementary contributions to better understand these factual probing techniques. First, we propose OptiPrompt, a novel and efficient method which directly optimizes in continuous embedding space. We find this simple method is able to predict an additional 6.4% of facts in the LAMA benchmark. Second, we raise a more important question: Can we really interpret these probing results as a lower bound? Is it possible that these prompt-search methods learn from the training data too? We find, somewhat surprisingly, that the training data used by these methods contains certain regularities of the underlying fact distribution, and all the existing prompt methods, including ours, are able to exploit them for better fact prediction. We conduct a set of control experiments to disentangle “learning” from “learning to recall”, providing a more detailed picture of what different prompts can reveal about pre-trained language models.


Syntax-aware Neural Semantic Role Labeling with Supertags
Jungo Kasai | Dan Friedman | Robert Frank | Dragomir Radev | Owen Rambow
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

We introduce a new syntax-aware model for dependency-based semantic role labeling that outperforms syntax-agnostic models for English and Spanish. We use a BiLSTM to tag the text with supertags extracted from dependency parses, and we feed these supertags, along with words and parts of speech, into a deep highway BiLSTM for semantic role labeling. Our model combines the strengths of earlier models that performed SRL on the basis of a full dependency parse with more recent models that use no syntactic information at all. Our local and non-ensemble model achieves state-of-the-art performance on the CoNLL 09 English and Spanish datasets. SRL models benefit from syntactic information, and we show that supertagging is a simple, powerful, and robust way to incorporate syntax into a neural SRL system.


Linguistically Rich Vector Representations of Supertags for TAG Parsing
Dan Friedman | Jungo Kasai | R. Thomas McCoy | Robert Frank | Forrest Davis | Owen Rambow
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammars and Related Formalisms