Cha Zhang


XFUND: A Benchmark Dataset for Multilingual Visually Rich Form Understanding
Yiheng Xu | Tengchao Lv | Lei Cui | Guoxin Wang | Yijuan Lu | Dinei Florencio | Cha Zhang | Furu Wei
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Multimodal pre-training with text, layout, and image has achieved SOTA performance for visually rich document understanding tasks recently, which demonstrates the great potential for joint learning across different modalities. However, the existed research work has focused only on the English domain while neglecting the importance of multilingual generalization. In this paper, we introduce a human-annotated multilingual form understanding benchmark dataset named XFUND, which includes form understanding samples in 7 languages (Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, French, Italian, German, Portuguese). Meanwhile, we present LayoutXLM, a multimodal pre-trained model for multilingual document understanding, which aims to bridge the language barriers for visually rich document understanding. Experimental results show that the LayoutXLM model has significantly outperformed the existing SOTA cross-lingual pre-trained models on the XFUND dataset. The XFUND dataset and the pre-trained LayoutXLM model have been publicly available at

A Simple yet Effective Learnable Positional Encoding Method for Improving Document Transformer Model
Guoxin Wang | Yijuan Lu | Lei Cui | Tengchao Lv | Dinei Florencio | Cha Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: AACL-IJCNLP 2022

Positional encoding plays a key role in Transformer-based architecture, which is to indicate and embed token sequential order information. Understanding documents with unreliable reading order information is a real challenge for document Transformer models. This paper proposes a simple and effective positional encoding method, learnable sinusoidal positional encoding (LSPE), by building a learnable sinusoidal positional encoding feed-forward network. We apply LSPE to document Transformer models and pretrain them on document datasets. Then we finetune and evaluate the model performance on document understanding tasks in form, receipt, and invoice domains. Experimental results show our proposed method not only outperforms other baselines, but also demonstrates its robustness and stability on handling noisy data with incorrect order information.

XDoc: Unified Pre-training for Cross-Format Document Understanding
Jingye Chen | Tengchao Lv | Lei Cui | Cha Zhang | Furu Wei
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

The surge of pre-training has witnessed the rapid development of document understanding recently. Pre-training and fine-tuning framework has been effectively used to tackle texts in various formats, including plain texts, document texts, and web texts. Despite achieving promising performance, existing pre-trained models usually target one specific document format at one time, making it difficult to combine knowledge from multiple document formats. To address this, we propose XDoc, a unified pre-trained model which deals with different document formats in a single model. For parameter efficiency, we share backbone parameters for different formats such as the word embedding layer and the Transformer layers. Meanwhile, we introduce adaptive layers with lightweight parameters to enhance the distinction across different formats. Experimental results have demonstrated that with only 36.7% parameters, XDoc achieves comparable or even better performance on a variety of downstream tasks compared with the individual pre-trained models, which is cost effective for real-world deployment. The code and pre-trained models are publicly available at


LayoutLMv2: Multi-modal Pre-training for Visually-rich Document Understanding
Yang Xu | Yiheng Xu | Tengchao Lv | Lei Cui | Furu Wei | Guoxin Wang | Yijuan Lu | Dinei Florencio | Cha Zhang | Wanxiang Che | Min Zhang | Lidong Zhou
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Pre-training of text and layout has proved effective in a variety of visually-rich document understanding tasks due to its effective model architecture and the advantage of large-scale unlabeled scanned/digital-born documents. We propose LayoutLMv2 architecture with new pre-training tasks to model the interaction among text, layout, and image in a single multi-modal framework. Specifically, with a two-stream multi-modal Transformer encoder, LayoutLMv2 uses not only the existing masked visual-language modeling task but also the new text-image alignment and text-image matching tasks, which make it better capture the cross-modality interaction in the pre-training stage. Meanwhile, it also integrates a spatial-aware self-attention mechanism into the Transformer architecture so that the model can fully understand the relative positional relationship among different text blocks. Experiment results show that LayoutLMv2 outperforms LayoutLM by a large margin and achieves new state-of-the-art results on a wide variety of downstream visually-rich document understanding tasks, including FUNSD (0.7895 to 0.8420), CORD (0.9493 to 0.9601), SROIE (0.9524 to 0.9781), Kleister-NDA (0.8340 to 0.8520), RVL-CDIP (0.9443 to 0.9564), and DocVQA (0.7295 to 0.8672).