Chiyuan Zhang


Deduplicating Training Data Makes Language Models Better
Katherine Lee | Daphne Ippolito | Andrew Nystrom | Chiyuan Zhang | Douglas Eck | Chris Callison-Burch | Nicholas Carlini
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We find that existing language modeling datasets contain many near-duplicate examples and long repetitive substrings.As a result, over 1% of the unprompted output of language models trained on these datasets is copied verbatim from the training data.We develop two tools that allow us to deduplicate training datasets—for example removing from C4 a single 61 word English sentence that is repeated over 60,000 times.Deduplication allows us to train models that emit memorized text ten times less frequently and require fewer training steps to achieve the same or better accuracy.We can also reduce train-test overlap, which affects over 4% of the validation set of standard datasets, thus allowing for more accurate evaluation.Code for deduplication is released at

Just Fine-tune Twice: Selective Differential Privacy for Large Language Models
Weiyan Shi | Ryan Shea | Si Chen | Chiyuan Zhang | Ruoxi Jia | Zhou Yu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Protecting large language models from privacy leakage is becoming increasingly crucial with their wide adoption in real-world products. Yet applying *differential privacy* (DP), a canonical notion with provable privacy guarantees for machine learning models, to those models remains challenging due to the trade-off between model utility and privacy loss. Utilizing the fact that sensitive information in language data tends to be sparse, Shi et al. (2021) formalized a DP notion extension called *Selective Differential Privacy* (SDP) to protect only the sensitive tokens defined by a policy function. However, their algorithm only works for RNN-based models. In this paper, we develop a novel framework, *Just Fine-tune Twice* (JFT), that achieves SDP for state-of-the-art large transformer-based models. Our method is easy to implement: it first fine-tunes the model with *redacted* in-domain data, and then fine-tunes it again with the *original* in-domain data using a private training mechanism. Furthermore, we study the scenario of imperfect implementation of policy functions that misses sensitive tokens and develop systematic methods to handle it. Experiments show that our method achieves strong utility compared to previous baselines. We also analyze the SDP privacy guarantee empirically with the canary insertion attack.