Carl Allen


Adapters for Enhanced Modeling of Multilingual Knowledge and Text
Yifan Hou | Wenxiang Jiao | Meizhen Liu | Carl Allen | Zhaopeng Tu | Mrinmaya Sachan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Large language models appear to learn facts from the large text corpora they are trained on. Such facts are encoded implicitly within their many parameters, making it difficult to verify or manipulate what knowledge has been learned. Language models have recently been extended to multilingual language models (MLLMs), enabling knowledge to be learned across hundreds of languages. Meanwhile, knowledge graphs contain facts in an explicit triple format, which require careful and costly curation and are only available in a few high-resource languages, restricting their research and application. To address these issues, we propose to enhance MLLMs with knowledge from multilingual knowledge graphs (MLKGs) so as to tackle language and knowledge graph tasks across many languages, including low-resource ones. Specifically, we introducea lightweight adapter set to enhance MLLMs with cross-lingual entity alignment and facts from MLKGs for many languages. Experiments on common benchmarks show that such enhancement benefits both MLLMs and MLKGs, achieving: (1) comparable or improved performance for knowledge graph completion and entity alignment relative to baselines, especially for low-resource languages (for which knowledge graphs are unavailable); and (2) improved MLLM performance on language understanding tasks that require multilingual factual knowledge; all while maintaining performance on other general language tasks.


Benchmark and Best Practices for Biomedical Knowledge Graph Embeddings
David Chang | Ivana Balažević | Carl Allen | Daniel Chawla | Cynthia Brandt | Andrew Taylor
Proceedings of the 19th SIGBioMed Workshop on Biomedical Language Processing

Much of biomedical and healthcare data is encoded in discrete, symbolic form such as text and medical codes. There is a wealth of expert-curated biomedical domain knowledge stored in knowledge bases and ontologies, but the lack of reliable methods for learning knowledge representation has limited their usefulness in machine learning applications. While text-based representation learning has significantly improved in recent years through advances in natural language processing, attempts to learn biomedical concept embeddings so far have been lacking. A recent family of models called knowledge graph embeddings have shown promising results on general domain knowledge graphs, and we explore their capabilities in the biomedical domain. We train several state-of-the-art knowledge graph embedding models on the SNOMED-CT knowledge graph, provide a benchmark with comparison to existing methods and in-depth discussion on best practices, and make a case for the importance of leveraging the multi-relational nature of knowledge graphs for learning biomedical knowledge representation. The embeddings, code, and materials will be made available to the community.


TuckER: Tensor Factorization for Knowledge Graph Completion
Ivana Balazevic | Carl Allen | Timothy Hospedales
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Knowledge graphs are structured representations of real world facts. However, they typically contain only a small subset of all possible facts. Link prediction is a task of inferring missing facts based on existing ones. We propose TuckER, a relatively straightforward but powerful linear model based on Tucker decomposition of the binary tensor representation of knowledge graph triples. TuckER outperforms previous state-of-the-art models across standard link prediction datasets, acting as a strong baseline for more elaborate models. We show that TuckER is a fully expressive model, derive sufficient bounds on its embedding dimensionalities and demonstrate that several previously introduced linear models can be viewed as special cases of TuckER.