Adam Ek


UniMorph 4.0: Universal Morphology
Khuyagbaatar Batsuren | Omer Goldman | Salam Khalifa | Nizar Habash | Witold Kieraś | Gábor Bella | Brian Leonard | Garrett Nicolai | Kyle Gorman | Yustinus Ghanggo Ate | Maria Ryskina | Sabrina Mielke | Elena Budianskaya | Charbel El-Khaissi | Tiago Pimentel | Michael Gasser | William Abbott Lane | Mohit Raj | Matt Coler | Jaime Rafael Montoya Samame | Delio Siticonatzi Camaiteri | Esaú Zumaeta Rojas | Didier López Francis | Arturo Oncevay | Juan López Bautista | Gema Celeste Silva Villegas | Lucas Torroba Hennigen | Adam Ek | David Guriel | Peter Dirix | Jean-Philippe Bernardy | Andrey Scherbakov | Aziyana Bayyr-ool | Antonios Anastasopoulos | Roberto Zariquiey | Karina Sheifer | Sofya Ganieva | Hilaria Cruz | Ritván Karahóǧa | Stella Markantonatou | George Pavlidis | Matvey Plugaryov | Elena Klyachko | Ali Salehi | Candy Angulo | Jatayu Baxi | Andrew Krizhanovsky | Natalia Krizhanovskaya | Elizabeth Salesky | Clara Vania | Sardana Ivanova | Jennifer White | Rowan Hall Maudslay | Josef Valvoda | Ran Zmigrod | Paula Czarnowska | Irene Nikkarinen | Aelita Salchak | Brijesh Bhatt | Christopher Straughn | Zoey Liu | Jonathan North Washington | Yuval Pinter | Duygu Ataman | Marcin Wolinski | Totok Suhardijanto | Anna Yablonskaya | Niklas Stoehr | Hossep Dolatian | Zahroh Nuriah | Shyam Ratan | Francis M. Tyers | Edoardo M. Ponti | Grant Aiton | Aryaman Arora | Richard J. Hatcher | Ritesh Kumar | Jeremiah Young | Daria Rodionova | Anastasia Yemelina | Taras Andrushko | Igor Marchenko | Polina Mashkovtseva | Alexandra Serova | Emily Prud’hommeaux | Maria Nepomniashchaya | Fausto Giunchiglia | Eleanor Chodroff | Mans Hulden | Miikka Silfverberg | Arya D. McCarthy | David Yarowsky | Ryan Cotterell | Reut Tsarfaty | Ekaterina Vylomova
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

The Universal Morphology (UniMorph) project is a collaborative effort providing broad-coverage instantiated normalized morphological inflection tables for hundreds of diverse world languages. The project comprises two major thrusts: a language-independent feature schema for rich morphological annotation, and a type-level resource of annotated data in diverse languages realizing that schema. This paper presents the expansions and improvements on several fronts that were made in the last couple of years (since McCarthy et al. (2020)). Collaborative efforts by numerous linguists have added 66 new languages, including 24 endangered languages. We have implemented several improvements to the extraction pipeline to tackle some issues, e.g., missing gender and macrons information. We have amended the schema to use a hierarchical structure that is needed for morphological phenomena like multiple-argument agreement and case stacking, while adding some missing morphological features to make the schema more inclusive.In light of the last UniMorph release, we also augmented the database with morpheme segmentation for 16 languages. Lastly, this new release makes a push towards inclusion of derivational morphology in UniMorph by enriching the data and annotation schema with instances representing derivational processes from MorphyNet.

Fine-grained Entailment: Resources for Greek NLI and Precise Entailment
Eirini Amanaki | Jean-Philippe Bernardy | Stergios Chatzikyriakidis | Robin Cooper | Simon Dobnik | Aram Karimi | Adam Ek | Eirini Chrysovalantou Giannikouri | Vasiliki Katsouli | Ilias Kolokousis | Eirini Chrysovalantou Mamatzaki | Dimitrios Papadakis | Olga Petrova | Erofili Psaltaki | Charikleia Soupiona | Effrosyni Skoulataki | Christina Stefanidou
Proceedings of the Workshop on Dataset Creation for Lower-Resourced Languages within the 13th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

In this paper, we present a number of fine-grained resources for Natural Language Inference (NLI). In particular, we present a number of resources and validation methods for Greek NLI and a resource for precise NLI. First, we extend the Greek version of the FraCaS test suite to include examples where the inference is directly linked to the syntactic/morphological properties of Greek. The new resource contains an additional 428 examples, making it in total a dataset of 774 examples. Expert annotators have been used in order to create the additional resource, while extensive validation of the original Greek version of the FraCaS by non-expert and expert subjects is performed. Next, we continue the work initiated by (CITATION), according to which a subset of the RTE problems have been labeled for missing hypotheses and we present a dataset an order of magnitude larger, annotating the whole SuperGlUE/RTE dataset with missing hypotheses. Lastly, we provide a de-dropped version of the Greek XNLI dataset, where the pronouns that are missing due to the pro-drop nature of the language are inserted. We then run some models to see the effect of that insertion and report the results.

In Search of Meaning and Its Representations for Computational Linguistics
Simon Dobnik | Robin Cooper | Adam Ek | Bill Noble | Staffan Larsson | Nikolai Ilinykh | Vladislav Maraev | Vidya Somashekarappa
Proceedings of the 2022 CLASP Conference on (Dis)embodiment

In this paper we examine different meaning representations that are commonly used in different natural language applications today and discuss their limits, both in terms of the aspects of the natural language meaning they are modelling and in terms of the aspects of the application for which they are used.


SIGMORPHON 2021 Shared Task on Morphological Reinflection: Generalization Across Languages
Tiago Pimentel | Maria Ryskina | Sabrina J. Mielke | Shijie Wu | Eleanor Chodroff | Brian Leonard | Garrett Nicolai | Yustinus Ghanggo Ate | Salam Khalifa | Nizar Habash | Charbel El-Khaissi | Omer Goldman | Michael Gasser | William Lane | Matt Coler | Arturo Oncevay | Jaime Rafael Montoya Samame | Gema Celeste Silva Villegas | Adam Ek | Jean-Philippe Bernardy | Andrey Shcherbakov | Aziyana Bayyr-ool | Karina Sheifer | Sofya Ganieva | Matvey Plugaryov | Elena Klyachko | Ali Salehi | Andrew Krizhanovsky | Natalia Krizhanovsky | Clara Vania | Sardana Ivanova | Aelita Salchak | Christopher Straughn | Zoey Liu | Jonathan North Washington | Duygu Ataman | Witold Kieraś | Marcin Woliński | Totok Suhardijanto | Niklas Stoehr | Zahroh Nuriah | Shyam Ratan | Francis M. Tyers | Edoardo M. Ponti | Grant Aiton | Richard J. Hatcher | Emily Prud’hommeaux | Ritesh Kumar | Mans Hulden | Botond Barta | Dorina Lakatos | Gábor Szolnok | Judit Ács | Mohit Raj | David Yarowsky | Ryan Cotterell | Ben Ambridge | Ekaterina Vylomova
Proceedings of the 18th SIGMORPHON Workshop on Computational Research in Phonetics, Phonology, and Morphology

This year's iteration of the SIGMORPHON Shared Task on morphological reinflection focuses on typological diversity and cross-lingual variation of morphosyntactic features. In terms of the task, we enrich UniMorph with new data for 32 languages from 13 language families, with most of them being under-resourced: Kunwinjku, Classical Syriac, Arabic (Modern Standard, Egyptian, Gulf), Hebrew, Amharic, Aymara, Magahi, Braj, Kurdish (Central, Northern, Southern), Polish, Karelian, Livvi, Ludic, Veps, Võro, Evenki, Xibe, Tuvan, Sakha, Turkish, Indonesian, Kodi, Seneca, Asháninka, Yanesha, Chukchi, Itelmen, Eibela. We evaluate six systems on the new data and conduct an extensive error analysis of the systems' predictions. Transformer-based models generally demonstrate superior performance on the majority of languages, achieving >90% accuracy on 65% of them. The languages on which systems yielded low accuracy are mainly under-resourced, with a limited amount of data. Most errors made by the systems are due to allomorphy, honorificity, and form variation. In addition, we observe that systems especially struggle to inflect multiword lemmas. The systems also produce misspelled forms or end up in repetitive loops (e.g., RNN-based models). Finally, we report a large drop in systems' performance on previously unseen lemmas.

Training Strategies for Neural Multilingual Morphological Inflection
Adam Ek | Jean-Philippe Bernardy
Proceedings of the 18th SIGMORPHON Workshop on Computational Research in Phonetics, Phonology, and Morphology

This paper presents the submission of team GUCLASP to SIGMORPHON 2021 Shared Task on Generalization in Morphological Inflection Generation. We develop a multilingual model for Morphological Inflection and primarily focus on improving the model by using various training strategies to improve accuracy and generalization across languages.

Can the Transformer Learn Nested Recursion with Symbol Masking?
Jean-Philippe Bernardy | Adam Ek | Vladislav Maraev
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

Can predicate-argument relationships be extracted from UD trees?
Adam Ek | Jean-Philippe Bernardy | Stergios Chatzikyriakidis
Proceedings of the Joint 15th Linguistic Annotation Workshop (LAW) and 3rd Designing Meaning Representations (DMR) Workshop

In this paper we investigate the possibility of extracting predicate-argument relations from UD trees (and enhanced UD graphs). Con- cretely, we apply UD parsers on an En- glish question answering/semantic-role label- ing data set (FitzGerald et al., 2018) and check if the annotations reflect the relations in the resulting parse trees, using a small number of rules to extract this information. We find that 79.1% of the argument-predicate pairs can be found in this way, on the basis of Ud- ify (Kondratyuk and Straka, 2019). Error anal- ysis reveals that half of the error cases are at- tributable to shortcomings in the dataset. The remaining errors are mostly due to predicate- argument relations not being extractible algo- rithmically from the UD trees (requiring se- mantic reasoning to be resolved). The parser itself is only responsible for a small portion of errors. Our analysis suggests a number of improvements to the UD annotation schema: we propose to enhance the schema in four ways, in order to capture argument-predicate relations. Additionally, we propose improve- ments regarding data collection for question answering/semantic-role labeling data.


Composing Byte-Pair Encodings for Morphological Sequence Classification
Adam Ek | Jean-Philippe Bernardy
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Universal Dependencies (UDW 2020)

Byte-pair encodings is a method for splitting a word into sub-word tokens, a language model then assigns contextual representations separately to each of these tokens. In this paper, we evaluate four different methods of composing such sub-word representations into word representations. We evaluate the methods on morphological sequence classification, the task of predicting grammatical features of a word. Our experiments reveal that using an RNN to compute word representations is consistently more effective than the other methods tested across a sample of eight languages with different typology and varying numbers of byte-pair tokens per word.

How Much of Enhanced UD Is Contained in UD?
Adam Ek | Jean-Philippe Bernardy
Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Parsing Technologies and the IWPT 2020 Shared Task on Parsing into Enhanced Universal Dependencies

In this paper, we present the submission of team CLASP to the IWPT 2020 Shared Task on parsing enhanced universal dependencies. We develop a tree-to-graph transformation algorithm based on dependency patterns. This algorithm can transform gold UD trees to EUD graphs with an ELAS score of 81.55 and a EULAS score of 96.70. These results show that much of the information needed to construct EUD graphs from UD trees are present in the UD trees. Coupled with a standard UD parser, the method applies to the official test data and yields and ELAS score of 67.85 and a EULAS score is 80.18.

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Proceedings of the Probability and Meaning Conference (PaM 2020)
Christine Howes | Stergios Chatzikyriakidis | Adam Ek | Vidya Somashekarappa
Proceedings of the Probability and Meaning Conference (PaM 2020)

How does Punctuation Affect Neural Models in Natural Language Inference
Adam Ek | Jean-Philippe Bernardy | Stergios Chatzikyriakidis
Proceedings of the Probability and Meaning Conference (PaM 2020)

Natural Language Inference models have reached almost human-level performance but their generalisation capabilities have not been yet fully characterized. In particular, sensitivity to small changes in the data is a current area of investigation. In this paper, we focus on the effect of punctuation on such models. Our findings can be broadly summarized as follows: (1) irrelevant changes in punctuation are correctly ignored by the recent transformer models (BERT) while older RNN-based models were sensitive to them. (2) All models, both transformers and RNN-based models, are incapable of taking into account small relevant changes in the punctuation.


Language Modeling with Syntactic and Semantic Representation for Sentence Acceptability Predictions
Adam Ek | Jean-Philippe Bernardy | Shalom Lappin
Proceedings of the 22nd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we investigate the effect of enhancing lexical embeddings in LSTM language models (LM) with syntactic and semantic representations. We evaluate the language models using perplexity, and we evaluate the performance of the models on the task of predicting human sentence acceptability judgments. We train LSTM language models on sentences automatically annotated with universal syntactic dependency roles (Nivre, 2016), dependency depth and universal semantic tags (Abzianidze et al., 2017) to predict sentence acceptability judgments. Our experiments indicate that syntactic tags lower perplexity, while semantic tags increase it. Our experiments also show that neither syntactic nor semantic tags improve the performance of LSTM language models on the task of predicting sentence acceptability judgments.

Synthetic Propaganda Embeddings To Train A Linear Projection
Adam Ek | Mehdi Ghanimifard
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Internet Freedom: Censorship, Disinformation, and Propaganda

This paper presents a method of detecting fine-grained categories of propaganda in text. Given a sentence, our method aims to identify a span of words and predict the type of propaganda used. To detect propaganda, we explore a method for extracting features of propaganda from contextualized embeddings without fine-tuning the large parameters of the base model. We show that by generating synthetic embeddings we can train a linear function with ReLU activation to extract useful labeled embeddings from an embedding space generated by a general-purpose language model. We also introduce an inference technique to detect continuous spans in sequences of propaganda tokens in sentences. A result of the ensemble model is submitted to the first shared task in fine-grained propaganda detection at NLP4IF as Team Stalin. In this paper, we provide additional analysis regarding our method of detecting spans of propaganda with synthetically generated representations.


Identifying Speakers and Addressees in Dialogues Extracted from Literary Fiction
Adam Ek | Mats Wirén | Robert Östling | Kristina N. Björkenstam | Gintarė Grigonytė | Sofia Gustafson Capková
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)


Mainstreaming August Strindberg with Text Normalization
Adam Ek | Sofia Knuutinen
Proceedings of the 21st Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics