Ankit Gupta


SCROLLS: Standardized CompaRison Over Long Language Sequences
Uri Shaham | Elad Segal | Maor Ivgi | Avia Efrat | Ori Yoran | Adi Haviv | Ankit Gupta | Wenhan Xiong | Mor Geva | Jonathan Berant | Omer Levy
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

NLP benchmarks have largely focused on short texts, such as sentences and paragraphs, even though long texts comprise a considerable amount of natural language in the wild. We introduce SCROLLS, a suite of tasks that require reasoning over long texts. We examine existing long-text datasets, and handpick ones where the text is naturally long, while prioritizing tasks that involve synthesizing information across the input. SCROLLS contains summarization, question answering, and natural language inference tasks, covering multiple domains, including literature, science, business, and entertainment. Initial baselines, including Longformer Encoder-Decoder, indicate that there is ample room for improvement on SCROLLS. We make all datasets available in a unified text-to-text format and host a live leaderboard to facilitate research on model architecture and pretraining methods.


Value-aware Approximate Attention
Ankit Gupta | Jonathan Berant
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Following the success of dot-product attention in Transformers, numerous approximations have been recently proposed to address its quadratic complexity with respect to the input length. However, all approximations thus far have ignored the contribution of the *value vectors* to the quality of approximation. In this work, we argue that research efforts should be directed towards approximating the true output of the attention sub-layer, which includes the value vectors. We propose a value-aware objective, and show theoretically and empirically that an optimal approximation of a value-aware objective substantially outperforms an optimal approximation that ignores values, in the context of language modeling. Moreover, we show that the choice of kernel function for computing attention similarity can substantially affect the quality of sparse approximations, where kernel functions that are less skewed are more affected by the value vectors.

DART: Open-Domain Structured Data Record to Text Generation
Linyong Nan | Dragomir Radev | Rui Zhang | Amrit Rau | Abhinand Sivaprasad | Chiachun Hsieh | Xiangru Tang | Aadit Vyas | Neha Verma | Pranav Krishna | Yangxiaokang Liu | Nadia Irwanto | Jessica Pan | Faiaz Rahman | Ahmad Zaidi | Mutethia Mutuma | Yasin Tarabar | Ankit Gupta | Tao Yu | Yi Chern Tan | Xi Victoria Lin | Caiming Xiong | Richard Socher | Nazneen Fatema Rajani
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We present DART, an open domain structured DAta Record to Text generation dataset with over 82k instances (DARTs). Data-to-text annotations can be a costly process, especially when dealing with tables which are the major source of structured data and contain nontrivial structures. To this end, we propose a procedure of extracting semantic triples from tables that encodes their structures by exploiting the semantic dependencies among table headers and the table title. Our dataset construction framework effectively merged heterogeneous sources from open domain semantic parsing and spoken dialogue systems by utilizing techniques including tree ontology annotation, question-answer pair to declarative sentence conversion, and predicate unification, all with minimum post-editing. We present systematic evaluation on DART as well as new state-of-the-art results on WebNLG 2017 to show that DART (1) poses new challenges to existing data-to-text datasets and (2) facilitates out-of-domain generalization. Our data and code can be found at

Memory-efficient Transformers via Top-k Attention
Ankit Gupta | Guy Dar | Shaya Goodman | David Ciprut | Jonathan Berant
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Simple and Efficient Natural Language Processing

Following the success of dot-product attention in Transformers, numerous approximations have been recently proposed to address its quadratic complexity with respect to the input length. While these variants are memory and compute efficient, it is not possible to directly use them with popular pre-trained language models trained using vanilla attention, without an expensive corrective pre-training stage. In this work, we propose a simple yet highly accurate approximation for vanilla attention. We process the queries in chunks, and for each query, compute the top-*k* scores with respect to the keys. Our approach offers several advantages: (a) its memory usage is linear in the input size, similar to linear attention variants, such as Performer and RFA (b) it is a drop-in replacement for vanilla attention that does not require any corrective pre-training, and (c) it can also lead to significant memory savings in the feed-forward layers after casting them into the familiar query-key-value framework. We evaluate the quality of top-*k* approximation for multi-head attention layers on the Long Range Arena Benchmark, and for feed-forward layers of T5 and UnifiedQA on multiple QA datasets. We show our approach leads to accuracy that is nearly-identical to vanilla attention in multiple setups including training from scratch, fine-tuning, and zero-shot inference.


Break It Down: A Question Understanding Benchmark
Tomer Wolfson | Mor Geva | Ankit Gupta | Matt Gardner | Yoav Goldberg | Daniel Deutch | Jonathan Berant
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 8

Understanding natural language questions entails the ability to break down a question into the requisite steps for computing its answer. In this work, we introduce a Question Decomposition Meaning Representation (QDMR) for questions. QDMR constitutes the ordered list of steps, expressed through natural language, that are necessary for answering a question. We develop a crowdsourcing pipeline, showing that quality QDMRs can be annotated at scale, and release the Break dataset, containing over 83K pairs of questions and their QDMRs. We demonstrate the utility of QDMR by showing that (a) it can be used to improve open-domain question answering on the HotpotQA dataset, (b) it can be deterministically converted to a pseudo-SQL formal language, which can alleviate annotation in semantic parsing applications. Last, we use Break to train a sequence-to-sequence model with copying that parses questions into QDMR structures, and show that it substantially outperforms several natural baselines.

Injecting Numerical Reasoning Skills into Language Models
Mor Geva | Ankit Gupta | Jonathan Berant
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Large pre-trained language models (LMs) are known to encode substantial amounts of linguistic information. However, high-level reasoning skills, such as numerical reasoning, are difficult to learn from a language-modeling objective only. Consequently, existing models for numerical reasoning have used specialized architectures with limited flexibility. In this work, we show that numerical reasoning is amenable to automatic data generation, and thus one can inject this skill into pre-trained LMs, by generating large amounts of data, and training in a multi-task setup. We show that pre-training our model, GenBERT, on this data, dramatically improves performance on DROP (49.3 –> 72.3 F1), reaching performance that matches state-of-the-art models of comparable size, while using a simple and general-purpose encoder-decoder architecture. Moreover, GenBERT generalizes well to math word problem datasets, while maintaining high performance on standard RC tasks. Our approach provides a general recipe for injecting skills into large pre-trained LMs, whenever the skill is amenable to automatic data augmentation.