Byoung-Tak Zhang


Hypergraph Transformer: Weakly-Supervised Multi-hop Reasoning for Knowledge-based Visual Question Answering
Yu-Jung Heo | Eun-Sol Kim | Woo Suk Choi | Byoung-Tak Zhang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Knowledge-based visual question answering (QA) aims to answer a question which requires visually-grounded external knowledge beyond image content itself. Answering complex questions that require multi-hop reasoning under weak supervision is considered as a challenging problem since i) no supervision is given to the reasoning process and ii) high-order semantics of multi-hop knowledge facts need to be captured. In this paper, we introduce a concept of hypergraph to encode high-level semantics of a question and a knowledge base, and to learn high-order associations between them. The proposed model, Hypergraph Transformer, constructs a question hypergraph and a query-aware knowledge hypergraph, and infers an answer by encoding inter-associations between two hypergraphs and intra-associations in both hypergraph itself. Extensive experiments on two knowledge-based visual QA and two knowledge-based textual QA demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, especially for multi-hop reasoning problem. Our source code is available at

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Language-agnostic Semantic Consistent Text-to-Image Generation
SeongJun Jung | Woo Suk Choi | Seongho Choi | Byoung-Tak Zhang
Proceedings of the Workshop on Multilingual Multimodal Learning

Recent GAN-based text-to-image generation models have advanced that they can generate photo-realistic images matching semantically with descriptions. However, research on multi-lingual text-to-image generation has not been carried out yet much. There are two problems when constructing a multilingual text-to-image generation model: 1) language imbalance issue in text-to-image paired datasets and 2) generating images that have the same meaning but are semantically inconsistent with each other in texts expressed in different languages. To this end, we propose a Language-agnostic Semantic Consistent Generative Adversarial Network (LaSC-GAN) for text-to-image generation, which can generate semantically consistent images via language-agnostic text encoder and Siamese mechanism. Experiments on relatively low-resource language text-image datasets show that the model has comparable generation quality as images generated by high-resource language text, and generates semantically consistent images for texts with the same meaning even in different languages.

Modal-specific Pseudo Query Generation for Video Corpus Moment Retrieval
Minjoon Jung | SeongHo Choi | JooChan Kim | Jin-Hwa Kim | Byoung-Tak Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Video corpus moment retrieval (VCMR) is the task to retrieve the most relevant video moment from a large video corpus using a natural language query.For narrative videos, e.g., drama or movies, the holistic understanding of temporal dynamics and multimodal reasoning are crucial.Previous works have shown promising results; however, they relied on the expensive query annotations for the VCMR, i.e., the corresponding moment intervals.To overcome this problem, we propose a self-supervised learning framework: Modal-specific Pseudo Query Generation Network (MPGN).First, MPGN selects candidate temporal moments via subtitle-based moment sampling.Then, it generates pseudo queries exploiting both visualand textual information from the selected temporal moments.Through the multimodal information in the pseudo queries, we show that MPGN successfully learns to localize the video corpus moment without any explicit annotation.We validate the effectiveness of MPGN on TVR dataset, showing the competitive results compared with both supervised models and unsupervised setting models.

Scene Graph Parsing via Abstract Meaning Representation in Pre-trained Language Models
Woo Suk Choi | Yu-Jung Heo | Dharani Punithan | Byoung-Tak Zhang
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning on Graphs for Natural Language Processing (DLG4NLP 2022)

In this work, we propose the application of abstract meaning representation (AMR) based semantic parsing models to parse textual descriptions of a visual scene into scene graphs, which is the first work to the best of our knowledge. Previous works examined scene graph parsing from textual descriptions using dependency parsing and left the AMR parsing approach as future work since sophisticated methods are required to apply AMR. Hence, we use pre-trained AMR parsing models to parse the region descriptions of visual scenes (i.e. images) into AMR graphs and pre-trained language models (PLM), BART and T5, to parse AMR graphs into scene graphs. The experimental results show that our approach explicitly captures high-level semantics from textual descriptions of visual scenes, such as objects, attributes of objects, and relationships between objects. Our textual scene graph parsing approach outperforms the previous state-of-the-art results by 9.3% in the SPICE metric score.


Reasoning Visual Dialog with Sparse Graph Learning and Knowledge Transfer
Gi-Cheon Kang | Junseok Park | Hwaran Lee | Byoung-Tak Zhang | Jin-Hwa Kim
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Visual dialog is a task of answering a sequence of questions grounded in an image using the previous dialog history as context. In this paper, we study how to address two fundamental challenges for this task: (1) reasoning over underlying semantic structures among dialog rounds and (2) identifying several appropriate answers to the given question. To address these challenges, we propose a Sparse Graph Learning (SGL) method to formulate visual dialog as a graph structure learning task. SGL infers inherently sparse dialog structures by incorporating binary and score edges and leveraging a new structural loss function. Next, we introduce a Knowledge Transfer (KT) method that extracts the answer predictions from the teacher model and uses them as pseudo labels. We propose KT to remedy the shortcomings of single ground-truth labels, which severely limit the ability of a model to obtain multiple reasonable answers. As a result, our proposed model significantly improves reasoning capability compared to baseline methods and outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches on the VisDial v1.0 dataset. The source code is available at

Devil’s Advocate: Novel Boosting Ensemble Method from Psychological Findings for Text Classification
Hwiyeol Jo | Jaeseo Lim | Byoung-Tak Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

We present a new form of ensemble method–Devil’s Advocate, which uses a deliberately dissenting model to force other submodels within the ensemble to better collaborate. Our method consists of two different training settings: one follows the conventional training process (Norm), and the other is trained by artificially generated labels (DevAdv). After training the models, Norm models are fine-tuned through an additional loss function, which uses the DevAdv model as a constraint. In making a final decision, the proposed ensemble model sums the scores of Norm models and then subtracts the score of the DevAdv model. The DevAdv model improves the overall performance of the other models within the ensemble. In addition to our ensemble framework being based on psychological background, it also shows comparable or improved performance on 5 text classification tasks when compared to conventional ensemble methods.

Attend What You Need: Motion-Appearance Synergistic Networks for Video Question Answering
Ahjeong Seo | Gi-Cheon Kang | Joonhan Park | Byoung-Tak Zhang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Video Question Answering is a task which requires an AI agent to answer questions grounded in video. This task entails three key challenges: (1) understand the intention of various questions, (2) capturing various elements of the input video (e.g., object, action, causality), and (3) cross-modal grounding between language and vision information. We propose Motion-Appearance Synergistic Networks (MASN), which embed two cross-modal features grounded on motion and appearance information and selectively utilize them depending on the question’s intentions. MASN consists of a motion module, an appearance module, and a motion-appearance fusion module. The motion module computes the action-oriented cross-modal joint representations, while the appearance module focuses on the appearance aspect of the input video. Finally, the motion-appearance fusion module takes each output of the motion module and the appearance module as input, and performs question-guided fusion. As a result, MASN achieves new state-of-the-art performance on the TGIF-QA and MSVD-QA datasets. We also conduct qualitative analysis by visualizing the inference results of MASN.


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Toward General Scene Graph: Integration of Visual Semantic Knowledge with Entity Synset Alignment
Woo Suk Choi | Kyoung-Woon On | Yu-Jung Heo | Byoung-Tak Zhang
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Advances in Language and Vision Research

Scene graph is a graph representation that explicitly represents high-level semantic knowledge of an image such as objects, attributes of objects and relationships between objects. Various tasks have been proposed for the scene graph, but the problem is that they have a limited vocabulary and biased information due to their own hypothesis. Therefore, results of each task are not generalizable and difficult to be applied to other down-stream tasks. In this paper, we propose Entity Synset Alignment(ESA), which is a method to create a general scene graph by aligning various semantic knowledge efficiently to solve this bias problem. The ESA uses a large-scale lexical database, WordNet and Intersection of Union (IoU) to align the object labels in multiple scene graphs/semantic knowledge. In experiment, the integrated scene graph is applied to the image-caption retrieval task as a down-stream task. We confirm that integrating multiple scene graphs helps to get better representations of images.


CoDraw: Collaborative Drawing as a Testbed for Grounded Goal-driven Communication
Jin-Hwa Kim | Nikita Kitaev | Xinlei Chen | Marcus Rohrbach | Byoung-Tak Zhang | Yuandong Tian | Dhruv Batra | Devi Parikh
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In this work, we propose a goal-driven collaborative task that combines language, perception, and action. Specifically, we develop a Collaborative image-Drawing game between two agents, called CoDraw. Our game is grounded in a virtual world that contains movable clip art objects. The game involves two players: a Teller and a Drawer. The Teller sees an abstract scene containing multiple clip art pieces in a semantically meaningful configuration, while the Drawer tries to reconstruct the scene on an empty canvas using available clip art pieces. The two players communicate with each other using natural language. We collect the CoDraw dataset of ~10K dialogs consisting of ~138K messages exchanged between human players. We define protocols and metrics to evaluate learned agents in this testbed, highlighting the need for a novel “crosstalk” evaluation condition which pairs agents trained independently on disjoint subsets of the training data. We present models for our task and benchmark them using both fully automated evaluation and by having them play the game live with humans.

Dual Attention Networks for Visual Reference Resolution in Visual Dialog
Gi-Cheon Kang | Jaeseo Lim | Byoung-Tak Zhang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Visual dialog (VisDial) is a task which requires a dialog agent to answer a series of questions grounded in an image. Unlike in visual question answering (VQA), the series of questions should be able to capture a temporal context from a dialog history and utilizes visually-grounded information. Visual reference resolution is a problem that addresses these challenges, requiring the agent to resolve ambiguous references in a given question and to find the references in a given image. In this paper, we propose Dual Attention Networks (DAN) for visual reference resolution in VisDial. DAN consists of two kinds of attention modules, REFER and FIND. Specifically, REFER module learns latent relationships between a given question and a dialog history by employing a multi-head attention mechanism. FIND module takes image features and reference-aware representations (i.e., the output of REFER module) as input, and performs visual grounding via bottom-up attention mechanism. We qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate our model on VisDial v1.0 and v0.9 datasets, showing that DAN outperforms the previous state-of-the-art model by a significant margin.


Text Chunking by Combining Hand-Crafted Rules and Memory-Based Learning
Seong-Bae Park | Byoung-Tak Zhang
Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics


A Comparative Evaluation of Data-driven Models in Translation Selection of Machine Translation
Yu-Seop Kim | Jeong-Ho Chang | Byoung-Tak Zhang
COLING 2002: The 19th International Conference on Computational Linguistics


Word Sense Disambiguation by Learning from Unlabeled Data
Seong-Bae Park | Byoung-Tak Zhang | Yung Taek Kim
Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Reducing Parsing Complexity by Intra-Sentence Segmentation based on Maximum Entropy Model
Sung Dong Kim | Byoung-Tak Zhang | Yung Taek Kim
2000 Joint SIGDAT Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Very Large Corpora


Compound noun decomposition using a Markov model
Jongwoo Lee | Byoung-Tak Zhang | Yung Taek Kim
Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit VII

A statistical method for compound noun decomposition is presented. Previous studies on this problem showed some statistical information are helpful. But applying statistical information was not so systemic that performance depends heavily on the algorithm and some algorithms usually have many separated steps. In our work statistical information is collected from manually decomposed compound noun corpus to build a Markov model for composition. Two Markov chains representing statistical information are assumed independent: one for the sequence of participants' lengths and another for the sequence of participants ' features. Besides Markov assumptions, least participants preference assumption also is used. These two assumptions enable the decomposition algorithm to be a kind of conditional dynamic programming so that efficient and systemic computation can be performed. When applied to test data of size 5027, we obtained a precision of 98.4%.


Morphological Analysis and Synthesis by Automated Discovery and Acquisition of Linguistic Rules
Byoung-Tak Zhang | Yung-Taek Kim
COLING 1990 Volume 2: Papers presented to the 13th International Conference on Computational Linguistics