We describe our effort on automated extraction of socio-political events from news in the scope of a workshop and a shared task we organized at Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC 2020). We believe the event extraction studies in computational linguistics and social and political sciences should further support each other in order to enable large scale socio-political event information collection across sources, countries, and languages. The event consists of regular research papers and a shared task, which is about event sentence coreference identification (ESCI), tracks. All submissions were reviewed by five members of the program committee. The workshop attracted research papers related to evaluation of machine learning methodologies, language resources, material conflict forecasting, and a shared task participation report in the scope of socio-political event information collection. It has shown us the volume and variety of both the data sources and event information collection approaches related to socio-political events and the need to fill the gap between automated text processing techniques and requirements of social and political sciences.
Not all conflict datasets offer equal levels of coverage, depth, use-ability, and content. A review of the inclusion criteria, methodology, and sourcing of leading publicly available conflict datasets demonstrates that there are significant discrepancies in the output produced by ostensibly similar projects. This keynote will question the presumption of substantial overlap between datasets, and identify a number of important gaps left by deficiencies across core criteria for effective conflict data collection and analysis.
In this brief keynote, I will address what I see as five majorissues in terms of development for operational event datasets (that is, event data intended for real time monitoringand forecasting, rather than purely for academic research).
This study evaluates the robustness of two state-of-the-art deep contextual language representations, ELMo and DistilBERT, on supervised learning of binary protest news classification (PC) and sentiment analysis (SA) of product reviews. A ”cross-context” setting is enabled using test sets that are distinct from the training data. The models are fine-tuned and fed into a Feed-Forward Neural Network (FFNN) and a Bidirectional Long Short Term Memory network (BiLSTM). Multinomial Naive Bayes (MNB) and Linear Support Vector Machine (LSVM) are used as traditional baselines. The results suggest that DistilBERT can transfer generic semantic knowledge to other domains better than ELMo. DistilBERT is also 30% smaller and 83% faster than ELMo, which suggests superiority for smaller computational training budgets. When generalization is not the utmost preference and test domain is similar to the training domain, the traditional machine learning (ML) algorithms can still be considered as more economic alternatives to deep language representations.
We cast the problem of event annotation as one of text categorization, and compare state of the art text categorization techniques on event data produced within the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP). Annotating a single text involves assigning the labels pertaining to at least 17 distinct categorization tasks, e.g., who were the attacking organization, who was attacked, and where did the event take place. The text categorization techniques under scrutiny are a classical Bag-of-Words approach; character-based contextualized embeddings produced by ELMo; embeddings produced by the BERT base model, and a version of BERT base fine-tuned on UCDP data; and a pre-trained and fine-tuned classifier based on ULMFiT. The categorization tasks are very diverse in terms of the number of classes to predict as well as the skeweness of the distribution of classes. The categorization results exhibit a large variability across tasks, ranging from 30.3% to 99.8% F-score.
Automating the detection of event mentions in online texts and their classification vis-a-vis domain-specific event type taxonomies has been acknowledged by many organisations worldwide to be of paramount importance in order to facilitate the process of intelligence gathering. This paper reports on some preliminary experiments of comparing various linguistically-lightweight approaches for fine-grained event classification based on short text snippets reporting on events. In particular, we compare the performance of a TF-IDF-weighted character n-gram SVM-based model versus SVMs trained on various of-the-shelf pre-trained word embeddings (GloVe, BERT, FastText) as features. We exploit a relatively large event corpus consisting of circa 610K short text event descriptions classified using a 25-event categories that cover political violence and protest events. The best results, i.e., 83.5% macro and 92.4% micro F1 score, were obtained using the TF-IDF-weighted character n-gram model.
Previous efforts to automate the detection of social and political events in text have primarily focused on identifying events described within single sentences or documents. Within a corpus of documents, these automated systems are unable to link event references—recognize singular events across multiple sentences or documents. A separate literature in computational linguistics on event coreference resolution attempts to link known events to one another within (and across) documents. I provide a data set for evaluating methods to identify certain political events in text and to link related texts to one another based on shared events. The data set, Headlines of War, is built on the Militarized Interstate Disputes data set and offers headlines classified by dispute status and headline pairs labeled with coreference indicators. Additionally, I introduce a model capable of accomplishing both tasks. The multi-task convolutional neural network is shown to be capable of recognizing events and event coreferences given the headlines’ texts and publication dates.
This paper presents the conflict event modelling experiment, conducted at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, particularly focusing on the limitations of the input data. This model is under evaluation as to potentially complement the Global Conflict Risk Index (GCRI), a conflict risk model supporting the design of European Union’s conflict prevention strategies. The model aims at estimating the occurrence of material conflict events, under the assumption that an increase in material conflict events goes along with a decrease in material and verbal cooperation. It adopts a Long-Short Term Memory Cell Recurrent Neural Network on country-level actor-based event datasets that indicate potential triggers to violent conflict such as demonstrations, strikes, or elections-related violence. The observed data and the outcome of the model predictions consecutively, consolidate an early warning alarm system that signals abnormal social unrest upheavals, and appears promising as an approach towards a conflict trigger model. However, event-based systems still require overcoming certain obstacles related to the quality of the input data and the event classification method.
This article introduces Hadath, a supervised protocol for coding event data from text written in Arabic. Hadath contributes to recent efforts in advancing multi-language event coding using computer-based solutions. In this application, we focus on extracting event data about the conflict in Afghanistan from 2008 to 2018 using Arabic information sources. The implementation relies first on a Machine Learning algorithm to classify news stories relevant to the Afghan conflict. Then, using Hadath, we implement the Natural Language Processing component for event coding from Arabic script. The output database contains daily geo-referenced information at the district level on who did what to whom, when and where in the Afghan conflict. The data helps to identify trends in the dynamics of violence, the provision of governance, and traditional conflict resolution in Afghanistan for different actors over time and across space.
The advent of Big Data has shifted social science research towards computational methods. The volume of data that is nowadays available has brought a radical change in traditional approaches due to the cost and effort needed for processing. Knowledge extraction from heterogeneous and ample data is not an easy task to tackle. Thus, interdisciplinary approaches are necessary, combining experts of both social and computer science. This paper aims to present a work in the context of protest analysis, which falls into the scope of Computational Social Science. More specifically, the contribution of this work is to describe a Computational Social Science methodology for Event Analysis. The presented methodology is generic in the sense that it can be applied in every event typology and moreover, it is innovative and suitable for interdisciplinary tasks as it incorporates the human-in-the-loop. Additionally, a case study is presented concerning Protest Analysis in Greece over the last two decades. The conceptual foundation lies mainly upon claims analysis, and newspaper data were used in order to map, document and discuss protests in Greece in a longitudinal perspective.
This paper summarizes our group’s efforts in the event sentence coreference identification shared task, which is organized as part of the Automated Extraction of Socio-Political Events from News (AESPEN) Workshop. Our main approach consists of three steps. We initially use a transformer based model to predict whether a pair of sentences refer to the same event or not. Later, we use these predictions as the initial scores and recalculate the pair scores by considering the relation of sentences in a pair with respect to other sentences. As the last step, final scores between these sentences are used to construct the clusters, starting with the pairs with the highest scores. Our proposed approach outperforms the baseline approach across all evaluation metrics.
Cultural institutions such as galleries, libraries, archives and museums continue to make commitments to large scale digitization of collections. An ongoing challenge is how to increase discovery and access through structured data and the semantic web. In this paper we describe a method for using computer vision algorithms that automatically detect regions of “stuff” — such as the sky, water, and roads — to produce rich and accurate structured data triples for describing the content of historic photography. We apply our method to a collection of 1610 documentary photographs produced in the 1930s and 1940 by the FSA-OWI division of the U.S. federal government. Manual verification of the extracted annotations yields an accuracy rate of 97.5%, compared to 70.7% for relations extracted from object detection and 31.5% for automatically generated captions. Our method also produces a rich set of features, providing more unique labels (1170) than either the captions (1040) or object detection (178) methods. We conclude by describing directions for a linguistically-focused ontology of region categories that can better enrich historical image data. Open source code and the extracted metadata from our corpus are made available as external resources.
Iconclass, being a a well established classification system, could benefit from interconnections with other ontologies in order to semantically enrich its content. This work presents a disambiguating and interlinking approach which is used to map Iconclass Subjects to concepts of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus. In a preliminary evaluation, the system is able to produce promising predictions, though the task is highly challenging due to conceptual and schema heterogeneity. Several algorithmic improvements for this specific interlinking task, as well as and future research directions are suggestions. The produced mappings, as well as the source code and additional information can be found at https://github.com/annabreit/taxonomy-interlinking.
The aim of this position paper is to establish an initial approach to the automatic classification of digital images about the Outsider Art style of painting. Specifically, we explore whether is it possible to classify non-traditional artistic styles by using the same features that are used for classifying traditional styles? Our research question is motivated by two facts. First, art historians state that non-traditional styles are influenced by factors “outside” of the world of art. Second, some studies have shown that several artistic styles confound certain classification techniques. Following current approaches to style prediction, this paper utilises Deep Learning methods to encode image features. Our preliminary experiments have provided motivation to think that, as is the case with traditional styles, Outsider Art can be computationally modelled with objective means by using training datasets and CNN models. Nevertheless, our results are not conclusive due to the lack of a large available dataset on Outsider Art. Therefore, at the end of the paper, we have mapped future lines of action, which include the compilation of a large dataset of Outsider Art images and the creation of an ontology of Outsider Art.
Cultural heritage data plays a pivotal role in the understanding of human history and culture. A wealth of information is buried in art-historic archives which can be extracted via digitization and analysis. This information can facilitate search and browsing, help art historians to track the provenance of artworks and enable wider semantic text exploration for digital cultural resources. However, this information is contained in images of artworks, as well as textual descriptions or annotations accompanied with the images. During the digitization of such resources, the valuable associations between the images and texts are frequently lost. In this project description, we propose an approach to retrieve the associations between images and texts for artworks from art-historic archives. To this end, we use machine learning to generate text descriptions for the extracted images on the one hand, and to detect descriptive phrases and titles of images from the text on the other hand. Finally, we use embeddings to align both, the descriptions and the images.
Semantic enrichment of historical images to build interactive AI systems for the Digital Humanities domain has recently gained significant attention. However, before implementing any semantic enrichment tool for building AI systems, it is also crucial to analyse the quality and richness of the existing datasets and understand the areas where semantic enrichment is most required. Here, we propose an approach to conducting a preliminary analysis of selected historical images from the Europeana platform using existing linked data quality assessment tools. The analysis targets food images by collecting metadata provided from curators such as Galleries, Libraries, Archives and Museums (GLAMs) and cultural aggregators such as Europeana. We identified metrics to evaluate the quality of the metadata associated with food-related images which are harvested from the Europeana platform. In this paper, we present the food-image dataset, the associated metadata and our proposed method for the assessment. The results of our assessment will be used to guide the current effort to semantically enrich the images and build high-quality metadata using Computer Vision.
ImageNet has millions of images that are labeled with English WordNet synsets. This paper investigates the extension of ImageNet to Arabic using Arabic WordNet. The objective is to discover if Arabic synsets can be found for synsets used in ImageNet. The primary finding is the identification of Arabic synsets for 1,219 of the 21,841 synsets used in ImageNet, which represents 1.1 million images. By leveraging the parent-child structure of synsets in ImageNet, this dataset is extended to 10,462 synsets (and 7.1 million images) that have an Arabic label, which is either a match or a direct hypernym, and to 17,438 synsets (and 11 million images) when a hypernym of a hypernym is included. When all hypernyms for a node are considered, an Arabic synset is found for all but four synsets. This represents the major contribution of this work: a dataset of images that have Arabic labels for 99.9% of the images in ImageNet.
Scene graph is a graph representation that explicitly represents high-level semantic knowledge of an image such as objects, attributes of objects and relationships between objects. Various tasks have been proposed for the scene graph, but the problem is that they have a limited vocabulary and biased information due to their own hypothesis. Therefore, results of each task are not generalizable and difficult to be applied to other down-stream tasks. In this paper, we propose Entity Synset Alignment(ESA), which is a method to create a general scene graph by aligning various semantic knowledge efficiently to solve this bias problem. The ESA uses a large-scale lexical database, WordNet and Intersection of Union (IoU) to align the object labels in multiple scene graphs/semantic knowledge. In experiment, the integrated scene graph is applied to the image-caption retrieval task as a down-stream task. We confirm that integrating multiple scene graphs helps to get better representations of images.
Visual Question Generation (VQG), the task of generating a question based on image contents, is an increasingly important area that combines natural language processing and computer vision. Although there are some recent works that have attempted to generate questions from images in the open domain, the task of VQG in the medical domain has not been explored so far. In this paper, we introduce an approach to generation of visual questions about radiology images called VQGR, i.e. an algorithm that is able to ask a question when shown an image. VQGR first generates new training data from the existing examples, based on contextual word embeddings and image augmentation techniques. It then uses the variational auto-encoders model to encode images into a latent space and decode natural language questions. Experimental automatic evaluations performed on the VQA-RAD dataset of clinical visual questions show that VQGR achieves good performances compared with the baseline system. The source code is available at https://github.com/sarrouti/vqgr.
Task success is the standard metric used to evaluate referential visual dialogue systems. In this paper we propose two new metrics that evaluate how each question contributes to the goal. First, we measure how effective each question is by evaluating whether the question discards objects that are not the referent. Second, we define referring questions as those that univocally identify one object in the image. We report the new metrics for human dialogues and for state of the art publicly available models on GuessWhat?!. Regarding our first metric, we find that successful dialogues do not have a higher percentage of effective questions for most models. With respect to the second metric, humans make questions at the end of the dialogue that are referring, confirming their guess before guessing. Human dialogues that use this strategy have a higher task success but models do not seem to learn it.
We propose a novel alignment mechanism to deal with procedural reasoning on a newly released multimodal QA dataset, named RecipeQA. Our model is solving the textual cloze task which is a reading comprehension on a recipe containing images and instructions. We exploit the power of attention networks, cross-modal representations, and a latent alignment space between instructions and candidate answers to solve the problem. We introduce constrained max-pooling which refines the max pooling operation on the alignment matrix to impose disjoint constraints among the outputs of the model. Our evaluation result indicates a 19% improvement over the baselines.
In 2020 The Workshop on Online Abuse and Harms (WOAH) held a satellite panel at RightsCons 2020, an international human rights conference. Our aim was to bridge the gap between human rights scholarship and Natural Language Processing (NLP) research communities in tackling online abuse. We report on the discussions that took place, and present an analysis of four key issues which emerged: Problems in tackling online abuse, Solutions, Meta concerns and the Ecosystem of content moderation and research. We argue there is a pressing need for NLP research communities to engage with human rights perspectives, and identify four key ways in which NLP research into online abuse could immediately be enhanced to create better and more ethical solutions.
Most efforts at identifying abusive speech online rely on public corpora that have been scraped from websites using keyword-based queries or released by site or platform owners for research purposes. These are typically labeled by crowd-sourced annotators – not the targets of the abuse themselves. While this method of data collection supports fast development of machine learning classifiers, the models built on them often fail in the context of real-world harassment and abuse, which contain nuances less easily identified by non-targets. Here, we present a mixed-methods approach to create classifiers for abuse and harassment which leverages direct engagement with the target group in order to achieve high quality and ecological validity of data sets and labels, and to generate deeper insights into the key tactics of bad actors. We use women journalists’ experience on Twitter as an initial community of focus. We identify several structural mechanisms of abuse that we believe will generalize to other target communities.
Distinguishing hate speech from non-hate offensive language is challenging, as hate speech not always includes offensive slurs and offensive language not always express hate. Here, four deep learners based on the Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT), with either general or domain-specific language models, were tested against two datasets containing tweets labelled as either ‘Hateful’, ‘Normal’ or ‘Offensive’. The results indicate that the attention-based models profoundly confuse hate speech with offensive and normal language. However, the pre-trained models outperform state-of-the-art results in terms of accurately predicting the hateful instances.
Incivility is a problem on social media, and it comes in many forms (name-calling, vulgarity, threats, etc.) and domains (microblog posts, online news comments, Wikipedia edits, etc.). Training machine learning models to detect such incivility must handle the multi-label and multi-domain nature of the problem. We present a BERT-based model for incivility detection and propose several approaches for training it for multi-label and multi-domain datasets. We find that individual binary classifiers outperform a joint multi-label classifier, and that simply combining multiple domains of training data outperforms other recently-proposed fine tuning strategies. We also establish new state-of-the-art performance on several incivility detection datasets.
The detection of abusive or offensive remarks in social texts has received significant attention in research. In several related shared tasks, BERT has been shown to be the state-of-the-art. In this paper, we propose to utilize lexical features derived from a hate lexicon towards improving the performance of BERT in such tasks. We explore different ways to utilize the lexical features in the form of lexicon-based encodings at the sentence level or embeddings at the word level. We provide an extensive dataset evaluation that addresses in-domain as well as cross-domain detection of abusive content to render a complete picture. Our results indicate that our proposed models combining BERT with lexical features help improve over a baseline BERT model in many of our in-domain and cross-domain experiments.
Automated detection of abusive language online has become imperative. Current sequential models (LSTM) do not work well for long and complex sentences while bi-transformer models (BERT) are not computationally efficient for the task. We show that classifiers based on syntactic structure of the text, dependency graphical convolutional networks (DepGCNs) can achieve state-of-the-art performance on abusive language datasets. The overall performance is at par with of strong baselines such as fine-tuned BERT. Further, our GCN-based approach is much more efficient than BERT at inference time making it suitable for real-time detection.
One challenge that social media platforms are facing nowadays is hate speech. Hence, automatic hate speech detection has been increasingly researched in recent years - in particular with the rise of deep learning. A problem of these models is their vulnerability to undesirable bias in training data. We investigate the impact of political bias on hate speech classification by constructing three politically-biased data sets (left-wing, right-wing, politically neutral) and compare the performance of classifiers trained on them. We show that (1) political bias negatively impairs the performance of hate speech classifiers and (2) an explainable machine learning model can help to visualize such bias within the training data. The results show that political bias in training data has an impact on hate speech classification and can become a serious issue.
Toxicity has become a grave problem for many online communities, and has been growing across many languages, including Russian. Hate speech creates an environment of intimidation, discrimination, and may even incite some real-world violence. Both researchers and social platforms have been focused on developing models to detect toxicity in online communication for a while now. A common problem of these models is the presence of bias towards some words (e.g. woman, black, jew or женщина, черный, еврей) that are not toxic, but serve as triggers for the classifier due to model caveats. In this paper, we describe our efforts towards classifying hate speech in Russian, and propose simple techniques of reducing unintended bias, such as generating training data with language models using terms and words related to protected identities as context and applying word dropout to such words.
Abusive language detection is becoming increasingly important, but we still understand little about the biases in our datasets for abusive language detection, and how these biases affect the quality of abusive language detection. In the work reported here, we reproduce the investigation of Wiegand et al. (2019) to determine differences between different sampling strategies. They compared boosted random sampling, where abusive posts are upsampled, and biased topic sampling, which focuses on topics that are known to cause abusive language. Instead of comparing individual datasets created using these sampling strategies, we use the sampling strategies on a single, large dataset, thus eliminating the textual source of the dataset as a potential confounding factor. We show that differences in the textual source can have more effect than the chosen sampling strategy.
In recent years, abusive behavior has become a serious issue in online social networks. In this paper, we present a new corpus for the task of abusive language detection that is collected from a semi-anonymous online platform, and unlike the majority of other available resources, is not created based on a specific list of bad words. We also develop computational models to incorporate emotions into textual cues to improve aggression identification. We evaluate our proposed methods on a set of corpora related to the task and show promising results with respect to abusive language detection.
Cyberbullying is a prevalent social problem that inflicts detrimental consequences to the health and safety of victims such as psychological distress, anti-social behaviour, and suicide. The automation of cyberbullying detection is a recent but widely researched problem, with current research having a strong focus on a binary classification of bullying versus non-bullying. This paper proposes a novel approach to enhancing cyberbullying detection through role modeling. We utilise a dataset from ASKfm to perform multi-class classification to detect participant roles (e.g. victim, harasser). Our preliminary results demonstrate promising performance including 0.83 and 0.76 of F1-score for cyberbullying and role classification respectively, outperforming baselines.
Incivility is not only prevalent on online social media platforms, but also has concrete effects on individual users, online groups, and the platforms themselves. Given the prevalence and effects of online incivility, and the challenges involved in human-based incivility detection, it is urgent to develop validated and versatile automatic approaches to identifying uncivil posts and comments. This project advances both a neural, BERT-based classifier as well as a logistic regression classifier to identify uncivil comments. The classifier is trained on a dataset of Reddit posts, which are annotated for incivility, and further expanded using a combination of labeled data from Reddit and Twitter. Our best performing model achieves an F1 of 0.802 on our Reddit test set. The final model is not only applicable across social media platforms and their distinct data structures, but also computationally versatile, and - as such - ready to be used on vast volumes of online data. All trained models and annotated data are made available to the research community.
Hateful rhetoric is plaguing online discourse, fostering extreme societal movements and possibly giving rise to real-world violence. A potential solution to this growing global problem is citizen-generated counter speech where citizens actively engage with hate speech to restore civil non-polarized discourse. However, its actual effectiveness in curbing the spread of hatred is unknown and hard to quantify. One major obstacle to researching this question is a lack of large labeled data sets for training automated classifiers to identify counter speech. Here we use a unique situation in Germany where self-labeling groups engaged in organized online hate and counter speech. We use an ensemble learning algorithm which pairs a variety of paragraph embeddings with regularized logistic regression functions to classify both hate and counter speech in a corpus of millions of relevant tweets from these two groups. Our pipeline achieves macro F1 scores on out of sample balanced test sets ranging from 0.76 to 0.97—accuracy in line and even exceeding the state of the art. We then use the classifier to discover hate and counter speech in more than 135,000 fully-resolved Twitter conversations occurring from 2013 to 2018 and study their frequency and interaction. Altogether, our results highlight the potential of automated methods to evaluate the impact of coordinated counter speech in stabilizing conversations on social media.
As online platforms become central to our democracies, the problem of toxic content threatens the free flow of information and the enjoyment of fundamental rights. But effective policy response to toxic content must grasp the idiosyncrasies and interconnectedness of content moderation across a fragmented online landscape. This report urges regulators and legislators to consider a range of platforms and moderation approaches in the regulation. In particular, it calls for a holistic, process-oriented regulatory approach that accounts for actors beyond the handful of dominant platforms that currently shape public debate.
We present a new dataset of approximately 44000 comments labeled by crowdworkers. Each comment is labelled as either ‘healthy’ or ‘unhealthy’, in addition to binary labels for the presence of six potentially ‘unhealthy’ sub-attributes: (1) hostile; (2) antagonistic, insulting, provocative or trolling; (3) dismissive; (4) condescending or patronising; (5) sarcastic; and/or (6) an unfair generalisation. Each label also has an associated confidence score. We argue that there is a need for datasets which enable research based on a broad notion of ‘unhealthy online conversation’. We build this typology to encompass a substantial proportion of the individual comments which contribute to unhealthy online conversation. For some of these attributes, this is the first publicly available dataset of this scale. We explore the quality of the dataset, present some summary statistics and initial models to illustrate the utility of this data, and highlight limitations and directions for further research.
The ability to recognize harmful content within online communities has come into focus for researchers, engineers and policy makers seeking to protect users from abuse. While the number of datasets aiming to capture forms of abuse has grown in recent years, the community has not standardized around how various harmful behaviors are defined, creating challenges for reliable moderation, modeling and evaluation. As a step towards attaining shared understanding of how online abuse may be modeled, we synthesize the most common types of abuse described by industry, policy, community and health experts into a unified typology of harmful content, with detailed criteria and exceptions for each type of abuse.
Abusive language classifiers have been shown to exhibit bias against women and racial minorities. Since these models are trained on data that is collected using keywords, they tend to exhibit a high sensitivity towards pejoratives. As a result, comments written by victims of abuse are frequently labelled as hateful, even if they discuss or reclaim slurs. Any attempt to address bias in keyword-based corpora requires a better understanding of pejorative language, as well as an equitable representation of targeted users in data collection. We make two main contributions to this end. First, we provide an annotation guide that outlines 4 main categories of online slur usage, which we further divide into a total of 12 sub-categories. Second, we present a publicly available corpus based on our taxonomy, with 39.8k human annotated comments extracted from Reddit. This corpus was annotated by a diverse cohort of coders, with Shannon equitability indices of 0.90, 0.92, and 0.87 across sexuality, ethnicity, and gender. Taken together, our taxonomy and corpus allow researchers to evaluate classifiers on a wider range of speech containing slurs.
Recently, a few studies have discussed the limitations of datasets collected for the task of detecting hate speech from different viewpoints. We intend to contribute to the conversation by providing a consolidated overview of these issues pertaining to the data that debilitate research in this area. Specifically, we discuss how the varying pre-processing steps and the format for making data publicly available result in highly varying datasets that make an objective comparison between studies difficult and unfair. There is currently no study (to the best of our knowledge) focused on comparing the attributes of existing datasets for hate speech detection, outlining their limitations and recommending approaches for future research. This work intends to fill that gap and become the one-stop shop for information regarding hate speech datasets.
During COVID-19 concerns have heightened about the spread of aggressive and hateful language online, especially hostility directed against East Asia and East Asian people. We report on a new dataset and the creation of a machine learning classifier that categorizes social media posts from Twitter into four classes: Hostility against East Asia, Criticism of East Asia, Meta-discussions of East Asian prejudice, and a neutral class. The classifier achieves a macro-F1 score of 0.83. We then conduct an in-depth ground-up error analysis and show that the model struggles with edge cases and ambiguous content. We provide the 20,000 tweet training dataset (annotated by experienced analysts), which also contains several secondary categories and additional flags. We also provide the 40,000 original annotations (before adjudication), the full codebook, annotations for COVID-19 relevance and East Asian relevance and stance for 1,000 hashtags, and the final model.
NLP research has attained high performances in abusive language detection as a supervised classification task. While in research settings, training and test datasets are usually obtained from similar data samples, in practice systems are often applied on data that are different from the training set in topic and class distributions. Also, the ambiguity in class definitions inherited in this task aggravates the discrepancies between source and target datasets. We explore the topic bias and the task formulation bias in cross-dataset generalization. We show that the benign examples in the Wikipedia Detox dataset are biased towards platform-specific topics. We identify these examples using unsupervised topic modeling and manual inspection of topics’ keywords. Removing these topics increases cross-dataset generalization, without reducing in-domain classification performance. For a robust dataset design, we suggest applying inexpensive unsupervised methods to inspect the collected data and downsize the non-generalizable content before manually annotating for class labels.
Machine learning is recently used to detect hate speech and other forms of abusive language in online platforms. However, a notable weakness of machine learning models is their vulnerability to bias, which can impair their performance and fairness. One type is annotator bias caused by the subjective perception of the annotators. In this work, we investigate annotator bias using classification models trained on data from demographically distinct annotator groups. To do so, we sample balanced subsets of data that are labeled by demographically distinct annotators. We then train classifiers on these subsets, analyze their performances on similarly grouped test sets, and compare them statistically. Our findings show that the proposed approach successfully identifies bias and that demographic features, such as first language, age, and education, correlate with significant performance differences.
A challenge that many online platforms face is hate speech or any other form of online abuse. To cope with this, hate speech detection systems are developed based on machine learning to reduce manual work for monitoring these platforms. Unfortunately, machine learning is vulnerable to unintended bias in training data, which could have severe consequences, such as a decrease in classification performance or unfair behavior (e.g., discriminating minorities). In the scope of this study, we want to investigate annotator bias — a form of bias that annotators cause due to different knowledge in regards to the task and their subjective perception. Our goal is to identify annotation bias based on similarities in the annotation behavior from annotators. To do so, we build a graph based on the annotations from the different annotators, apply a community detection algorithm to group the annotators, and train for each group classifiers whose performances we compare. By doing so, we are able to identify annotator bias within a data set. The proposed method and collected insights can contribute to developing fairer and more reliable hate speech classification models.
Prior work in Argument Mining frequently alludes to its potential applications in automatic debating systems. Despite this focus, almost no datasets or models exist which apply natural language processing techniques to problems found within competitive formal debate. To remedy this, we present the DebateSum dataset. DebateSum consists of 187,386 unique pieces of evidence with corresponding argument and extractive summaries. DebateSum was made using data compiled by competitors within the National Speech and Debate Association over a 7year period. We train several transformer summarization models to benchmark summarization performance on DebateSum. We also introduce a set of fasttext word-vectors trained on DebateSum called debate2vec. Finally, we present a search engine for this dataset which is utilized extensively by members of the National Speech and Debate Association today. The DebateSum search engine is available to the public here: http://www.debate.cards
One of the major challenges currently facing the field of argumentation mining is the lack of consensus on how to analyse argumentative user-generated texts such as online comments. The theoretical motivations underlying the annotation guidelines used to generate labelled corpora rarely include motivation for the use of a particular theoretical basis. This pilot study reports on the annotation of a corpus of 100 Dutch user comments made in response to politically-themed news articles on Facebook. The annotation covers topic and aspect labelling, stance labelling, argumentativeness detection and claim identification. Our IAA study reports substantial agreement scores for argumentativeness detection (0.76 Fleiss’ kappa) and moderate agreement for claim labelling (0.45 Fleiss’ kappa). We provide a clear justification of the theories and definitions underlying the design of our guidelines. Our analysis of the annotations signal the importance of adjusting our guidelines to include allowances for missing context information and defining the concept of argumentativeness in connection with stance. Our annotated corpus and associated guidelines are made publicly available.
Debate portals and similar web platforms constitute one of the main text sources in computational argumentation research and its applications. While the corpora built upon these sources are rich of argumentatively relevant content and structure, they also include text that is irrelevant, or even detrimental, to their purpose. In this paper, we present a precision-oriented approach to detecting such irrelevant text in a semi-supervised way. Given a few seed examples, the approach automatically learns basic lexical patterns of relevance and irrelevance and then incrementally bootstraps new patterns from sentences matching the patterns. In the existing args.me corpus with 400k argumentative texts, our approach detects almost 87k irrelevant sentences, at a precision of 0.97 according to manual evaluation. With low effort, the approach can be adapted to other web argument corpora, providing a generic way to improve corpus quality.
Sentiment and stance are two important concepts for the analysis of arguments. We propose to add another perspective to the analysis, namely moral sentiment. We argue that moral values are crucial for ideological debates and can thus add useful information for argument mining. In the paper, we present different models for automatically predicting moral sentiment in debates and evaluate them on a manually annotated testset. We then apply our models to investigate how moral values in arguments relate to argument quality, stance and audience reactions.
Computational Argumentation in general and Argument Mining in particular are important research fields. In previous works, many of the challenges to automatically extract and to some degree reason over natural language arguments were addressed. The tools to extract argument units are increasingly available and further open problems can be addressed. In this work, we are presenting the task of Aspect-Based Argument Mining (ABAM), with the essential subtasks of Aspect Term Extraction (ATE) and Nested Segmentation (NS). At the first instance, we create and release an annotated corpus with aspect information on the token-level. We consider aspects as the main point(s) argument units are addressing. This information is important for further downstream tasks such as argument ranking, argument summarization and generation, as well as the search for counter-arguments on the aspect-level. We present several experiments using state-of-the-art supervised architectures and demonstrate their performance for both of the subtasks. The annotated benchmark is available at https://github.com/trtm/ABAM.
Notwithstanding the increasing role Twitter plays in modern political and social discourse, resources built for conducting argument mining on tweets remain limited. In this paper, we present a new corpus of German tweets annotated for argument components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first corpus containing not only annotated full tweets but also argumentative spans within tweets. We further report first promising results using supervised classification (F1: 0.82) and sequence labeling (F1: 0.72) approaches.
Today’s news volume makes it impractical for readers to get a diverse and comprehensive view of published articles written from opposing viewpoints. We introduce a transformer-based news aggregation system, composed of topic modeling, semantic clustering, claim extraction, and textual entailment that identifies viewpoints presented in articles within a semantic cluster and classifies them into positive, neutral and negative entailments. Our novel embedded topic model using BERT-based embeddings outperforms baseline topic modeling algorithms by an 11% relative improvement. We compare recent semantic similarity models in the context of news aggregation, evaluate transformer-based models for claim extraction on news data, and demonstrate the use of textual entailment models for diverse viewpoint identification.
In this paper, we publicly release an annotated corpus of 42 decisions of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). The corpus is annotated in terms of three types of clauses useful in argument mining: premise, conclusion, and non-argument parts of the text. Furthermore, relationships among the premises and conclusions are mapped. We present baselines for three tasks that lead from unstructured texts to structured arguments. The tasks are argument clause recognition, clause relation prediction, and premise/conclusion recognition. Despite a straightforward application of the bidirectional encoders from Transformers (BERT), we obtained very promising results F1 0.765 on argument recognition, 0.511 on relation prediction, and 0.859/0.628 on premise/conclusion recognition). The results suggest the usefulness of pre-trained language models based on deep neural network architectures in argument mining. Because of the simplicity of the baselines, there is ample space for improvement in future work based on the released corpus.
Social bias in language - towards genders, ethnicities, ages, and other social groups - poses a problem with ethical impact for many NLP applications. Recent research has shown that machine learning models trained on respective data may not only adopt, but even amplify the bias. So far, however, little attention has been paid to bias in computational argumentation. In this paper, we study the existence of social biases in large English debate portals. In particular, we train word embedding models on portal-specific corpora and systematically evaluate their bias using WEAT, an existing metric to measure bias in word embeddings. In a word co-occurrence analysis, we then investigate causes of bias. The results suggest that all tested debate corpora contain unbalanced and biased data, mostly in favor of male people with European-American names. Our empirical insights contribute towards an understanding of bias in argumentative data sources.
Argumentation in an experimental life science paper consists of a main claim being supported with reasoned argumentative steps based on the data garnered from the experiments that were carried out. In this paper we report on an investigation of the large scale argumentation structure found when examining five biochemistry journal publications. One outcome of this investigation of biochemistry articles suggests that argumentation schemes originally designed for genetic research articles may transfer to experimental biomedical literature in general. Our use of these argumentation schemes shows that claims depend not only on experimental data but also on other claims. The tendency for claims to use other claims as their supporting evidence in addition to the experimental data led to two novel models that have provided a better understanding of the large scale argumentation structure of a complete biochemistry paper. First, the claim graph displays the claims within a paper, their interactions, and their evidence. Second, another aspect of this argumentation network is further illustrated by the Model of Informational Hierarchy (MIH) which visualizes at a meta-level the flow of reasoning provided by the authors of the paper and also connects the main claim to the paper’s title. Together, these models, which have been produced by a manual examination of the biochemistry articles, would be likely candidates for a computational method that analyzes the large scale argumentation structure.
This paper presents a small study of annotating argumentation in Swedish social media. Annotators were asked to annotate spans of argumentation in 9 threads from two discussion forums. At the post level, Cohen’s k and Krippendorff’s alpha 0.48 was achieved. When manually inspecting the annotations the annotators seemed to agree when conditions in the guidelines were explicitly met, but implicit argumentation and opinions, resulting in annotators having to interpret what’s missing in the text, caused disagreements.
Using the appropriate style is key for writing a high-quality text. Reliable computational style analysis is hence essential for the automation of nearly all kinds of text synthesis tasks. Research on style analysis focuses on recognition problems such as authorship identification; the respective technology (e.g., n-gram distribution divergence quantification) showed to be effective for discrimination, but inappropriate for text synthesis since the “essence of a style” remains implicit. This paper contributes right here: it studies the automatic analysis of style at the knowledge-level based on rhetorical devices. To this end, we developed and evaluated a grammar-based approach for identifying 26 syntax-based devices. Then, we employed that approach to distinguish various patterns of style in selected sets of argumentative articles and presidential debates. The patterns reveal several insights into the style used there, while being adequate for integration in text synthesis systems.
Computational models of argument quality (AQ) have focused primarily on assessing the overall quality or just one specific characteristic of an argument, such as its convincingness or its clarity. However, previous work has claimed that assessment based on theoretical dimensions of argumentation could benefit writers, but developing such models has been limited by the lack of annotated data. In this work, we describe GAQCorpus, the first large, domain-diverse annotated corpus of theory-based AQ. We discuss how we designed the annotation task to reliably collect a large number of judgments with crowdsourcing, formulating theory-based guidelines that helped make subjective judgments of AQ more objective. We demonstrate how to identify arguments and adapt the annotation task for three diverse domains. Our work will inform research on theory-based argumentation annotation and enable the creation of more diverse corpora to support computational AQ assessment.
Simultaneous Translation is a great challenge in which translation starts before the source sentence finished. Most studies take transcription as input and focus on balancing translation quality and latency for each sentence. However, most ASR systems can not provide accurate sentence boundaries in realtime. Thus it is a key problem to segment sentences for the word streaming before translation. In this paper, we propose a novel method for sentence boundary detection that takes it as a multi-class classification task under the end-to-end pre-training framework. Experiments show significant improvements both in terms of translation quality and latency.
End-to-End speech translation usually leverages audio-to-text parallel data to train an available speech translation model which has shown impressive results on various speech translation tasks. Due to the artificial cost of collecting audio-to-text parallel data, the speech translation is a natural low-resource translation scenario, which greatly hinders its improvement. In this paper, we proposed a new adversarial training method to leverage target monolingual data to relieve the low-resource shortcoming of speech translation. In our method, the existing speech translation model is considered as a Generator to gain a target language output, and another neural Discriminator is used to guide the distinction between outputs of speech translation model and true target monolingual sentences. Experimental results on the CCMT 2019-BSTC dataset speech translation task demonstrate that the proposed methods can significantly improve the performance of the End-to-End speech translation system.
In many practical applications, neural machine translation systems have to deal with the input from automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems which may contain a certain number of errors. This leads to two problems which degrade translation performance. One is the discrepancy between the training and testing data and the other is the translation error caused by the input errors may ruin the whole translation. In this paper, we propose a method to handle the two problems so as to generate robust translation to ASR errors. First, we simulate ASR errors in the training data so that the data distribution in the training and test is consistent. Second, we focus on ASR errors on homophone words and words with similar pronunciation and make use of their pronunciation information to help the translation model to recover from the input errors. Experiments on two Chinese-English data sets show that our method is more robust to input errors and can outperform the strong Transformer baseline significantly.
Autoregressive neural machine translation (NMT) models are often used to teach non-autoregressive models via knowledge distillation. However, there are few studies on improving the quality of autoregressive translation (AT) using non-autoregressive translation (NAT). In this work, we propose a novel Encoder-NAD-AD framework for NMT, aiming at boosting AT with global information produced by NAT model. Specifically, under the semantic guidance of source-side context captured by the encoder, the non-autoregressive decoder (NAD) first learns to generate target-side hidden state sequence in parallel. Then the autoregressive decoder (AD) performs translation from left to right, conditioned on source-side and target-side hidden states. Since AD has global information generated by low-latency NAD, it is more likely to produce a better translation with less time delay. Experiments on WMT14 En-De, WMT16 En-Ro, and IWSLT14 De-En translation tasks demonstrate that our framework achieves significant improvements with only 8% speed degeneration over the autoregressive NMT.
Recently, document-level neural machine translation (NMT) has become a hot topic in the community of machine translation. Despite its success, most of existing studies ignored the discourse structure information of the input document to be translated, which has shown effective in other tasks. In this paper, we propose to improve document-level NMT with the aid of discourse structure information. Our encoder is based on a hierarchical attention network (HAN) (Miculicich et al., 2018). Specifically, we first parse the input document to obtain its discourse structure. Then, we introduce a Transformer-based path encoder to embed the discourse structure information of each word. Finally, we combine the discourse structure information with the word embedding before it is fed into the encoder. Experimental results on the English-to-German dataset show that our model can significantly outperform both Transformer and Transformer+HAN.
This paper describes our machine translation systems for the streaming Chinese-to-English translation task of AutoSimTrans 2020. We present a sentence length based method and a sentence boundary detection model based method for the streaming input segmentation. Experimental results of the transcription and the ASR output translation on the development data sets show that the translation system with the detection model based method outperforms the one with the length based method in BLEU score by 1.19 and 0.99 respectively under similar or better latency.
Readability assessment aims to automatically classify text by the level appropriate for learning readers. Traditional approaches to this task utilize a variety of linguistically motivated features paired with simple machine learning models. More recent methods have improved performance by discarding these features and utilizing deep learning models. However, it is unknown whether augmenting deep learning models with linguistically motivated features would improve performance further. This paper combines these two approaches with the goal of improving overall model performance and addressing this question. Evaluating on two large readability corpora, we find that, given sufficient training data, augmenting deep learning models with linguistically motivated features does not improve state-of-the-art performance. Our results provide preliminary evidence for the hypothesis that the state-of-the-art deep learning models represent linguistic features of the text related to readability. Future research on the nature of representations formed in these models can shed light on the learned features and their relations to linguistically motivated ones hypothesized in traditional approaches.
The effect of noisy labels on the performance of NLP systems has been studied extensively for system training. In this paper, we focus on the effect that noisy labels have on system evaluation. Using automated scoring as an example, we demonstrate that the quality of human ratings used for system evaluation have a substantial impact on traditional performance metrics, making it impossible to compare system evaluations on labels with different quality. We propose that a new metric, PRMSE, developed within the educational measurement community, can help address this issue, and provide practical guidelines on using PRMSE.
Automated Essay Scoring (AES) can be used to automatically generate holistic scores with reliability comparable to human scoring. In addition, AES systems can provide formative feedback to learners, typically at the essay level. In contrast, we are interested in providing feedback specialized to the content of the essay, and specifically for the content areas required by the rubric. A key objective is that the feedback should be localized alongside the relevant essay text. An important step in this process is determining where in the essay the rubric designated points and topics are discussed. A natural approach to this task is to train a classifier using manually annotated data; however, collecting such data is extremely resource intensive. Instead, we propose a method to predict these annotation spans without requiring any labeled annotation data. Our approach is to consider AES as a Multiple Instance Learning (MIL) task. We show that such models can both predict content scores and localize content by leveraging their sentence-level score predictions. This capability arises despite never having access to annotation training data. Implications are discussed for improving formative feedback and explainable AES models.
Increased demand to learn English for business and education has led to growing interest in automatic spoken language assessment and teaching systems. With this shift to automated approaches it is important that systems reliably assess all aspects of a candidate’s responses. This paper examines one form of spoken language assessment; whether the response from the candidate is relevant to the prompt provided. This will be referred to as off-topic spoken response detection. Two forms of previously proposed approaches are examined in this work: the hierarchical attention-based topic model (HATM); and the similarity grid model (SGM). The work focuses on the scenario when the prompt, and associated responses, have not been seen in the training data, enabling the system to be applied to new test scripts without the need to collect data or retrain the model. To improve the performance of the systems for unseen prompts, data augmentation based on easy data augmentation (EDA) and translation based approaches are applied. Additionally for the HATM, a form of prompt dropout is described. The systems were evaluated on both seen and unseen prompts from Linguaskill Business and General English tests. For unseen data the performance of the HATM was improved using data augmentation, in contrast to the SGM where no gains were obtained. The two approaches were found to be complementary to one another, yielding a combined F0.5 score of 0.814 for off-topic response detection where the prompts have not been seen in training.
One-to-one tutoring is often an effective means to help students learn, and recent experiments with neural conversation systems are promising. However, large open datasets of tutoring conversations are lacking. To remedy this, we propose a novel asynchronous method for collecting tutoring dialogue via crowdworkers that is both amenable to the needs of deep learning algorithms and reflective of pedagogical concerns. In this approach, extended conversations are obtained between crowdworkers role-playing as both students and tutors. The CIMA collection, which we make publicly available, is novel in that students are exposed to overlapping grounded concepts between exercises and multiple relevant tutoring responses are collected for the same input. CIMA contains several compelling properties from an educational perspective: student role-players complete exercises in fewer turns during the course of the conversation and tutor players adopt strategies that conform with some educational conversational norms, such as providing hints versus asking questions in appropriate contexts. The dataset enables a model to be trained to generate the next tutoring utterance in a conversation, conditioned on a provided action strategy.
In this paper we employ a novel approach to advancing our understanding of the development of writing in English and German children across school grades using classification tasks. The data used come from two recently compiled corpora: The English data come from the the GiC corpus (983 school children in second-, sixth-, ninth- and eleventh-grade) and the German data are from the FD-LEX corpus (930 school children in fifth- and ninth-grade). The key to this paper is the combined use of what we refer to as ‘complexity contours’, i.e. series of measurements that capture the progression of linguistic complexity within a text, and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) classifiers that adequately capture the sequential information in those contours. Our experiments demonstrate that RNN classifiers trained on complexity contours achieve higher classification accuracy than one trained on text-average complexity scores. In a second step, we determine the relative importance of the features from four distinct categories through a Sensitivity-Based Pruning approach.
Automated writing evaluation systems can improve students’ writing insofar as students attend to the feedback provided and revise their essay drafts in ways aligned with such feedback. Existing research on revision of argumentative writing in such systems, however, has focused on the types of revisions students make (e.g., surface vs. content) rather than the extent to which revisions actually respond to the feedback provided and improve the essay. We introduce an annotation scheme to capture the nature of sentence-level revisions of evidence use and reasoning (the ‘RER’ scheme) and apply it to 5th- and 6th-grade students’ argumentative essays. We show that reliable manual annotation can be achieved and that revision annotations correlate with a holistic assessment of essay improvement in line with the feedback provided. Furthermore, we explore the feasibility of automatically classifying revisions according to our scheme.
Essay traits are attributes of an essay that can help explain how well written (or badly written) the essay is. Examples of traits include Content, Organization, Language, Sentence Fluency, Word Choice, etc. A lot of research in the last decade has dealt with automatic holistic essay scoring - where a machine rates an essay and gives a score for the essay. However, writers need feedback, especially if they want to improve their writing - which is why trait-scoring is important. In this paper, we show how a deep-learning based system can outperform feature-based machine learning systems, as well as a string kernel system in scoring essay traits.
In this paper we present an NLP-based approach for tracking the evolution of written language competence in L2 Spanish learners using a wide range of linguistic features automatically extracted from students’ written productions. Beyond reporting classification results for different scenarios, we explore the connection between the most predictive features and the teaching curriculum, finding that our set of linguistic features often reflect the explicit instructions that students receive during each course.
We consider the problem of automatically suggesting distractors for multiple-choice cloze questions designed for second-language learners. We describe the creation of a dataset including collecting manual annotations for distractor selection. We assess the relationship between the choices of the annotators and features based on distractors and the correct answers, both with and without the surrounding passage context in the cloze questions. Simple features of the distractor and correct answer correlate with the annotations, though we find substantial benefit to additionally using large-scale pretrained models to measure the fit of the distractor in the context. Based on these analyses, we propose and train models to automatically select distractors, and measure the importance of model components quantitatively.
In undergraduate theses, a good methodology section should describe the series of steps that were followed in performing the research. To assist students in this task, we develop machine-learning models and an app that uses them to provide feedback while students write. We construct an annotated corpus that identifies sentences representing methodological steps and labels when a methodology contains a logical sequence of such steps. We train machine-learning models based on language modeling and lexical features that can identify sentences representing methodological steps with 0.939 f-measure, and identify methodology sections containing a logical sequence of steps with an accuracy of 87%. We incorporate these models into a Microsoft Office Add-in, and show that students who improved their methodologies according to the model feedback received better grades on their methodologies.
Multilingual corpora are difficult to compile and a classroom setting adds pedagogy to the mix of factors which make this data so rich and problematic to classify. In this paper, we set out methodological considerations of using automated speech recognition to build a corpus of teacher speech in an Indonesian language classroom. Our preliminary results (64% word error rate) suggest these tools have the potential to speed data collection in this context. We provide practical examples of our data structure, details of our piloted computer-assisted processes, and fine-grained error analysis. Our study is informed and directed by genuine research questions and discussion in both the education and computational linguistics fields. We highlight some of the benefits and risks of using these emerging technologies to analyze the complex work of language teachers and in education more generally.
With the widespread adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), science teachers and online learning environments face the challenge of evaluating students’ integration of different dimensions of science learning. Recent advances in representation learning in natural language processing have proven effective across many natural language processing tasks, but a rigorous evaluation of the relative merits of these methods for scoring complex constructed response formative assessments has not previously been carried out. We present a detailed empirical investigation of feature-based, recurrent neural network, and pre-trained transformer models on scoring content in real-world formative assessment data. We demonstrate that recent neural methods can rival or exceed the performance of feature-based methods. We also provide evidence that different classes of neural models take advantage of different learning cues, and pre-trained transformer models may be more robust to spurious, dataset-specific learning cues, better reflecting scoring rubrics.
We present a computational exploration of argument critique writing by young students. Middle school students were asked to criticize an argument presented in the prompt, focusing on identifying and explaining the reasoning flaws. This task resembles an established college-level argument critique task. Lexical and discourse features that utilize detailed domain knowledge to identify critiques exist for the college task but do not perform well on the young students’ data. Instead, transformer-based architecture (e.g., BERT) fine-tuned on a large corpus of critique essays from the college task performs much better (over 20% improvement in F1 score). Analysis of the performance of various configurations of the system suggests that while children’s writing does not exhibit the standard discourse structure of an argumentative essay, it does share basic local sequential structures with the more mature writers.
Most natural language processing research now recommends large Transformer-based models with fine-tuning for supervised classification tasks; older strategies like bag-of-words features and linear models have fallen out of favor. Here we investigate whether, in automated essay scoring (AES) research, deep neural models are an appropriate technological choice. We find that fine-tuning BERT produces similar performance to classical models at significant additional cost. We argue that while state-of-the-art strategies do match existing best results, they come with opportunity costs in computational resources. We conclude with a review of promising areas for research on student essays where the unique characteristics of Transformers may provide benefits over classical methods to justify the costs.
In this paper, we present a simple and efficient GEC sequence tagger using a Transformer encoder. Our system is pre-trained on synthetic data and then fine-tuned in two stages: first on errorful corpora, and second on a combination of errorful and error-free parallel corpora. We design custom token-level transformations to map input tokens to target corrections. Our best single-model/ensemble GEC tagger achieves an F_0.5 of 65.3/66.5 on CONLL-2014 (test) and F_0.5 of 72.4/73.6 on BEA-2019 (test). Its inference speed is up to 10 times as fast as a Transformer-based seq2seq GEC system.
Complex Word Identification (CWI) is a task for the identification of words that are challenging for second-language learners to read. Even though the use of neural classifiers is now common in CWI, the interpretation of their parameters remains difficult. This paper analyzes neural CWI classifiers and shows that some of their parameters can be interpreted as vocabulary size. We present a novel formalization of vocabulary size measurement methods that are practiced in the applied linguistics field as a kind of neural classifier. We also contribute to building a novel dataset for validating vocabulary testing and readability via crowdsourcing.
Many clinical assessment instruments used to diagnose language impairments in children include a task in which the subject must formulate a sentence to describe an image using a specific target word. Because producing sentences in this way requires the speaker to integrate syntactic and semantic knowledge in a complex manner, responses are typically evaluated on several different dimensions of appropriateness yielding a single composite score for each response. In this paper, we present a dataset consisting of non-clinically elicited responses for three related sentence formulation tasks, and we propose an approach for automatically evaluating their appropriateness. We use neural machine translation to generate correct-incorrect sentence pairs in order to create synthetic data to increase the amount and diversity of training data for our scoring model. Our scoring model uses transfer learning to facilitate automatic sentence appropriateness evaluation. We further compare custom word embeddings with pre-trained contextualized embeddings serving as features for our scoring model. We find that transfer learning improves scoring accuracy, particularly when using pretrained contextualized embeddings.
The tasks of automatically scoring either textual or algebraic responses to mathematical questions have both been well-studied, albeit separately. In this paper we propose a method for automatically scoring responses that contain both text and algebraic expressions. Our method not only achieves high agreement with human raters, but also links explicitly to the scoring rubric – essentially providing explainable models and a way to potentially provide feedback to students in the future.
This paper investigates whether transfer learning can improve the prediction of the difficulty and response time parameters for 18,000 multiple-choice questions from a high-stakes medical exam. The type the signal that best predicts difficulty and response time is also explored, both in terms of representation abstraction and item component used as input (e.g., whole item, answer options only, etc.). The results indicate that, for our sample, transfer learning can improve the prediction of item difficulty when response time is used as an auxiliary task but not the other way around. In addition, difficulty was best predicted using signal from the item stem (the description of the clinical case), while all parts of the item were important for predicting the response time.
Grammatical Error Correction (GEC) is concerned with correcting grammatical errors in written text. Current GEC systems, namely those leveraging statistical and neural machine translation, require large quantities of annotated training data, which can be expensive or impractical to obtain. This research compares techniques for generating synthetic data utilized by the two highest scoring submissions to the restricted and low-resource tracks in the BEA-2019 Shared Task on Grammatical Error Correction.
Gender bias in biomedical research can have an adverse impact on the health of real people. For example, there is evidence that heart disease-related funded research generally focuses on men. Health disparities can form between men and at-risk groups of women (i.e., elderly and low-income) if there is not an equal number of heart disease-related studies for both genders. In this paper, we study temporal bias in biomedical research articles by measuring gender differences in word embeddings. Specifically, we address multiple questions, including, How has gender bias changed over time in biomedical research, and what health-related concepts are the most biased? Overall, we find that traditional gender stereotypes have reduced over time. However, we also find that the embeddings of many medical conditions are as biased today as they were 60 years ago (e.g., concepts related to drug addiction and body dysmorphia).
Novel contexts, comprising a set of terms referring to one or more concepts, may often arise in complex querying scenarios such as in evidence-based medicine (EBM) involving biomedical literature. These may not explicitly refer to entities or canonical concept forms occurring in a fact-based knowledge source, e.g. the UMLS ontology. Moreover, hidden associations between related concepts meaningful in the current context, may not exist within a single document, but across documents in the collection. Predicting semantic concept tags of documents can therefore serve to associate documents related in unseen contexts, or categorize them, in information filtering or retrieval scenarios. Thus, inspired by the success of sequence-to-sequence neural models, we develop a novel sequence-to-set framework with attention, for learning document representations in a unique unsupervised setting, using no human-annotated document labels or external knowledge resources and only corpus-derived term statistics to drive the training, that can effect term transfer within a corpus for semantically tagging a large collection of documents. Our sequence-to-set modeling approach to predict semantic tags, gives to the best of our knowledge, the state-of-the-art for both, an unsupervised query expansion (QE) task for the TREC CDS 2016 challenge dataset when evaluated on an Okapi BM25–based document retrieval system; and also over the MLTM system baseline baseline (Soleimani and Miller, 2016), for both supervised and semi-supervised multi-label prediction tasks on the del.icio.us and Ohsumed datasets. We make our code and data publicly available.
We present a system that allows life-science researchers to search a linguistically annotated corpus of scientific texts using patterns over dependency graphs, as well as using patterns over token sequences and a powerful variant of boolean keyword queries. In contrast to previous attempts to dependency-based search, we introduce a light-weight query language that does not require the user to know the details of the underlying linguistic representations, and instead to query the corpus by providing an example sentence coupled with simple markup. Search is performed at an interactive speed due to efficient linguistic graph-indexing and retrieval engine. This allows for rapid exploration, development and refinement of user queries. We demonstrate the system using example workflows over two corpora: the PubMed corpus including 14,446,243 PubMed abstracts and the CORD-19 dataset, a collection of over 45,000 research papers focused on COVID-19 research. The system is publicly available at https://allenai.github.io/spike
Inferring the nature of the relationships between biomedical entities from text is an important problem due to the difficulty of maintaining human-curated knowledge bases in rapidly evolving fields. Neural word embeddings have earned attention for an apparent ability to encode relational information. However, word embedding models that disregard syntax during training are limited in their ability to encode the structural relationships fundamental to cognitive theories of analogy. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of encoding dependency structure in word embeddings in a model we call Embedding of Structural Dependencies (ESD) as a way to represent biomedical relationships in two analogical retrieval tasks: a relationship retrieval (RR) task, and a literature-based discovery (LBD) task meant to hypothesize plausible relationships between pairs of entities unseen in training. We compare our model to skip-gram with negative sampling (SGNS), using 19 databases of biomedical relationships as our evaluation data, with improvements in performance on 17 (LBD) and 18 (RR) of these sets. These results suggest embeddings encoding dependency path information are of value for biomedical analogy retrieval.
Improving the quality of medical research reporting is crucial to reduce avoidable waste in research and to improve the quality of health care. Despite various initiatives aiming at improving research reporting – guidelines, checklists, authoring aids, peer review procedures, etc. – overinterpretation of research results, also known as spin, is still a serious issue in research reporting. In this paper, we propose a Natural Language Processing (NLP) system for detecting several types of spin in biomedical articles reporting randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We use a combination of rule-based and machine learning approaches to extract important information on trial design and to detect potential spin. The proposed spin detection system includes algorithms for text structure analysis, sentence classification, entity and relation extraction, semantic similarity assessment. Our algorithms achieved operational performance for the these tasks, F-measure ranging from 79,42 to 97.86% for different tasks. The most difficult task is extracting reported outcomes. Our tool is intended to be used as a semi-automated aid tool for assisting both authors and peer reviewers to detect potential spin. The tool incorporates a simple interface that allows to run the algorithms and visualize their output. It can also be used for manual annotation and correction of the errors in the outputs. The proposed tool is the first tool for spin detection. The tool and the annotated dataset are freely available.
Current research in machine learning for radiology is focused mostly on images. There exists limited work in investigating intelligent interactive systems for radiology. To address this limitation, we introduce a realistic and information-rich task of Visual Dialog in radiology, specific to chest X-ray images. Using MIMIC-CXR, an openly available database of chest X-ray images, we construct both a synthetic and a real-world dataset and provide baseline scores achieved by state-of-the-art models. We show that incorporating medical history of the patient leads to better performance in answering questions as opposed to conventional visual question answering model which looks only at the image. While our experiments show promising results, they indicate that the task is extremely challenging with significant scope for improvement. We make both the datasets (synthetic and gold standard) and the associated code publicly available to the research community.
Recently BERT has achieved a state-of-the-art performance in temporal relation extraction from clinical Electronic Medical Records text. However, the current approach is inefficient as it requires multiple passes through each input sequence. We extend a recently-proposed one-pass model for relation classification to a one-pass model for relation extraction. We augment this framework by introducing global embeddings to help with long-distance relation inference, and by multi-task learning to increase model performance and generalizability. Our proposed model produces results on par with the state-of-the-art in temporal relation extraction on the THYME corpus and is much “greener” in computational cost.
Clinical coding is currently a labour-intensive, error-prone, but a critical administrative process whereby hospital patient episodes are manually assigned codes by qualified staff from large, standardised taxonomic hierarchies of codes. Automating clinical coding has a long history in NLP research and has recently seen novel developments setting new benchmark results. A popular dataset used in this task is MIMIC-III, a large database of clinical free text notes and their associated codes amongst other data. We argue for the reconsideration of the validity MIMIC-III’s assigned codes, as MIMIC-III has not undergone secondary validation. This work presents an open-source, reproducible experimental methodology for assessing the validity of EHR discharge summaries. We exemplify the methodology with MIMIC-III discharge summaries and show the most frequently assigned codes in MIMIC-III are undercoded up to 35%.
Text classification tasks which aim at harvesting and/or organizing information from electronic health records are pivotal to support clinical and translational research. However these present specific challenges compared to other classification tasks, notably due to the particular nature of the medical lexicon and language used in clinical records. Recent advances in embedding methods have shown promising results for several clinical tasks, yet there is no exhaustive comparison of such approaches with other commonly used word representations and classification models. In this work, we analyse the impact of various word representations, text pre-processing and classification algorithms on the performance of four different text classification tasks. The results show that traditional approaches, when tailored to the specific language and structure of the text inherent to the classification task, can achieve or exceed the performance of more recent ones based on contextual embeddings such as BERT.
This paper presents a reinforcement learning approach to extract noise in long clinical documents for the task of readmission prediction after kidney transplant. We face the challenges of developing robust models on a small dataset where each document may consist of over 10K tokens with full of noise including tabular text and task-irrelevant sentences. We first experiment four types of encoders to empirically decide the best document representation, and then apply reinforcement learning to remove noisy text from the long documents, which models the noise extraction process as a sequential decision problem. Our results show that the old bag-of-words encoder outperforms deep learning-based encoders on this task, and reinforcement learning is able to improve upon baseline while pruning out 25% text segments. Our analysis depicts that reinforcement learning is able to identify both typical noisy tokens and task-specific noisy text.
In this paper, we apply pre-trained language models to the Semantic Textual Similarity (STS) task, with a specific focus on the clinical domain. In low-resource setting of clinical STS, these large models tend to be impractical and prone to overfitting. Building on BERT, we study the impact of a number of model design choices, namely different fine-tuning and pooling strategies. We observe that the impact of domain-specific fine-tuning on clinical STS is much less than that in the general domain, likely due to the concept richness of the domain. Based on this, we propose two data augmentation techniques. Experimental results on N2C2-STS 1 demonstrate substantial improvements, validating the utility of the proposed methods.
We explore state-of-the-art neural models for question answering on electronic medical records and improve their ability to generalize better on previously unseen (paraphrased) questions at test time. We enable this by learning to predict logical forms as an auxiliary task along with the main task of answer span detection. The predicted logical forms also serve as a rationale for the answer. Further, we also incorporate medical entity information in these models via the ERNIE architecture. We train our models on the large-scale emrQA dataset and observe that our multi-task entity-enriched models generalize to paraphrased questions ~5% better than the baseline BERT model.
How do we most effectively treat a disease or condition? Ideally, we could consult a database of evidence gleaned from clinical trials to answer such questions. Unfortunately, no such database exists; clinical trial results are instead disseminated primarily via lengthy natural language articles. Perusing all such articles would be prohibitively time-consuming for healthcare practitioners; they instead tend to depend on manually compiled systematic reviews of medical literature to inform care. NLP may speed this process up, and eventually facilitate immediate consult of published evidence. The Evidence Inference dataset was recently released to facilitate research toward this end. This task entails inferring the comparative performance of two treatments, with respect to a given outcome, from a particular article (describing a clinical trial) and identifying supporting evidence. For instance: Does this article report that chemotherapy performed better than surgery for five-year survival rates of operable cancers? In this paper, we collect additional annotations to expand the Evidence Inference dataset by 25%, provide stronger baseline models, systematically inspect the errors that these make, and probe dataset quality. We also release an abstract only (as opposed to full-texts) version of the task for rapid model prototyping. The updated corpus, documentation, and code for new baselines and evaluations are available at http://evidence-inference.ebm-nlp.com/.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related global healthcare cost is estimated to be $1 trillion by 2050. Currently, there is no cure for this disease; however, clinical studies show that early diagnosis and intervention helps to extend the quality of life and inform technologies for personalized mental healthcare. Clinical research indicates that the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease lead to dementia and other mental health issues. As a result, the language capabilities of patient start to decline. In this paper, we show that machine learning-based unsupervised clustering of and anomaly detection with linguistic biomarkers are promising approaches for intuitive visualization and personalized early stage detection of Alzheimer’s disease. We demonstrate this approach on 10 year’s (1980 to 1989) of President Ronald Reagan’s speech data set. Key linguistic biomarkers that indicate early-stage AD are identified. Experimental results show that Reagan had early onset of Alzheimer’s sometime between 1983 and 1987. This finding is corroborated by prior work that analyzed his interviews using a statistical technique. The proposed technique also identifies the exact speeches that reflect linguistic biomarkers for early stage AD.
We introduceBIOMRC, a large-scale cloze-style biomedical MRC dataset. Care was taken to reduce noise, compared to the previous BIOREAD dataset of Pappas et al. (2018). Experiments show that simple heuristics do not perform well on the new dataset and that two neural MRC models that had been tested on BIOREAD perform much better on BIOMRC, indicating that the new dataset is indeed less noisy or at least that its task is more feasible. Non-expert human performance is also higher on the new dataset compared to BIOREAD, and biomedical experts perform even better. We also introduce a new BERT-based MRC model, the best version of which substantially outperforms all other methods tested, reaching or surpassing the accuracy of biomedical experts in some experiments. We make the new dataset available in three different sizes, also releasing our code, and providing a leaderboard.
Research on analyzing reading patterns of dyslectic children has mainly been driven by classifying dyslexia types offline. We contend that a framework to remedy reading errors inline is more far-reaching and will help to further advance our understanding of this impairment. In this paper, we propose a simple and intuitive neural model to reinstate migrating words that transpire in letter position dyslexia, a visual analysis deficit to the encoding of character order within a word. Introduced by the anagram matrix representation of an input verse, the novelty of our work lies in the expansion from one to a two dimensional context window for training. This warrants words that only differ in the disposition of letters to remain interpreted semantically similar in the embedding space. Subject to the apparent constraints of the self-attention transformer architecture, our model achieved a unigram BLEU score of 40.6 on our reconstructed dataset of the Shakespeare sonnets.
Identifying the reasons for antibiotic administration in veterinary records is a critical component of understanding antimicrobial usage patterns. This informs antimicrobial stewardship programs designed to fight antimicrobial resistance, a major health crisis affecting both humans and animals in which veterinarians have an important role to play. We propose a document classification approach to determine the reason for administration of a given drug, with particular focus on domain adaptation from one drug to another, and instance selection to minimize annotation effort.
Much of biomedical and healthcare data is encoded in discrete, symbolic form such as text and medical codes. There is a wealth of expert-curated biomedical domain knowledge stored in knowledge bases and ontologies, but the lack of reliable methods for learning knowledge representation has limited their usefulness in machine learning applications. While text-based representation learning has significantly improved in recent years through advances in natural language processing, attempts to learn biomedical concept embeddings so far have been lacking. A recent family of models called knowledge graph embeddings have shown promising results on general domain knowledge graphs, and we explore their capabilities in the biomedical domain. We train several state-of-the-art knowledge graph embedding models on the SNOMED-CT knowledge graph, provide a benchmark with comparison to existing methods and in-depth discussion on best practices, and make a case for the importance of leveraging the multi-relational nature of knowledge graphs for learning biomedical knowledge representation. The embeddings, code, and materials will be made available to the community.
When comparing entities extracted by a medical entity recognition system with gold standard annotations over a test set, two types of mismatches might occur, label mismatch or span mismatch. Here we focus on span mismatch and show that its severity can vary from a serious error to a fully acceptable entity extraction due to the subjectivity of span annotations. For a domain-specific BERT-based NER system, we showed that 25% of the errors have the same labels and overlapping span with gold standard entities. We collected expert judgement which shows more than 90% of these mismatches are accepted or partially accepted by the user. Using the training set of the NER system, we built a fast and lightweight entity classifier to approximate the user experience of such mismatches through accepting or rejecting them. The decisions made by this classifier are used to calculate a learning-based F-score which is shown to be a better approximation of a forgiving user’s experience than the relaxed F-score. We demonstrated the results of applying the proposed evaluation metric for a variety of deep learning medical entity recognition models trained with two datasets.
Fact triples are a common form of structured knowledge used within the biomedical domain. As the amount of unstructured scientific texts continues to grow, manual annotation of these texts for the task of relation extraction becomes increasingly expensive. Distant supervision offers a viable approach to combat this by quickly producing large amounts of labeled, but considerably noisy, data. We aim to reduce such noise by extending an entity-enriched relation classification BERT model to the problem of multiple instance learning, and defining a simple data encoding scheme that significantly reduces noise, reaching state-of-the-art performance for distantly-supervised biomedical relation extraction. Our approach further encodes knowledge about the direction of relation triples, allowing for increased focus on relation learning by reducing noise and alleviating the need for joint learning with knowledge graph completion.
Due to the exponential growth of biomedical literature, event and relation extraction are important tasks in biomedical text mining. Most work only focus on relation extraction, and detect a single entity pair mention on a short span of text, which is not ideal due to long sentences that appear in biomedical contexts. We propose an approach to both relation and event extraction, for simultaneously predicting relationships between all mention pairs in a text. We also perform an empirical study to discuss different network setups for this purpose. The best performing model includes a set of multi-head attentions and convolutions, an adaptation of the transformer architecture, which offers self-attention the ability to strengthen dependencies among related elements, and models the interaction between features extracted by multiple attention heads. Experiment results demonstrate that our approach outperforms the state of the art on a set of benchmark biomedical corpora including BioNLP 2009, 2011, 2013 and BioCreative 2017 shared tasks.
Multi-task learning (MTL) has achieved remarkable success in natural language processing applications. In this work, we study a multi-task learning model with multiple decoders on varieties of biomedical and clinical natural language processing tasks such as text similarity, relation extraction, named entity recognition, and text inference. Our empirical results demonstrate that the MTL fine-tuned models outperform state-of-the-art transformer models (e.g., BERT and its variants) by 2.0% and 1.3% in biomedical and clinical domain adaptation, respectively. Pairwise MTL further demonstrates more details about which tasks can improve or decrease others. This is particularly helpful in the context that researchers are in the hassle of choosing a suitable model for new problems. The code and models are publicly available at https://github.com/ncbi-nlp/bluebert.
Using the attention map based probing framework from (Clark et al., 2019), we observe that, on the RAMS dataset (Ebner et al., 2020), BERT’s attention heads have modest but well above-chance ability to spot event arguments sans any training or domain finetuning, varying from a low of 17.77% for Place to a high of 51.61% for Artifact. Next, we find that linear combinations of these heads, estimated with approx. 11% of available total event argument detection supervision, can push performance well higher for some roles — highest two being Victim (68.29% Accuracy) and Artifact (58.82% Accuracy). Furthermore, we investigate how well our methods do for cross-sentence event arguments. We propose a procedure to isolate “best heads” for cross-sentence argument detection separately of those for intra-sentence arguments. The heads thus estimated have superior cross-sentence performance compared to their jointly estimated equivalents, albeit only under the unrealistic assumption that we already know the argument is present in another sentence. Lastly, we seek to isolate to what extent our numbers stem from lexical frequency based associations between gold arguments and roles. We propose NONCE, a scheme to create adversarial test examples by replacing gold arguments with randomly generated “nonce” words. We find that learnt linear combinations are robust to NONCE, though individual best heads can be more sensitive.
Studies of discrete languages emerging when neural agents communicate to solve a joint task often look for evidence of compositional structure. This stems for the expectation that such a structure would allow languages to be acquired faster by the agents and enable them to generalize better. We argue that these beneficial properties are only loosely connected to compositionality. In two experiments, we demonstrate that, depending on the task, non-compositional languages might show equal, or better, generalization performance and acquisition speed than compositional ones. Further research in the area should be clearer about what benefits are expected from compositionality, and how the latter would lead to them.
Recently, neural language models (LMs) have demonstrated impressive abilities in generating high-quality discourse. While many recent papers have analyzed the syntactic aspects encoded in LMs, there has been no analysis to date of the inter-sentential, rhetorical knowledge. In this paper, we propose a method that quantitatively evaluates the rhetorical capacities of neural LMs. We examine the capacities of neural LMs understanding the rhetoric of discourse by evaluating their abilities to encode a set of linguistic features derived from Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST). Our experiments show that BERT-based LMs outperform other Transformer LMs, revealing the richer discourse knowledge in their intermediate layer representations. In addition, GPT-2 and XLNet apparently encode less rhetorical knowledge, and we suggest an explanation drawing from linguistic philosophy. Our method shows an avenue towards quantifying the rhetorical capacities of neural LMs.
While much recent work has examined how linguistic information is encoded in pre-trained sentence representations, comparatively little is understood about how these models change when adapted to solve downstream tasks. Using a suite of analysis techniques—supervised probing, unsupervised similarity analysis, and layer-based ablations—we investigate how fine-tuning affects the representations of the BERT model. We find that while fine-tuning necessarily makes some significant changes, there is no catastrophic forgetting of linguistic phenomena. We instead find that fine-tuning is a conservative process that primarily affects the top layers of BERT, albeit with noteworthy variation across tasks. In particular, dependency parsing reconfigures most of the model, whereas SQuAD and MNLI involve much shallower processing. Finally, we also find that fine-tuning has a weaker effect on representations of out-of-domain sentences, suggesting room for improvement in model generalization.
Recent works have demonstrated that multilingual BERT (mBERT) learns rich cross-lingual representations, that allow for transfer across languages. We study the word-level translation information embedded in mBERT and present two simple methods that expose remarkable translation capabilities with no fine-tuning. The results suggest that most of this information is encoded in a non-linear way, while some of it can also be recovered with purely linear tools. As part of our analysis, we test the hypothesis that mBERT learns representations which contain both a language-encoding component and an abstract, cross-lingual component, and explicitly identify an empirical language-identity subspace within mBERT representations.
We present a method for adversarial input generation against black box models for reading comprehension based question answering. Our approach is composed of two steps. First, we approximate a victim black box model via model extraction. Second, we use our own white box method to generate input perturbations that cause the approximate model to fail. These perturbed inputs are used against the victim. In experiments we find that our method improves on the efficacy of the ADDANY—a white box attack—performed on the approximate model by 25% F1, and the ADDSENT attack—a black box attack—by 11% F1.
Fine-tuning pre-trained contextualized embedding models has become an integral part of the NLP pipeline. At the same time, probing has emerged as a way to investigate the linguistic knowledge captured by pre-trained models. Very little is, however, understood about how fine-tuning affects the representations of pre-trained models and thereby the linguistic knowledge they encode. This paper contributes towards closing this gap. We study three different pre-trained models: BERT, RoBERTa, and ALBERT, and investigate through sentence-level probing how fine-tuning affects their representations. We find that for some probing tasks fine-tuning leads to substantial changes in accuracy, possibly suggesting that fine-tuning introduces or even removes linguistic knowledge from a pre-trained model. These changes, however, vary greatly across different models, fine-tuning and probing tasks. Our analysis reveals that while fine-tuning indeed changes the representations of a pre-trained model and these changes are typically larger for higher layers, only in very few cases, fine-tuning has a positive effect on probing accuracy that is larger than just using the pre-trained model with a strong pooling method. Based on our findings, we argue that both positive and negative effects of fine-tuning on probing require a careful interpretation.
It is challenging to automatically evaluate the answer of a QA model at inference time. Although many models provide confidence scores, and simple heuristics can go a long way towards indicating answer correctness, such measures are heavily dataset-dependent and are unlikely to generalise. In this work, we begin by investigating the hidden representations of questions, answers, and contexts in transformer-based QA architectures. We observe a consistent pattern in the answer representations, which we show can be used to automatically evaluate whether or not a predicted answer span is correct. Our method does not require any labelled data and outperforms strong heuristic baselines, across 2 datasets and 7 domains. We are able to predict whether or not a model’s answer is correct with 91.37% accuracy on SQuAD, and 80.7% accuracy on SubjQA. We expect that this method will have broad applications, e.g., in semi-automatic development of QA datasets.
Contextualized word representations, such as ELMo and BERT, were shown to perform well on various semantic and syntactic task. In this work, we tackle the task of unsupervised disentanglement between semantics and structure in neural language representations: we aim to learn a transformation of the contextualized vectors, that discards the lexical semantics, but keeps the structural information. To this end, we automatically generate groups of sentences which are structurally similar but semantically different, and use metric-learning approach to learn a transformation that emphasizes the structural component that is encoded in the vectors. We demonstrate that our transformation clusters vectors in space by structural properties, rather than by lexical semantics. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of our distilled representations by showing that they outperform the original contextualized representations in a few-shot parsing setting.
Explainability is a topic of growing importance in NLP. In this work, we provide a unified perspective of explainability as a communication problem between an explainer and a layperson about a classifier’s decision. We use this framework to compare several explainers, including gradient methods, erasure, and attention mechanisms, in terms of their communication success. In addition, we reinterpret these methods in the light of classical feature selection, and use this as inspiration for new embedded explainers, through the use of selective, sparse attention. Experiments in text classification and natural language inference, using different configurations of explainers and laypeople (including both machines and humans), reveal an advantage of attention-based explainers over gradient and erasure methods, and show that selective attention is a simpler alternative to stochastic rationalizers. Human experiments show strong results on text classification with post-hoc explainers trained to optimize communication success.
Recent latent tree learning models can learn constituency parsing without any exposure to human-annotated tree structures. One such model is ON-LSTM (Shen et al., 2019), which is trained on language modelling and has near-state-of-the-art performance on unsupervised parsing. In order to better understand the performance and consistency of the model as well as how the parses it generates are different from gold-standard PTB parses, we replicate the model with different restarts and examine their parses. We find that (1) the model has reasonably consistent parsing behaviors across different restarts, (2) the model struggles with the internal structures of complex noun phrases, (3) the model has a tendency to overestimate the height of the split points right before verbs. We speculate that both problems could potentially be solved by adopting a different training task other than unidirectional language modelling.
Although large-scale pretrained language models, such as BERT and RoBERTa, have achieved superhuman performance on in-distribution test sets, their performance suffers on out-of-distribution test sets (e.g., on contrast sets). Building contrast sets often requires human-expert annotation, which is expensive and hard to create on a large scale. In this work, we propose a Linguistically-Informed Transformation (LIT) method to automatically generate contrast sets, which enables practitioners to explore linguistic phenomena of interests as well as compose different phenomena. Experimenting with our method on SNLI and MNLI shows that current pretrained language models, although being claimed to contain sufficient linguistic knowledge, struggle on our automatically generated contrast sets. Furthermore, we improve models’ performance on the contrast sets by applying LIT to augment the training data, without affecting performance on the original data.
Contextualized word representations encode rich information about syntax and semantics, alongside specificities of each context of use. While contextual variation does not always reflect actual meaning shifts, it can still reduce the similarity of embeddings for word instances having the same meaning. We explore the imprint of two specific linguistic alternations, namely passivization and negation, on the representations generated by neural models trained with two different objectives: masked language modeling and translation. Our exploration methodology is inspired by an approach previously proposed for removing societal biases from word vectors. We show that passivization and negation leave their traces on the representations, and that neutralizing this information leads to more similar embeddings for words that should preserve their meaning in the transformation. We also find clear differences in how the respective features generalize across datasets.
There is a recent surge of interest in using attention as explanation of model predictions, with mixed evidence on whether attention can be used as such. While attention conveniently gives us one weight per input token and is easily extracted, it is often unclear toward what goal it is used as explanation. We find that often that goal, whether explicitly stated or not, is to find out what input tokens are the most relevant to a prediction, and that the implied user for the explanation is a model developer. For this goal and user, we argue that input saliency methods are better suited, and that there are no compelling reasons to use attention, despite the coincidence that it provides a weight for each input. With this position paper, we hope to shift some of the recent focus on attention to saliency methods, and for authors to clearly state the goal and user for their explanations.
The recent paradigm shift to contextual word embeddings has seen tremendous success across a wide range of down-stream tasks. However, little is known on how the emergent relation of context and semantics manifests geometrically. We investigate polysemous words as one particularly prominent instance of semantic organization. Our rigorous quantitative analysis of linear separability and cluster organization in embedding vectors produced by BERT shows that semantics do not surface as isolated clusters but form seamless structures, tightly coupled with sentiment and syntax.
We address whether neural models for Natural Language Inference (NLI) can learn the compositional interactions between lexical entailment and negation, using four methods: the behavioral evaluation methods of (1) challenge test sets and (2) systematic generalization tasks, and the structural evaluation methods of (3) probes and (4) interventions. To facilitate this holistic evaluation, we present Monotonicity NLI (MoNLI), a new naturalistic dataset focused on lexical entailment and negation. In our behavioral evaluations, we find that models trained on general-purpose NLI datasets fail systematically on MoNLI examples containing negation, but that MoNLI fine-tuning addresses this failure. In our structural evaluations, we look for evidence that our top-performing BERT-based model has learned to implement the monotonicity algorithm behind MoNLI. Probes yield evidence consistent with this conclusion, and our intervention experiments bolster this, showing that the causal dynamics of the model mirror the causal dynamics of this algorithm on subsets of MoNLI. This suggests that the BERT model at least partially embeds a theory of lexical entailment and negation at an algorithmic level.
Probing complex language models has recently revealed several insights into linguistic and semantic patterns found in the learned representations. In this paper, we probe BERT specifically to understand and measure the relational knowledge it captures. We utilize knowledge base completion tasks to probe every layer of pre-trained as well as fine-tuned BERT (ranking, question answering, NER). Our findings show that knowledge is not just contained in BERT’s final layers. Intermediate layers contribute a significant amount (17-60%) to the total knowledge found. Probing intermediate layers also reveals how different types of knowledge emerge at varying rates. When BERT is fine-tuned, relational knowledge is forgotten but the extent of forgetting is impacted by the fine-tuning objective but not the size of the dataset. We found that ranking models forget the least and retain more knowledge in their final layer.
Natural language numbers are an example of compositional structures, where larger numbers are composed of operations on smaller numbers. Given that compositional reasoning is a key to natural language understanding, we propose novel multilingual probing tasks tested on DistilBERT, XLM, and BERT to investigate for evidence of compositional reasoning over numerical data in various natural language number systems. By using both grammaticality judgment and value comparison classification tasks in English, Japanese, Danish, and French, we find evidence that the information encoded in these pretrained models’ embeddings is sufficient for grammaticality judgments but generally not for value comparisons. We analyze possible reasons for this and discuss how our tasks could be extended in further studies.
Recent work on the lottery ticket hypothesis has produced highly sparse Transformers for NMT while maintaining BLEU. However, it is unclear how such pruning techniques affect a model’s learned representations. By probing Transformers with more and more low-magnitude weights pruned away, we find that complex semantic information is first to be degraded. Analysis of internal activations reveals that higher layers diverge most over the course of pruning, gradually becoming less complex than their dense counterparts. Meanwhile, early layers of sparse models begin to perform more encoding. Attention mechanisms remain remarkably consistent as sparsity increases.
Neural methods for embedding entities are typically extrinsically evaluated on downstream tasks and, more recently, intrinsically using probing tasks. Downstream task-based comparisons are often difficult to interpret due to differences in task structure, while probing task evaluations often look at only a few attributes and models. We address both of these issues by evaluating a diverse set of eight neural entity embedding methods on a set of simple probing tasks, demonstrating which methods are able to remember words used to describe entities, learn type, relationship and factual information, and identify how frequently an entity is mentioned. We also compare these methods in a unified framework on two entity linking tasks and discuss how they generalize to different model architectures and datasets.
If the same neural network architecture is trained multiple times on the same dataset, will it make similar linguistic generalizations across runs? To study this question, we fine-tuned 100 instances of BERT on the Multi-genre Natural Language Inference (MNLI) dataset and evaluated them on the HANS dataset, which evaluates syntactic generalization in natural language inference. On the MNLI development set, the behavior of all instances was remarkably consistent, with accuracy ranging between 83.6% and 84.8%. In stark contrast, the same models varied widely in their generalization performance. For example, on the simple case of subject-object swap (e.g., determining that “the doctor visited the lawyer” does not entail “the lawyer visited the doctor”), accuracy ranged from 0.0% to 66.2%. Such variation is likely due to the presence of many local minima in the loss surface that are equally attractive to a low-bias learner such as a neural network; decreasing the variability may therefore require models with stronger inductive biases.
Adversarial example generation methods in NLP rely on models like language models or sentence encoders to determine if potential adversarial examples are valid. In these methods, a valid adversarial example fools the model being attacked, and is determined to be semantically or syntactically valid by a second model. Research to date has counted all such examples as errors by the attacked model. We contend that these adversarial examples may not be flaws in the attacked model, but flaws in the model that determines validity. We term such invalid inputs second-order adversarial examples. We propose the constraint robustness curve, and associated metric ACCS, as tools for evaluating the robustness of a constraint to second-order adversarial examples. To generate this curve, we design an adversarial attack to run directly on the semantic similarity models. We test on two constraints, the Universal Sentence Encoder (USE) and BERTScore. Our findings indicate that such second-order examples exist, but are typically less common than first-order adversarial examples in state-of-the-art models. They also indicate that USE is effective as constraint on NLP adversarial examples, while BERTScore is nearly ineffectual. Code for running the experiments in this paper is available here.
How can neural networks perform so well on compositional tasks even though they lack explicit compositional representations? We use a novel analysis technique called ROLE to show that recurrent neural networks perform well on such tasks by converging to solutions which implicitly represent symbolic structure. This method uncovers a symbolic structure which, when properly embedded in vector space, closely approximates the encodings of a standard seq2seq network trained to perform the compositional SCAN task. We verify the causal importance of the discovered symbolic structure by showing that, when we systematically manipulate hidden embeddings based on this symbolic structure, the model’s output is changed in the way predicted by our analysis.
Neural attention, especially the self-attention made popular by the Transformer, has become the workhorse of state-of-the-art natural language processing (NLP) models. Very recent work suggests that the self-attention in the Transformer encodes syntactic information; Here, we show that self-attention scores encode semantics by considering sentiment analysis tasks. In contrast to gradient-based feature attribution methods, we propose a simple and effective Layer-wise Attention Tracing (LAT) method to analyze structured attention weights. We apply our method to Transformer models trained on two tasks that have surface dissimilarities, but share common semantics—sentiment analysis of movie reviews and time-series valence prediction in life story narratives. Across both tasks, words with high aggregated attention weights were rich in emotional semantics, as quantitatively validated by an emotion lexicon labeled by human annotators. Our results show that structured attention weights encode rich semantics in sentiment analysis, and match human interpretations of semantics.
Previous studies investigating the syntactic abilities of deep learning models have not targeted the relationship between the strength of the grammatical generalization and the amount of evidence to which the model is exposed during training. We address this issue by deploying a novel word-learning paradigm to test BERT’s few-shot learning capabilities for two aspects of English verbs: alternations and classes of selectional preferences. For the former, we fine-tune BERT on a single frame in a verbal-alternation pair and ask whether the model expects the novel verb to occur in its sister frame. For the latter, we fine-tune BERT on an incomplete selectional network of verbal objects and ask whether it expects unattested but plausible verb/object pairs. We find that BERT makes robust grammatical generalizations after just one or two instances of a novel word in fine-tuning. For the verbal alternation tests, we find that the model displays behavior that is consistent with a transitivity bias: verbs seen few times are expected to take direct objects, but verbs seen with direct objects are not expected to occur intransitively.
Extrapolation to unseen sequence lengths is a challenge for neural generative models of language. In this work, we characterize the effect on length extrapolation of a modeling decision often overlooked: predicting the end of the generative process through the use of a special end-of-sequence (EOS) vocabulary item. We study an oracle setting - forcing models to generate to the correct sequence length at test time - to compare the length-extrapolative behavior of networks trained to predict EOS (+EOS) with networks not trained to (-EOS). We find that -EOS substantially outperforms +EOS, for example extrapolating well to lengths 10 times longer than those seen at training time in a bracket closing task, as well as achieving a 40% improvement over +EOS in the difficult SCAN dataset length generalization task. By comparing the hidden states and dynamics of -EOS and +EOS models, we observe that +EOS models fail to generalize because they (1) unnecessarily stratify their hidden states by their linear position is a sequence (structures we call length manifolds) or (2) get stuck in clusters (which we refer to as length attractors) once the EOS token is the highest-probability prediction.
Pretrained Language Models (LMs) have been shown to possess significant linguistic, common sense and factual knowledge. One form of knowledge that has not been studied yet in this context is information about the scalar magnitudes of objects. We show that pretrained language models capture a significant amount of this information but are short of the capability required for general common-sense reasoning. We identify contextual information in pre-training and numeracy as two key factors affecting their performance, and show that a simple method of canonicalizing numbers can have a significant effect on the results.
Interpretability methods for neural networks are difficult to evaluate because we do not understand the black-box models typically used to test them. This paper proposes a framework in which interpretability methods are evaluated using manually constructed networks, which we call white-box networks, whose behavior is understood a priori. We evaluate five methods for producing attribution heatmaps by applying them to white-box LSTM classifiers for tasks based on formal languages. Although our white-box classifiers solve their tasks perfectly and transparently, we find that all five attribution methods fail to produce the expected model explanations.
With the increase in the use of AI systems, a need for explanation systems arises. Building an explanation system requires a definition of explanation. However, the natural language term explanation is difficult to define formally as it includes multiple perspectives from different domains such as psychology, philosophy, and cognitive sciences. We study multiple perspectives and aspects of explainability of recommendations or predictions made by AI systems, and provide a generic definition of explanation. The proposed definition is ambitious and challenging to apply. With the intention to bridge the gap between theory and application, we also propose a possible architecture of an automated explanation system based on our definition of explanation.
We study the behavior of several black-box search algorithms used for generating adversarial examples for natural language processing (NLP) tasks. We perform a fine-grained analysis of three elements relevant to search: search algorithm, search space, and search budget. When new search algorithms are proposed in past work, the attack search space is often modified alongside the search algorithm. Without ablation studies benchmarking the search algorithm change with the search space held constant, one cannot tell if an increase in attack success rate is a result of an improved search algorithm or a less restrictive search space. Additionally, many previous studies fail to properly consider the search algorithms’ run-time cost, which is essential for downstream tasks like adversarial training. Our experiments provide a reproducible benchmark of search algorithms across a variety of search spaces and query budgets to guide future research in adversarial NLP. Based on our experiments, we recommend greedy attacks with word importance ranking when under a time constraint or attacking long inputs, and either beam search or particle swarm optimization otherwise.
Recently, large-scale pre-trained neural network models such as BERT have achieved many state-of-the-art results in natural language processing. Recent work has explored the linguistic capacities of these models. However, no work has focused on the ability of these models to generalize these capacities to novel words. This type of generalization is exhibited by humans, and is intimately related to morphology—humans are in many cases able to identify inflections of novel words in the appropriate context. This type of morphological capacity has not been previously tested in BERT models, and is important for morphologically-rich languages, which are under-studied in the literature regarding BERT’s linguistic capacities. In this work, we investigate this by considering monolingual and multilingual BERT models’ abilities to agree in number with novel plural words in English, French, German, Spanish, and Dutch. We find that many models are not able to reliably determine plurality of novel words, suggesting potential deficiencies in the morphological capacities of BERT models.
In this paper we introduce diagNNose, an open source library for analysing the activations of deep neural networks. diagNNose contains a wide array of interpretability techniques that provide fundamental insights into the inner workings of neural networks. We demonstrate the functionality of diagNNose with a case study on subject-verb agreement within language models. diagNNose is available at https://github.com/i-machine-think/diagnnose.
We here describe line-a-line, a web-based tool for manual annotation of word-alignments in sentence-aligned parallel corpora. The graphical user interface, which builds on a design template from the Jigsaw system for investigative analysis, displays the words from each sentence pair that is to be annotated as elements in two vertical lists. An alignment between two words is annotated by drag-and-drop, i.e. by dragging an element from the left-hand list and dropping it on an element in the right-hand list. The tool indicates that two words are aligned by lines that connect them and by highlighting associated words when the mouse is hovered over them. Line-a-line uses the efmaral library for producing pre-annotated alignments, on which the user can base the manual annotation. The tool is mainly planned to be used on moderately under-resourced languages, for which resources in the form of parallel corpora are scarce. The automatic word-alignment functionality therefore also incorporates information derived from non-parallel resources, in the form of pre-trained multilingual word embeddings from the MUSE library.
The shared task of the 13th Workshop on Building and Using Comparable Corpora was devoted to the induction of bilingual dictionaries from comparable rather than parallel corpora. In this task, for a number of language pairs involving Chinese, English, French, German, Russian and Spanish, the participants were supposed to determine automatically the target language translations of several thousand source language test words of three frequency ranges. We describe here some background, the task definition, the training and test data sets and the evaluation used for ranking the participating systems. We also summarize the approaches used and present the results of the evaluation. In conclusion, the outcome of the competition are the results of a number of systems which provide surprisingly good solutions to the ambitious problem.
In a bid to reach a larger and more diverse audience, Twitter users often post parallel tweets—tweets that contain the same content but are written in different languages. Parallel tweets can be an important resource for developing machine translation (MT) systems among other natural language processing (NLP) tasks. In this paper, we introduce a generic method for collecting parallel tweets. Using this method, we collect a bilingual corpus of English-Arabic parallel tweets and a list of Twitter accounts who post English-Arabictweets regularly. Since our method is generic, it can also be used for collecting parallel tweets that cover less-resourced languages such as Serbian and Urdu. Additionally, we annotate a subset of Twitter accounts with their countries of origin and topic of interest, which provides insights about the population who post parallel tweets. This latter information can also be useful for author profiling tasks.
In this paper, we show how to use bilingual word embeddings (BWE) to automatically create a corresponding table of meaning tags from two dictionaries in one language and examine the effectiveness of the method. To do this, we had a problem: the meaning tags do not always correspond one-to-one because the granularities of the word senses and the concepts are different from each other. Therefore, we regarded the concept tag that corresponds to a word sense the most as the correct concept tag corresponding the word sense. We used two BWE methods, a linear transformation matrix and VecMap. We evaluated the most frequent sense (MFS) method and the corpus concatenation method for comparison. The accuracies of the proposed methods were higher than the accuracy of the random baseline but lower than those of the MFS and corpus concatenation methods. However, because our method utilized the embedding vectors of the word senses, the relations of the sense tags corresponding to concept tags could be examined by mapping the sense embeddings to the vector space of the concept tags. Also, our methods could be performed when we have only concept or word sense embeddings whereas the MFS method requires a parallel corpus and the corpus concatenation method needs two tagged corpora.
We report an experiment aimed at extracting words expressing a specific semantic relation using intersections of word embeddings. In a multilingual frame-based domain model, specific features of a concept are typically described through a set of non-arbitrary semantic relations. In karstology, our domain of choice which we are exploring though a comparable corpus in English and Croatian, karst phenomena such as landforms are usually described through their FORM, LOCATION, CAUSE, FUNCTION and COMPOSITION. We propose an approach to mine words pertaining to each of these relations by using a small number of seed adjectives, for which we retrieve closest words using word embeddings and then use intersections of these neighbourhoods to refine our search. Such cross-language expansion of semantically-rich vocabulary is a valuable aid in improving the coverage of a multilingual knowledge base, but also in exploring differences between languages in their respective conceptualisations of the domain.
In the context of Machine Translation (MT) from-and-to English, Bahasa Indonesia has been considered a low-resource language, and therefore applying Neural Machine Translation (NMT) which typically requires large training dataset proves to be problematic. In this paper, we show otherwise by collecting large, publicly-available datasets from the Web, which we split into several domains: news, religion, general, and conversation, to train and benchmark some variants of transformer-based NMT models across the domains. We show using BLEU that our models perform well across them , outperform the baseline Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) models, and perform comparably with Google Translate. Our datasets (with the standard split for training, validation, and testing), code, and models are available on https://github.com/gunnxx/indonesian-mt-data
This paper describes and evaluates simple techniques for reducing the research space for parallel sentences in monolingual comparable corpora. Initially, when searching for parallel sentences between two comparable documents, all the possible sentence pairs between the documents have to be considered, which introduces a great degree of imbalance between parallel pairs and non-parallel pairs. This is a problem because even with a high performing algorithm, a lot of noise will be present in the extracted results, thus introducing a need for an extensive and costly manual check phase. We work on a manually annotated subset obtained from a French comparable corpus and show how we can drastically reduce the number of sentence pairs that have to be fed to a classifier so that the results can be manually handled.
The task of Bilingual Dictionary Induction (BDI) consists of generating translations for source language words which is important in the framework of machine translation (MT). The aim of the BUCC 2020 shared task is to perform BDI on various language pairs using comparable corpora. In this paper, we present our approach to the task of English-German and English-Russian language pairs. Our system relies on Bilingual Word Embeddings (BWEs) which are often used for BDI when only a small seed lexicon is available making them particularly effective in a low-resource setting. On the other hand, they perform well on high frequency words only. In order to improve the performance on rare words as well, we combine BWE based word similarity with word surface similarity methods, such as orthography In addition to the often used top-n translation method, we experiment with a margin based approach aiming for dynamic number of translations for each source word. We participate in both the open and closed tracks of the shared task and we show improved results of our method compared to simple vector similarity based approaches. Our system was ranked in the top-3 teams and achieved the best results for English-Russian.
This paper describes the TALN/LS2N system participation at the Building and Using Comparable Corpora (BUCC) shared task. We first introduce three strategies: (i) a word embedding approach based on fastText embeddings; (ii) a concatenation approach using both character Skip-Gram and character CBOW models, and finally (iii) a cognates matching approach based on an exact match string similarity. Then, we present the applied strategy for the shared task which consists in the combination of the embeddings concatenation and the cognates matching approaches. The covered languages are French, English, German, Russian and Spanish. Overall, our system mixing embeddings concatenation and perfect cognates matching obtained the best results while compared to individual strategies, except for English-Russian and Russian-English language pairs for which the concatenation approach was preferred.
Natural Language Processing (NLP), is the field of artificial intelligence that gives the computer the ability to interpret, perceive and extract appropriate information from human languages. Contemporary NLP is predominantly a data driven process. It employs machine learning and statistical algorithms to learn language structures from textual corpus. While application of NLP in English, certain European languages such as Spanish, German, etc. and Chinese, Arabic has been tremendous, it is not so, in many Indian languages. There are obvious advantages in creating aligned bilingual and multilingual corpora. Machine translation, cross-lingual information retrieval, content availability and linguistic comparison are a few of the most sought after applications of such parallel corpora. This paper explains and validates a parallel corpus we created for English-Tamil bilingual pair.
This paper presents a deep learning system for the BUCC 2020 shared task: Bilingual dictionary induction from comparable corpora. We have submitted two runs for this shared Task, German (de) and English (en) language pair for “closed track” and Tamil (ta) and English (en) for the “open track”. Our core approach focuses on quantifying the semantics of the language pairs, so that semantics of two different language pairs can be compared or transfer learned. With the advent of word embeddings, it is possible to quantify this. In this paper, we propose a deep learning approach which makes use of the supplied training data, to generate cross-lingual embedding. This is later used for inducting bilingual dictionary from comparable corpora.
The extraction of anglicisms (lexical borrowings from English) is relevant both for lexicographic purposes and for NLP downstream tasks. We introduce a corpus of European Spanish newspaper headlines annotated with anglicisms and a baseline model for anglicism extraction. In this paper we present: (1) a corpus of 21,570 newspaper headlines written in European Spanish annotated with emergent anglicisms and (2) a conditional random field baseline model with handcrafted features for anglicism extraction. We present the newspaper headlines corpus, describe the annotation tagset and guidelines and introduce a CRF model that can serve as baseline for the task of detecting anglicisms. The presented work is a first step towards the creation of an anglicism extractor for Spanish newswire.
Natural Language Inference (NLI) is the task of inferring the logical relationship, typically entailment or contradiction, between a premise and hypothesis. Code-mixing is the use of more than one language in the same conversation or utterance, and is prevalent in multilingual communities all over the world. In this paper, we present the first dataset for code-mixed NLI, in which both the premises and hypotheses are in code-mixed Hindi-English. We use data from Hindi movies (Bollywood) as premises, and crowd-source hypotheses from Hindi-English bilinguals. We conduct a pilot annotation study and describe the final annotation protocol based on observations from the pilot. Currently, the data collected consists of 400 premises in the form of code-mixed conversation snippets and 2240 code-mixed hypotheses. We conduct an extensive analysis to infer the linguistic phenomena commonly observed in the dataset obtained. We evaluate the dataset using a standard mBERT-based pipeline for NLI and report results.
We investigate when is it beneficial to simultaneously learn representations for several tasks, in low-resource settings. For this, we work with noisy user-generated texts in Algerian, a low-resource non-standardised Arabic variety. That is, to mitigate the problem of the data scarcity, we experiment with jointly learning progressively 4 tasks, namely code-switch detection, named entity recognition, spell normalisation and correction, and identifying users’ sentiments. The selection of these tasks is motivated by the lack of labelled data for automatic morpho-syntactic or semantic sequence-tagging tasks for Algerian, in contrast to the case of much multi-task learning for NLP. Our empirical results show that multi-task learning is beneficial for some tasks in particular settings, and that the effect of each task on another, the order of the tasks, and the size of the training data of the task with more data do matter. Moreover, the data augmentation that we performed with no external resources has been shown to be beneficial for certain tasks.
Code-mixed texts are abundant, especially in social media, and poses a problem for NLP tools, which are typically trained on monolingual corpora. In this paper, we explore and evaluate different types of word embeddings for Indonesian–English code-mixed text. We propose the use of code-mixed embeddings, i.e. embeddings trained on code-mixed text. Because large corpora of code-mixed text are required to train embeddings, we describe a method for synthesizing a code-mixed corpus, grounded in literature and a survey. Using sentiment analysis as a case study, we show that code-mixed embeddings trained on synthesized data are at least as good as cross-lingual embeddings and better than monolingual embeddings.
In a multi-lingual and multi-script society such as India, many users resort to code-mixing while typing on social media. While code-mixing has received a lot of attention in the past few years, it has mostly been studied within a single-script scenario. In this work, we present a case study of Hindi-English bilingual Twitter users while considering the nuances that come with the intermixing of different scripts. We present a concise analysis of how scripts and languages interact in communities and cultures where code-mixing is rampant and offer certain insights into the findings. Our analysis shows that both intra-sentential and inter-sentential script-mixing are present on Twitter and show different behavior in different contexts. Examples suggest that script can be employed as a tool for emphasizing certain phrases within a sentence or disambiguating the meaning of a word. Script choice can also be an indicator of whether a word is borrowed or not. We present our analysis along with examples that bring out the nuances of the different cases.
This paper investigates the use of unsupervised cross-lingual embeddings for solving the problem of code-mixed social media text understanding. We specifically investigate the use of these embeddings for a sentiment analysis task for Hinglish Tweets, viz. English combined with (transliterated) Hindi. In a first step, baseline models, initialized with monolingual embeddings obtained from large collections of tweets in English and code-mixed Hinglish, were trained. In a second step, two systems using cross-lingual embeddings were researched, being (1) a supervised classifier and (2) a transfer learning approach trained on English sentiment data and evaluated on code-mixed data. We demonstrate that incorporating cross-lingual embeddings improves the results (F1-score of 0.635 versus a monolingual baseline of 0.616), without any parallel data required to train the cross-lingual embeddings. In addition, the results show that the cross-lingual embeddings not only improve the results in a fully supervised setting, but they can also be used as a base for distant supervision, by training a sentiment model in one of the source languages and evaluating on the other language projected in the same space. The transfer learning experiments result in an F1-score of 0.556, which is almost on par with the supervised settings and speak to the robustness of the cross-lingual embeddings approach.
We present an analysis of semi-supervised acoustic and language model training for English-isiZulu code-switched (CS) ASR using soap opera speech. Approximately 11 hours of untranscribed multilingual speech was transcribed automatically using four bilingual CS transcription systems operating in English-isiZulu, English-isiXhosa, English-Setswana and English-Sesotho. These transcriptions were incorporated into the acoustic and language model training sets. Results showed that the TDNN-F acoustic models benefit from the additional semi-supervised data and that even better performance could be achieved by including additional CNN layers. Using these CNN-TDNN-F acoustic models, a first iteration of semi-supervised training achieved an absolute mixed-language WER reduction of 3.44%, and a further 2.18% after a second iteration. Although the languages in the untranscribed data were unknown, the best results were obtained when all automatically transcribed data was used for training and not just the utterances classified as English-isiZulu. Despite perplexity improvements, the semi-supervised language model was not able to improve the ASR performance.
In this paper, we explore the methods of obtaining parse trees of code-mixed sentences and analyse the obtained trees. Existing work has shown that linguistic theories can be used to generate code-mixed sentences from a set of parallel sentences. We build upon this work, using one of these theories, the Equivalence-Constraint theory to obtain the parse trees of synthetically generated code-mixed sentences and evaluate them with a neural constituency parser. We highlight the lack of a dataset non-synthetic code-mixed constituency parse trees and how it makes our evaluation difficult. To complete our evaluation, we convert a code-mixed dependency parse tree set into “pseudo constituency trees” and find that a parser trained on synthetically generated trees is able to decently parse these as well.
Code-mixed grapheme-to-phoneme (G2P) conversion is a crucial issue for modern speech recognition and synthesis task, but has been seldom investigated in sentence-level in literature. In this study, we construct a system that performs precise and efficient multi-stage code-mixed G2P conversion, for a less studied agglutinative language, Korean. The proposed system undertakes a sentence-level transliteration that is effective in the accurate processing of Korean text. We formulate the underlying philosophy that supports our approach and demonstrate how it fits with the contemporary document.
Understanding expressed sentiment and emotions are two crucial factors in human multimodal language. This paper describes a Transformer-based joint-encoding (TBJE) for the task of Emotion Recognition and Sentiment Analysis. In addition to use the Transformer architecture, our approach relies on a modular co-attention and a glimpse layer to jointly encode one or more modalities. The proposed solution has also been submitted to the ACL20: Second Grand-Challenge on Multimodal Language to be evaluated on the CMU-MOSEI dataset. The code to replicate the presented experiments is open-source .
Despite the recent advances in opinion mining for written reviews, few works have tackled the problem on other sources of reviews. In light of this issue, we propose a multi-modal approach for mining fine-grained opinions from video reviews that is able to determine the aspects of the item under review that are being discussed and the sentiment orientation towards them. Our approach works at the sentence level without the need for time annotations and uses features derived from the audio, video and language transcriptions of its contents.We evaluate our approach on two datasets and show that leveraging the video and audio modalities consistently provides increased performance over text-only baselines, providing evidence these extra modalities are key in better understanding video reviews.
Sentiment Analysis and Emotion Detection in conversation is key in several real-world applications, with an increase in modalities available aiding a better understanding of the underlying emotions. Multi-modal Emotion Detection and Sentiment Analysis can be particularly useful, as applications will be able to use specific subsets of available modalities, as per the available data. Current systems dealing with Multi-modal functionality fail to leverage and capture - the context of the conversation through all modalities, the dependency between the listener(s) and speaker emotional states, and the relevance and relationship between the available modalities. In this paper, we propose an end to end RNN architecture that attempts to take into account all the mentioned drawbacks. Our proposed model, at the time of writing, out-performs the state of the art on a benchmark dataset on a variety of accuracy and regression metrics.
Our senses individually work in a coordinated fashion to express our emotional intentions. In this work, we experiment with modeling modality-specific sensory signals to attend to our latent multimodal emotional intentions and vice versa expressed via low-rank multimodal fusion and multimodal transformers. The low-rank factorization of multimodal fusion amongst the modalities helps represent approximate multiplicative latent signal interactions. Motivated by the work of~(CITATION) and~(CITATION), we present our transformer-based cross-fusion architecture without any over-parameterization of the model. The low-rank fusion helps represent the latent signal interactions while the modality-specific attention helps focus on relevant parts of the signal. We present two methods for the Multimodal Sentiment and Emotion Recognition results on CMU-MOSEI, CMU-MOSI, and IEMOCAP datasets and show that our models have lesser parameters, train faster and perform comparably to many larger fusion-based architectures.
Allowing humans to communicate through natural language with robots requires connections between words and percepts. The process of creating these connections is called symbol grounding and has been studied for nearly three decades. Although many studies have been conducted, not many considered grounding of synonyms and the employed algorithms either work only offline or in a supervised manner. In this paper, a cross-situational learning based grounding framework is proposed that allows grounding of words and phrases through corresponding percepts without human supervision and online, i.e. it does not require any explicit training phase, but instead updates the obtained mappings for every new encountered situation. The proposed framework is evaluated through an interaction experiment between a human tutor and a robot, and compared to an existing unsupervised grounding framework. The results show that the proposed framework is able to ground words through their corresponding percepts online and in an unsupervised manner, while outperforming the baseline framework.
Behavioral cues play a significant part in human communication and cognitive perception. In most professional domains, employee recruitment policies are framed such that both professional skills and personality traits are adequately assessed. Hiring interviews are structured to evaluate expansively a potential employee’s suitability for the position - their professional qualifications, interpersonal skills, ability to perform in critical and stressful situations, in the presence of time and resource constraints, etc. Candidates, therefore, need to be aware of their positive and negative attributes and be mindful of behavioral cues that might have adverse effects on their success. We propose a multimodal analytical framework that analyzes the candidate in an interview scenario and provides feedback for predefined labels such as engagement, speaking rate, eye contact, etc. We perform a comprehensive analysis that includes the interviewee’s facial expressions, speech, and prosodic information, using the video, audio, and text transcripts obtained from the recorded interview. We use these multimodal data sources to construct a composite representation, which is used for training machine learning classifiers to predict the class labels. Such analysis is then used to provide constructive feedback to the interviewee for their behavioral cues and body language. Experimental validation showed that the proposed methodology achieved promising results.
Building multimodal dialogue understanding capabilities situated in the in-cabin context is crucial to enhance passenger comfort in autonomous vehicle (AV) interaction systems. To this end, understanding passenger intents from spoken interactions and vehicle vision systems is an important building block for developing contextual and visually grounded conversational agents for AV. Towards this goal, we explore AMIE (Automated-vehicle Multimodal In-cabin Experience), the in-cabin agent responsible for handling multimodal passenger-vehicle interactions. In this work, we discuss the benefits of multimodal understanding of in-cabin utterances by incorporating verbal/language input together with the non-verbal/acoustic and visual input from inside and outside the vehicle. Our experimental results outperformed text-only baselines as we achieved improved performances for intent detection with multimodal approach.
An artificial intelligence(AI) system should be capable of processing the sensory inputs to extract both task-specific and general information about its environment. However, most of the existing algorithms extract only task specific information. In this work, an innovative approach to address the problem of processing visual sensory data is presented by utilizing convolutional neural network (CNN). It recognizes and represents the physical and semantic nature of the surrounding in both human readable and machine processable format. This work utilizes the image captioning model to capture the semantics of the input image and a modular design to generate a probability distribution for semantic topics. It gives any autonomous system the ability to process visual information in a human-like way and generates more insights which are hardly possible with a conventional algorithm. Here a model and data collection method are proposed.
Deep Neural Networks have been successfully used for the task of Visual Question Answering for the past few years owing to the availability of relevant large scale datasets. However these datasets are created in artificial settings and rarely reflect the real world scenario. Recent research effectively applies these VQA models for answering visual questions for the blind. Despite achieving high accuracy these models appear to be susceptible to variation in input questions.We analyze popular VQA models through the lens of attribution (input’s influence on predictions) to gain valuable insights. Further, We use these insights to craft adversarial attacks which inflict significant damage to these systems with negligible change in meaning of the input questions. We believe this will enhance development of systems more robust to the possible variations in inputs when deployed to assist the visually impaired.
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Stroke is treatable, but it is prone to disability after treatment and must be prevented. To grasp the degree of disability caused by stroke, we use magnetic resonance imaging text records to predict stroke and measure the performance according to the document-level and sentence-level representation. As a result of the experiment, the document-level representation shows better performance.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory and degenerative neurological disease, which is monitored by a specialist using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and recorded in unstructured text in the form of a neurology consult note. An EDSS measurement contains an overall ‘EDSS’ score and several functional subscores. Typically, expert knowledge is required to interpret consult notes and generate these scores. Previous approaches used limited context length Word2Vec embeddings and keyword searches to predict scores given a consult note, but often failed when scores were not explicitly stated. In this work, we present MS-BERT, the first publicly available transformer model trained on real clinical data other than MIMIC. Next, we present MSBC, a classifier that applies MS-BERT to generate embeddings and predict EDSS and functional subscores. Lastly, we explore combining MSBC with other models through the use of Snorkel to generate scores for unlabelled consult notes. MSBC achieves state-of-the-art performance on all metrics and prediction tasks and outperforms the models generated from the Snorkel ensemble. We improve Macro-F1 by 0.12 (to 0.88) for predicting EDSS and on average by 0.29 (to 0.63) for predicting functional subscores over previous Word2Vec CNN and rule-based approaches.
ICD coding is the task of classifying and cod-ing all diagnoses, symptoms and proceduresassociated with a patient’s visit. The process isoften manual, extremely time-consuming andexpensive for hospitals as clinical interactionsare usually recorded in free text medical notes.In this paper, we propose a machine learningmodel, BERT-XML, for large scale automatedICD coding of EHR notes, utilizing recentlydeveloped unsupervised pretraining that haveachieved state of the art performance on a va-riety of NLP tasks. We train a BERT modelfrom scratch on EHR notes, learning with vo-cabulary better suited for EHR tasks and thusoutperform off-the-shelf models. We furtheradapt the BERT architecture for ICD codingwith multi-label attention. We demonstratethe effectiveness of BERT-based models on thelarge scale ICD code classification task usingmillions of EHR notes to predict thousands ofunique codes.
Reducing rates of early hospital readmission has been recognized and identified as a key to improve quality of care and reduce costs. There are a number of risk factors that have been hypothesized to be important for understanding re-admission risk, including such factors as problems with substance abuse, ability to maintain work, relations with family. In this work, we develop Roberta-based models to predict the sentiment of sentences describing readmission risk factors in discharge summaries of patients with psychosis. We improve substantially on previous results by a scheme that shares information across risk factors while also allowing the model to learn risk factor-specific information.
Relying on large pretrained language models such as Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) for encoding and adding a simple prediction layer has led to impressive performance in many clinical natural language processing (NLP) tasks. In this work, we present a novel extension to the Transformer architecture, by incorporating signature transform with the self-attention model. This architecture is added between embedding and prediction layers. Experiments on a new Swedish prescription data show the proposed architecture to be superior in two of the three information extraction tasks, comparing to baseline models. Finally, we evaluate two different embedding approaches between applying Multilingual BERT and translating the Swedish text to English then encode with a BERT model pretrained on clinical notes.
We evaluate several biomedical contextual embeddings (based on BERT, ELMo, and Flair) for the detection of medication entities such as Drugs and Adverse Drug Events (ADE) from Electronic Health Records (EHR) using the 2018 ADE and Medication Extraction (Track 2) n2c2 data-set. We identify best practices for transfer learning, such as language-model fine-tuning and scalar mix. Our transfer learning models achieve strong performance in the overall task (F1=92.91%) as well as in ADE identification (F1=53.08%). Flair-based embeddings out-perform in the identification of context-dependent entities such as ADE. BERT-based embeddings out-perform in recognizing clinical terminology such as Drug and Form entities. ELMo-based embeddings deliver competitive performance in all entities. We develop a sentence-augmentation method for enhanced ADE identification benefiting BERT-based and ELMo-based models by up to 3.13% in F1 gains. Finally, we show that a simple ensemble of these models out-paces most current methods in ADE extraction (F1=55.77%).
With the growing number of electronic health record data, clinical NLP tasks have become increasingly relevant to unlock valuable information from unstructured clinical text. Although the performance of downstream NLP tasks, such as named-entity recognition (NER), in English corpus has recently improved by contextualised language models, less research is available for clinical texts in low resource languages. Our goal is to assess a deep contextual embedding model for Portuguese, so called BioBERTpt, to support clinical and biomedical NER. We transfer learned information encoded in a multilingual-BERT model to a corpora of clinical narratives and biomedical-scientific papers in Brazilian Portuguese. To evaluate the performance of BioBERTpt, we ran NER experiments on two annotated corpora containing clinical narratives and compared the results with existing BERT models. Our in-domain model outperformed the baseline model in F1-score by 2.72%, achieving higher performance in 11 out of 13 assessed entities. We demonstrate that enriching contextual embedding models with domain literature can play an important role in improving performance for specific NLP tasks. The transfer learning process enhanced the Portuguese biomedical NER model by reducing the necessity of labeled data and the demand for retraining a whole new model.
Medical code assignment, which predicts medical codes from clinical texts, is a fundamental task of intelligent medical information systems. The emergence of deep models in natural language processing has boosted the development of automatic assignment methods. However, recent advanced neural architectures with flat convolutions or multi-channel feature concatenation ignore the sequential causal constraint within a text sequence and may not learn meaningful clinical text representations, especially for lengthy clinical notes with long-term sequential dependency. This paper proposes a Dilated Convolutional Attention Network (DCAN), integrating dilated convolutions, residual connections, and label attention, for medical code assignment. It adopts dilated convolutions to capture complex medical patterns with a receptive field which increases exponentially with dilation size. Experiments on a real-world clinical dataset empirically show that our model improves the state of the art.
Loss of consciousness, so-called syncope, is a commonly occurring symptom associated with worse prognosis for a number of heart-related diseases. We present a comparison of methods for a diagnosis classification task in Norwegian clinical notes, targeting syncope, i.e. fainting cases. We find that an often neglected baseline with keyword matching constitutes a rather strong basis, but more advanced methods do offer some improvement in classification performance, especially a convolutional neural network model. The developed pipeline is planned to be used for quantifying unregistered syncope cases in Norway.
In this paper, we evaluate several machine learning methods for multi-label classification of text questions. Every nursing student in the United States must pass the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX) to begin professional practice. NCLEX defines a number of competencies on which students are evaluated. By labeling test questions with NCLEX competencies, we can score students according to their performance in each competency. This information helps instructors measure how prepared students are for the NCLEX, as well as which competencies they may need help with. A key challenge is that questions may be related to more than one competency. Labeling questions with NCLEX competencies, therefore, equates to a multi-label, text classification problem where each competency is a label. Here we present an evaluation of several methods to support this use case along with a proposed approach. While our work is grounded in the nursing education domain, the methods described here can be used for any multi-label, text classification use case.
Clinical notes contain rich information, which is relatively unexploited in predictive modeling compared to structured data. In this work, we developed a new clinical text representation Clinical XLNet that leverages the temporal information of the sequence of the notes. We evaluated our models on prolonged mechanical ventilation prediction problem and our experiments demonstrated that Clinical XLNet outperforms the best baselines consistently. The models and scripts are made publicly available.
Lymph node status plays a pivotal role in the treatment of cancer. The extraction of lymph nodes from radiology text reports enables large-scale training of lymph node detection on MRI. In this work, we first propose an ontology of 41 types of abdominal lymph nodes with a hierarchical relationship. We then introduce an end-to-end approach based on the combination of rules and transformer-based methods to detect these abdominal lymph node mentions and classify their types from the MRI radiology reports. We demonstrate the superior performance of a model fine-tuned on MRI reports using BlueBERT, called MriBERT. We find that MriBERT outperforms the rule-based labeler (0.957 vs 0.644 in micro weighted F1-score) as well as other BERT-based variations (0.913 - 0.928). We make the code and MriBERT publicly available at https://github.com/ncbi-nlp/bluebert, with the hope that this method can facilitate the development of medical report annotators to produce labels from scratch at scale.
Reading comprehension style question-answering (QA) based on patient-specific documents represents a growing area in clinical NLP with plentiful applications. Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) and its derivatives lead the state-of-the-art accuracy on the task, but most evaluation has treated the data as a pre-mixture without systematically looking into the potential effect of imperfect train/test questions. The current study seeks to address this gap by experimenting with full versus partial train/test data consisting of paraphrastic questions. Our key findings include 1) training with all pooled question variants yielded best accuracy, 2) the accuracy varied widely, from 0.74 to 0.80, when trained with each single question variant, and 3) questions of similar lexical/syntactic structure tended to induce identical answers. The results suggest that how you ask questions matters in BERT-based QA, especially at the training stage.
Extracting and modeling temporal information in clinical text is an important element for developing timelines and disease trajectories. Time information in written text varies in preciseness and explicitness, posing challenges for NLP approaches that aim to accurately anchor temporal information on a timeline. Relative and incomplete time expressions (RI-Timexes) are expressions that require additional information for their temporal anchor to be resolved, but few studies have addressed this challenge specifically. In this study, we aimed to reproduce and verify a classification approach for identifying anchor dates and relations in clinical text, and propose a novel relation classification approach for this task.
One of the biggest challenges that prohibit the use of many current NLP methods in clinical settings is the availability of public datasets. In this work, we present MeDAL, a large medical text dataset curated for abbreviation disambiguation, designed for natural language understanding pre-training in the medical domain. We pre-trained several models of common architectures on this dataset and empirically showed that such pre-training leads to improved performance and convergence speed when fine-tuning on downstream medical tasks.
In this work, we propose a novel goal-oriented dialog task, automatic symptom detection. We build a system that can interact with patients through dialog to detect and collect clinical symptoms automatically, which can save a doctor’s time interviewing the patient. Given a set of explicit symptoms provided by the patient to initiate a dialog for diagnosing, the system is trained to collect implicit symptoms by asking questions, in order to collect more information for making an accurate diagnosis. After getting the reply from the patient for each question, the system also decides whether current information is enough for a human doctor to make a diagnosis. To achieve this goal, we propose two neural models and a training pipeline for the multi-step reasoning task. We also build a knowledge graph as additional inputs to further improve model performance. Experiments show that our model significantly outperforms the baseline by 4%, discovering 67% of implicit symptoms on average with a limited number of questions.
A large array of pretrained models are available to the biomedical NLP (BioNLP) community. Finding the best model for a particular task can be difficult and time-consuming. For many applications in the biomedical and clinical domains, it is crucial that models can be built quickly and are highly accurate. We present a large-scale study across 18 established biomedical and clinical NLP tasks to determine which of several popular open-source biomedical and clinical NLP models work well in different settings. Furthermore, we apply recent advances in pretraining to train new biomedical language models, and carefully investigate the effect of various design choices on downstream performance. Our best models perform well in all of our benchmarks, and set new State-of-the-Art in 9 tasks. We release these models in the hope that they can help the community to speed up and increase the accuracy of BioNLP and text mining applications.
Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) models achieve state-of-the-art performance on a number of Natural Language Processing tasks. However, their model size on disk often exceeds 1 GB and the process of fine-tuning them and using them to run inference consumes significant hardware resources and runtime. This makes them hard to deploy to production environments. This paper fine-tunes DistilBERT, a lightweight deep learning model, on medical text for the named entity recognition task of Protected Health Information (PHI) and medical concepts. This work provides a full assessment of the performance of DistilBERT in comparison with BERT models that were pre-trained on medical text. For Named Entity Recognition task of PHI, DistilBERT achieved almost the same results as medical versions of BERT in terms of F1 score at almost half the runtime and consuming approximately half the disk space. On the other hand, for the detection of medical concepts, DistilBERT’s F1 score was lower by 4 points on average than medical BERT variants.
While Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) is the second most common type of neurodegenerative dementia following Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), it is difficult to distinguish from AD. We propose a method for DLB detection by using mental health record (MHR) documents from a (3-month) period before a patient has been diagnosed with DLB or AD. Our objective is to develop a model that could be clinically useful to differentiate between DLB and AD across datasets from different healthcare institutions. We cast this as a classification task using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), an efficient neural model for text classification. We experiment with different representation models, and explore the features that contribute to model performances. In addition, we apply temperature scaling, a simple but efficient model calibration method, to produce more reliable predictions. We believe the proposed method has important potential for clinical applications using routine healthcare records, and for generalising to other relevant clinical record datasets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to distinguish DLB from AD using mental health records, and to improve the reliability of DLB predictions.
Automated Medication Regimen (MR) extraction from medical conversations can not only improve recall and help patients follow through with their care plan, but also reduce the documentation burden for doctors. In this paper, we focus on extracting spans for frequency, route and change, corresponding to medications discussed in the conversation. We first describe a unique dataset of annotated doctor-patient conversations and then present a weakly supervised model architecture that can perform span extraction using noisy classification data. The model utilizes an attention bottleneck inside a classification model to perform the extraction. We experiment with several variants of attention scoring and projection functions and propose a novel transformer-based attention scoring function (TAScore). The proposed combination of TAScore and Fusedmax projection achieves a 10 point increase in Longest Common Substring F1 compared to the baseline of additive scoring plus softmax projection.
We present work on extraction of radiotherapy treatment information from the clinical narrative in the electronic medical records. Radiotherapy is a central component of the treatment of most solid cancers. Its details are described in non-standardized fashions using jargon not found in other medical specialties, complicating the already difficult task of manual data extraction. We examine the performance of several state-of-the-art neural methods for relation extraction of radiotherapy treatment details, with a goal of automating detailed information extraction. The neural systems perform at 0.82-0.88 macro-average F1, which approximates or in some cases exceeds the inter-annotator agreement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to develop models for radiotherapy relation extraction and one of the few efforts for relation extraction to describe cancer treatment in general.
A cancer registry is a critical and massive database for which various types of domain knowledge are needed and whose maintenance requires labor-intensive data curation. In order to facilitate the curation process for building a high-quality and integrated cancer registry database, we compiled a cross-hospital corpus and applied neural network methods to develop a natural language processing system for extracting cancer registry variables buried in unstructured pathology reports. The performance of the developed networks was compared with various baselines using standard micro-precision, recall and F-measure. Furthermore, we conducted experiments to study the feasibility of applying transfer learning to rapidly develop a well-performing system for processing reports from different sources that might be presented in different writing styles and formats. The results demonstrate that the transfer learning method enables us to develop a satisfactory system for a new hospital with only a few annotations and suggest more opportunities to reduce the burden of cancer registry curation.
De-identification is the task of identifying protected health information (PHI) in the clinical text. Existing neural de-identification models often fail to generalize to a new dataset. We propose a simple yet effective data augmentation method PHICON to alleviate the generalization issue. PHICON consists of PHI augmentation and Context augmentation, which creates augmented training corpora by replacing PHI entities with named-entities sampled from external sources, and by changing background context with synonym replacement or random word insertion, respectively. Experimental results on the i2b2 2006 and 2014 de-identification challenge datasets show that PHICON can help three selected de-identification models boost F1-score (by at most 8.6%) on cross-dataset test setting. We also discuss how much augmentation to use and how each augmentation method influences the performance.
In most clinical practice settings, there is no rigorous reviewing of the clinical documentation, resulting in inaccurate information captured in the patient medical records. The gold standard in clinical data capturing is achieved via “expert-review”, where clinicians can have a dialogue with a domain expert (reviewers) and ask them questions about data entry rules. Automatically identifying “real questions” in these dialogues could uncover ambiguities or common problems in data capturing in a given clinical setting. In this study, we proposed a novel multi-channel deep convolutional neural network architecture, namely Quest-CNN, for the purpose of separating real questions that expect an answer (information or help) about an issue from sentences that are not questions, as well as from questions referring to an issue mentioned in a nearby sentence (e.g., can you clarify this?), which we will refer as “c-questions”. We conducted a comprehensive performance comparison analysis of the proposed multi-channel deep convolutional neural network against other deep neural networks. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of traditional rule-based and learning-based methods for detecting question sentences. The proposed Quest-CNN achieved the best F1 score both on a dataset of data entry-review dialogue in a dialysis care setting, and on a general domain dataset.
Domain pretraining followed by task fine-tuning has become the standard paradigm for NLP tasks, but requires in-domain labelled data for task fine-tuning. To overcome this, we propose to utilise domain unlabelled data by assigning pseudo labels from a general model. We evaluate the approach on two clinical STS datasets, and achieve r= 0.80 on N2C2-STS. Further investigation reveals that if the data distribution of unlabelled sentence pairs is closer to the test data, we can obtain better performance. By leveraging a large general-purpose STS dataset and small-scale in-domain training data, we obtain further improvements to r= 0.90, a new SOTA.
In drug development, protocols define how clinical trials are conducted, and are therefore of paramount importance. They contain key patient-, investigator-, medication-, and study-related information, often elaborated in different sections in the protocol texts. Granular-level parsing on large quantity of existing protocols can accelerate clinical trial design and provide actionable insights into trial optimization. Here, we report our progresses in using deep learning NLP algorithms to enable automated protocol analytics. In particular, we combined a pre-trained BERT transformer model with joint-learning strategies to simultaneously identify clinically relevant entities (i.e. Named Entity Recognition) and extract the syntactic relations between these entities (i.e. Relation Extraction) from the eligibility criteria section in protocol texts. When comparing to standalone NER and RE models, our joint-learning strategy can effectively improve the performance of RE task while retaining similarly high NER performance, likely due to the synergy of optimizing toward both tasks’ objectives via shared parameters. The derived NLP model provides an end-to-end solution to convert unstructured protocol texts into structured data source, which will be embedded into a comprehensive clinical analytics workflow for downstream trial design missions such like patient population extraction, patient enrollment rate estimation, and protocol amendment prediction.
Eligibility criteria in the clinical trials specify the characteristics that a patient must or must not possess in order to be treated according to a standard clinical care guideline. As the process of manual eligibility determination is time-consuming, automatic structuring of the eligibility criteria into various semantic categories or aspects is the need of the hour. Existing methods use hand-crafted rules and feature-based statistical machine learning methods to dynamically induce semantic aspects. However, in order to deal with paucity of aspect-annotated clinical trials data, we propose a novel weakly-supervised co-training based method which can exploit a large pool of unlabeled criteria sentences to augment the limited supervised training data, and consequently enhance the performance. Experiments with 0.2M criteria sentences show that the proposed approach outperforms the competitive supervised baselines by 12% in terms of micro-averaged F1 score for all the aspects. Probing deeper into analysis, we observe domain-specific information boosts up the performance by a significant margin.
Automatic structuring of electronic medical records is of high demand for clinical workflow solutions to facilitate extraction, storage, and querying of patient care information. However, developing a scalable solution is extremely challenging, specifically for radiology reports, as most healthcare institutes use either no template or department/institute specific templates. Moreover, radiologists’ reporting style varies from one to another as sentences are written in a telegraphic format and do not follow general English grammar rules. In this work, we present an ensemble method that consolidates the predictions of three models, capturing various attributes of textual information for automatic labeling of sentences with section labels. These three models are: 1) Focus Sentence model, capturing context of the target sentence; 2) Surrounding Context model, capturing the neighboring context of the target sentence; and finally, 3) Formatting/Layout model, aimed at learning report formatting cues. We utilize Bi-directional LSTMs, followed by sentence encoders, to acquire the context. Furthermore, we define several features that incorporate the structure of reports. We compare our proposed approach against multiple baselines and state-of-the-art approaches on a proprietary dataset as well as 100 manually annotated radiology notes from the MIMIC-III dataset, which we are making publicly available. Our proposed approach significantly outperforms other approaches by achieving 97.1% accuracy.
Recent studies have shown that adversarial examples can be generated by applying small perturbations to the inputs such that the well- trained deep learning models will misclassify. With the increasing number of safety and security-sensitive applications of deep learn- ing models, the robustness of deep learning models has become a crucial topic. The robustness of deep learning models for health- care applications is especially critical because the unique characteristics and the high financial interests of the medical domain make it more sensitive to adversarial attacks. Among the modalities of medical data, the clinical summaries have higher risks to be attacked because they are generated by third-party companies. As few works studied adversarial threats on clinical summaries, in this work we first apply adversarial attack to clinical summaries of electronic health records (EHR) to show the text-based deep learning systems are vulnerable to adversarial examples. Secondly, benefiting from the multi-modality of the EHR dataset, we propose a novel defense method, MATCH (Multimodal feATure Consistency cHeck), which leverages the consistency between multiple modalities in the data to defend against adversarial examples on a single modality. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of MATCH on a hospital readmission prediction task comparing with baseline methods.
We address the problem of model generalization for sequence to sequence (seq2seq) architectures. We propose going beyond data augmentation via paraphrase-optimized multi-task learning and observe that it is useful in correctly handling unseen sentential paraphrases as inputs. Our models greatly outperform SOTA seq2seq models for semantic parsing on diverse domains (Overnight - up to 3.2% and emrQA - 7%) and Nematus, the winning solution for WMT 2017, for Czech to English translation (CzENG 1.6 - 1.5 BLEU).
Ample evidence suggests that better machine learning models may be steadily obtained by training on increasingly larger datasets on natural language processing (NLP) problems from non-medical domains. Whether the same holds true for medical NLP has by far not been thoroughly investigated. This work shows that this is indeed not always the case. We reveal the somehow counter-intuitive observation that performant medical NLP models may be obtained with small amount of labeled data, quite the opposite to the common belief, most likely due to the domain specificity of the problem. We show quantitatively the effect of training data size on a fixed test set composed of two of the largest public chest x-ray radiology report datasets on the task of abnormality classification. The trained models not only make use of the training data efficiently, but also outperform the current state-of-the-art rule-based systems by a significant margin.
In this work we describe the Waiting List Corpus consisting of de-identified referrals for several specialty consultations from the waiting list in Chilean public hospitals. A subset of 900 referrals was manually annotated with 9,029 entities, 385 attributes, and 284 pairs of relations with clinical relevance. A trained medical doctor annotated these referrals, and then together with other three researchers, consolidated each of the annotations. The annotated corpus has nested entities, with 32.2% of entities embedded in other entities. We use this annotated corpus to obtain preliminary results for Named Entity Recognition (NER). The best results were achieved by using a biLSTM-CRF architecture using word embeddings trained over Spanish Wikipedia together with clinical embeddings computed by the group. NER models applied to this corpus can leverage statistics of diseases and pending procedures within this waiting list. This work constitutes the first annotated corpus using clinical narratives from Chile, and one of the few for the Spanish language. The annotated corpus, the clinical word embeddings, and the annotation guidelines are freely released to the research community.
Clinical machine learning is increasingly multimodal, collected in both structured tabular formats and unstructured forms such as free text. We propose a novel task of exploring fairness on a multimodal clinical dataset, adopting equalized odds for the downstream medical prediction tasks. To this end, we investigate a modality-agnostic fairness algorithm - equalized odds post processing - and compare it to a text-specific fairness algorithm: debiased clinical word embeddings. Despite the fact that debiased word embeddings do not explicitly address equalized odds of protected groups, we show that a text-specific approach to fairness may simultaneously achieve a good balance of performance classical notions of fairness. Our work opens the door for future work at the critical intersection of clinical NLP and fairness.
This paper introduces the citizen science platform, LanguageARC, developed within the NIEUW (Novel Incentives and Workflows) project supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1730377. LanguageARC is a community-oriented online platform bringing together researchers and “citizen linguists” with the shared goal of contributing to linguistic research and language technology development. Like other Citizen Science platforms and projects, LanguageARC harnesses the power and efforts of volunteers who are motivated by the incentives of contributing to science, learning and discovery, and belonging to a community dedicated to social improvement. Citizen linguists contribute language data and judgments by participating in research tasks such as classifying regional accents from audio clips, recording audio of picture descriptions and answering personality questionnaires to create baseline data for NLP research into autism and neurodegenerative conditions. Researchers can create projects on Language ARC without any coding or HTML required using our Project Builder Toolkit.
Language resources are a major ingredient for the advancement of language technologies. Citizen linguistics can help to create language resources and annotate language resources, not only for the improvement of language technologies, such as machine translation but also for the advancement of linguistic research. The (language) resources covered in this article are a corpus related to the Question of the Month project strand, which was initially aimed at co-creation in citizen linguistics and a partially annotated database of pictures of written text in different languages found in the public sphere. The number of participants in these project strands differed significantly. Especially those activities that were related to data collection (and analysis) had a significantly higher number of contributions per participant. This especially held true for the activities with (prize) incentives. Nevertheless, the activities of the Question of the Month could reach a higher number of participants, even after the co-creation approach was no longer followed. In addition, the Question of the Month brought research gaps and new knowledge to light and challenged existing paradigms and practices. These are especially important for the advancement of scholarly research. Citizen linguistics can help gather and analyze linguistic data, including language resources, in a short period of time. Thus, it may help increase the access to and availability of language resources.
Labelling, or annotation, is the process by which we assign labels to an item with regards to a task. In some Artificial Intelligence problems, such as Computer Vision tasks, the goal is to obtain objective labels. However, in problems such as text and sentiment analysis, subjective labelling is often required. More so when the sentiment analysis deals with actual emotions instead of polarity (positive/negative) . Scientists employ human experts to create these labels, but it is costly and time consuming. Crowdsourcing enables researchers to utilise non-expert knowledge for scientific tasks. From image analysis to semantic annotation, interested researchers can gather a large sample of answers via crowdsourcing platforms in a timely manner. However, non-expert contributions often need to be thoroughly assessed, particularly so when a task is subjective. Researchers have traditionally used ‘Gold Standard’, ‘Thresholding’ and ‘Majority Voting’ as methods to filter non-expert contributions. We argue that these methods are unsuitable for subjective tasks, such as lexicon acquisition and sentiment analysis. We discuss subjectivity in human centered tasks and present a filtering method that defines quality contributors, based on a set of objectively infused terms in a lexicon acquisition task. We evaluate our method against an established lexicon, the diversity of emotions - i.e. subjectivity- and the exclusion of contributions. Our proposed objective evaluation method can be used to assess contributors in subjective tasks that will provide domain agnostic, quality results, with at least 7% improvement over traditional methods.
Crowdsourcing approaches provide a difficult design challenge for developers. There is a trade-off between the efficiency of the task to be done and the reward given to the user for participating, whether it be altruism, social enhancement, entertainment or money. This paper explores how crowdsourcing and citizen science systems collect data and complete tasks, illustrated by a case study from the online language game-with-a-purpose Phrase Detectives. The game was originally developed to be a constrained interface to prevent player collusion, but subsequently benefited from posthoc analysis of over 76k unconstrained inputs from users. Understanding the interface design and task deconstruction are critical for enabling users to participate in such systems and the paper concludes with a discussion of the idea that social networks can be viewed as form of citizen science platform with both constrained and unconstrained inputs making for a highly complex dataset.
Abstract Meaning Representations (AMRs), a syntax-free representation of phrase semantics are useful for capturing the meaning of a phrase and reflecting the relationship between concepts that are referred to. However, annotating AMRs are time consuming and expensive. The existing annotation process requires expertly trained workers who have knowledge of an extensive set of guidelines for parsing phrases. In this paper, we propose a cost-saving two-step process for the creation of a corpus of AMR-phrase pairs for spatial referring expressions. The first step uses non-specialists to perform simple annotations that can be leveraged in the second step to accelerate the annotation performed by the experts. We hypothesize that our process will decrease the cost per annotation and improve consistency across annotators. Few corpora of spatial referring expressions exist and the resulting language resource will be valuable for referring expression comprehension and generation modeling.
We report on a web-based resource for conducting intercomprehension experiments with native speakers of Slavic languages and present our methods for measuring linguistic distances and asymmetries in receptive multilingualism. Through a website which serves as a platform for online testing, a large number of participants with different linguistic backgrounds can be targeted. A statistical language model is used to measure information density and to gauge how language users master various degrees of (un)intelligibilty. The key idea is that intercomprehension should be better when the model adapted for understanding the unknown language exhibits relatively low average distance and surprisal. All obtained intelligibility scores together with distance and asymmetry measures for the different language pairs and processing directions are made available as an integrated online resource in the form of a Slavic intercomprehension matrix (SlavMatrix).
This study uses crowdsourcing through LanguageARC to collect data on levels of accuracy in the identification of speakers’ ethnicities. Ten participants (5 US; 5 South-East England) classified lexically identical speech stimuli from a corpus of 227 speakers aged 18-33yrs from South-East England into the main “ethnic” groups in Britain: White British, Black British and Asian British. Firstly, the data reveals that there is no significant geographic proximity effect on performance between US and British participants. Secondly, results contribute to recent work suggesting that despite the varying heritages of young, ethnic minority speakers in London, they speak an innovative and emerging variety: Multicultural London English (MLE) (e.g. Cheshire et al., 2011). Countering this, participants found perceptual linguistic differences between speakers of all 3 ethnicities (80.7% accuracy). The highest rate of accuracy (96%) was when identifying the ethnicity of Black British speakers from London whose speech seems to form a distinct, perceptual category. Participants also perform substantially better than chance at identifying Black British and Asian British speakers who are not from London (80% and 60% respectively). This suggests that MLE is not a single, homogeneous variety but instead, there are perceptual linguistic differences by ethnicity which transcend the borders of London.
LanguageARC is a portal that offers citizen linguists opportunities to contribute to language related research. It also provides researchers with infrastructure for easily creating data collection and annotation tasks on the portal and potentially connecting with contributors. This document describes LanguageARC’s main features and operation for researchers interested in creating new projects and or using the resulting data.
This paper will detail how IARPA’s MATERIAL Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) program investigated certain linguistic parameters to guide language choice, data collection and partitioning, and understand evaluation results. Discerning which linguistic parameters correlated with overall performance enabled the evaluation of progress when different languages were measured, and also was an important factor in determining the most effective CLIR pipeline design, customized to handle language-specific properties deemed necessary to address.
The Machine Translation for English Retrieval of Information in Any Language (MATERIAL) research program, sponsored by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), focuses on rapid development of end-to-end systems capable of retrieving foreign language speech and text documents relevant to different types of English queries that may be further restricted by domain. Those systems also provide evidence of relevance of the retrieved content in the form of English summaries. The program focuses on Less-Resourced Languages and provides its performer teams very limited amounts of annotated training data. This paper describes the corpora that were created for system development and evaluation for the six languages released by the program to date: Tagalog, Swahili, Somali, Lithuanian, Bulgarian and Pashto. The corpora include build packs to train Machine Translation and Automatic Speech Recognition systems; document sets in three text and three speech genres annotated for domain and partitioned for analysis, development and evaluation; and queries of several types together with corresponding binary relevance judgments against the entire set of documents. The paper also describes a detection metric called Actual Query Weighted Value developed by the program to evaluate end-to-end system performance.
At about the midpoint of the IARPA MATERIAL program in October 2019, an evaluation was conducted on systems’ abilities to find Lithuanian documents based on English queries. Subsequently, both the Lithuanian test collection and results from all three teams were made available for detailed analysis. This paper capitalizes on that opportunity to begin to look at what’s working well at this stage of the program, and to identify some promising directions for future work.
We describe an approach to cross lingual information retrieval that does not rely on explicit translation of either document or query terms. Instead, both queries and documents are mapped into a shared embedding space where retrieval is performed. We discuss potential advantages of the approach in handling polysemy and synonymy. We present a method for training the model, and give details of the model implementation. We present experimental results for two cases: Somali-English and Bulgarian-English CLIR.
Multiple neural language models have been developed recently, e.g., BERT and XLNet, and achieved impressive results in various NLP tasks including sentence classification, question answering and document ranking. In this paper, we explore the use of the popular bidirectional language model, BERT, to model and learn the relevance between English queries and foreign-language documents in the task of cross-lingual information retrieval. A deep relevance matching model based on BERT is introduced and trained by finetuning a pretrained multilingual BERT model with weak supervision, using home-made CLIR training data derived from parallel corpora. Experimental results of the retrieval of Lithuanian documents against short English queries show that our model is effective and outperforms the competitive baseline approaches.
We address the problem of linking related documents across languages in a multilingual collection. We evaluate three diverse unsupervised methods to represent and compare documents: (1) multilingual topic model; (2) cross-lingual document embeddings; and (3) Wasserstein distance.We test the performance of these methods in retrieving news articles in Swedish that are known to be related to a given Finnish article.The results show that ensembles of the methods outperform the stand-alone methods, suggesting that they capture complementary characteristics of the documents
In the IARPA MATERIAL program, information retrieval (IR) is treated as a hard detection problem; the system has to output a single global ranking over all queries, and apply a hard threshold on this global list to come up with all the hypothesized relevant documents. This means that how queries are ranked relative to each other can have a dramatic impact on performance. In this paper, we study such a performance measure, the Average Query Weighted Value (AQWV), which is a combination of miss and false alarm rates. AQWV requires that the same detection threshold is applied to all queries. Hence, detection scores of different queries should be comparable, and, to do that, a score normalization technique (commonly used in keyword spotting from speech) should be used. We describe unsupervised methods for score normalization, which are borrowed from the speech field and adapted accordingly for IR, and demonstrate that they greatly improve AQWV on the task of cross-language information retrieval (CLIR), on three low-resource languages used in MATERIAL. We also present a novel supervised score normalization approach which gives additional gains.
In this paper, we describe a cross-lingual information retrieval (CLIR) system that, given a query in English, and a set of audio and text documents in a foreign language, can return a scored list of relevant documents, and present findings in a summary form in English. Foreign audio documents are first transcribed by a state-of-the-art pretrained multilingual speech recognition model that is finetuned to the target language. For text documents, we use multiple multilingual neural machine translation (MT) models to achieve good translation results, especially for low/medium resource languages. The processed documents and queries are then scored using a probabilistic CLIR model that makes use of the probability of translation from GIZA translation tables and scores from a Neural Network Lexical Translation Model (NNLTM). Additionally, advanced score normalization, combination, and thresholding schemes are employed to maximize the Average Query Weighted Value (AQWV) scores. The CLIR output, together with multiple translation renderings, are selected and translated into English snippets via a summarization model. Our turnkey system is language agnostic and can be quickly trained for a new low-resource language in few days.
We describe the human triage scenario envisioned in the Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval (CLIR) problem of the [REDUCT] Program. The overall goal is to maximize the quality of the set of documents that is given to a bilingual analyst, as measured by the AQWV score. The initial set of source documents that are retrieved by the CLIR system is summarized in English and presented to human judges who attempt to remove the irrelevant documents (false alarms); the resulting documents are then presented to the analyst. First, we describe the AQWV performance measure and show that, in our experience, if the acceptance threshold of the CLIR component has been optimized to maximize AQWV, the loss in AQWV due to false alarms is relatively constant across many conditions, which also limits the possible gain that can be achieved by any post filter (such as human judgments) that removes false alarms. Second, we analyze the likely benefits for the triage operation as a function of the initial CLIR AQWV score and the ability of the human judges to remove false alarms without removing relevant documents. Third, we demonstrate that we can increase the benefit for human judgments by combining the human judgment scores with the original document scores returned by the automatic CLIR system.
We describe work from our investigations of the novel area of multi-modal cross-lingual retrieval (MMCLIR) under low-resource conditions. We study the challenges associated with MMCLIR relating to: (i) data conversion between different modalities, for example speech and text, (ii) overcoming the language barrier between source and target languages; (iii) effectively scoring and ranking documents to suit the retrieval task; and (iv) handling low resource constraints that prohibit development of heavily tuned machine translation (MT) and automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems. We focus on the use case of retrieving text and speech documents in Swahili, using English queries which was the main focus of the OpenCLIR shared task. Our work is developed within the scope of this task. In this paper we devote special attention to the automatic translation (AT) component which is crucial for the overall quality of the MMCLIR system. We exploit a combination of dictionaries and phrase-based statistical machine translation (MT) systems to tackle effectively the subtask of query translation. We address each MMCLIR challenge individually, and develop separate components for automatic translation (AT), speech processing (SP) and information retrieval (IR). We find that results with respect to cross-lingual text retrieval are quite good relative to the task of cross-lingual speech retrieval. Overall we find that the task of MMCLIR and specifically cross-lingual speech retrieval is quite complex. Further we pinpoint open issues related to handling cross-lingual audio and text retrieval for low resource languages that need to be addressed in future research.
In this work, we focus on improving ASR output segmentation in the context of low-resource language speech-to-text translation. ASR output segmentation is crucial, as ASR systems segment the input audio using purely acoustic information and are not guaranteed to output sentence-like segments. Since most MT systems expect sentences as input, feeding in longer unsegmented passages can lead to sub-optimal performance. We explore the feasibility of using datasets of subtitles from TV shows and movies to train better ASR segmentation models. We further incorporate part-of-speech (POS) tag and dependency label information (derived from the unsegmented ASR outputs) into our segmentation model. We show that this noisy syntactic information can improve model accuracy. We evaluate our models intrinsically on segmentation quality and extrinsically on downstream MT performance, as well as downstream tasks including cross-lingual information retrieval (CLIR) tasks and human relevance assessments. Our model shows improved performance on downstream tasks for Lithuanian and Bulgarian.
Word order flexibility is one of the distinctive features of SOV languages. In this work, we investigate whether the order and relative distance of preverbal dependents in Hindi, an SOV language, is affected by factors motivated by efficiency considerations during comprehension/production. We investigate the influence of Head–Dependent Mutual Information (HDMI), similarity-based interference, accessibility and case-marking. Results show that preverbal dependents remain close to the verbal head when the HDMI between the verb and its dependent is high. This demonstrates the influence of locality constraints on dependency distance and word order in an SOV language. Additionally, dependency distance were found to be longer when the dependent was animate, when it was case-marked and when it was semantically similar to other preverbal dependents. Together the results highlight the crosslinguistic generalizability of these factors and provide evidence for a functionally motivated account of word order in SOV languages such as Hindi.
Different aspects of language processing have been shown to be sensitive to priming but the findings of studies examining priming effects in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) have been inconclusive. We present a study analysing visual and implicit semantic priming in adolescents with ASD and DLD. Based on a dataset of fictional and script-like narratives, we evaluate how often and how extensively, content of two different priming sources is used by the participants. The first priming source was visual, consisting of images shown to the participants to assist them with their storytelling. The second priming source originated from commonsense knowledge, using crowdsourced data containing prototypical script elements. Our results show that individuals with ASD are less sensitive to both types of priming, but show typical usage of primed cues when they use them at all. In contrast, children with DLD show mostly average priming sensitivity, but exhibit an over-proportional use of the priming cues.
We introduce a framework in which production-rule based computational cognitive modeling and Reinforcement Learning can systematically interact and inform each other. We focus on linguistic applications because the sophisticated rule-based cognitive models needed to capture linguistic behavioral data promise to provide a stringent test suite for RL algorithms, connecting RL algorithms to both accuracy and reaction-time experimental data. Thus, we open a path towards assembling an experimentally rigorous and cognitively realistic benchmark for RL algorithms. We extend our previous work on lexical decision tasks and tabular RL algorithms (Brasoveanu and Dotlačil, 2020b) with a discussion of neural-network based approaches, and a discussion of how parsing can be formalized as an RL problem.
Continuous vector word representations (or word embeddings) have shown success in capturing semantic relations between words, as evidenced with evaluation against behavioral data of adult performance on semantic tasks (Pereira et al. 2016). Adult semantic knowledge is the endpoint of a language acquisition process; thus, a relevant question is whether these models can also capture emerging word representations of young language learners. However, the data of semantic knowledge of children is scarce or non-existent for some age groups. In this paper, we propose to bridge this gap by using Age of Acquisition norms to evaluate word embeddings learnt from child-directed input. We present two methods that evaluate word embeddings in terms of (a) the semantic neighbourhood density of learnt words, and (b) the convergence to adult word associations. We apply our methods to bag-of-words models, and we find that (1) children acquire words with fewer semantic neighbours earlier, and (2) young learners only attend to very local context. These findings provide converging evidence for validity of our methods in understanding the prerequisite features for a distributional model of word learning.
The age of acquisition of a word is a psycholinguistic variable concerning the age at which a word is typically learned. It correlates with other psycholinguistic variables such as familiarity, concreteness, and imageability. Existing datasets for multiple languages also include linguistic variables such as the length and the frequency of lemmas in different corpora. There are substantial sets of normative values for English, but for other languages, such as Italian, the coverage is scarce. In this paper,a set of regression experiments investigates whether it is possible to guess the age of acquisition of Italian lemmas that have not been previously rated by humans. An intrinsic evaluation is proposed, correlating estimated Italian lemmas’ AoA with English lemmas’ AoA. An extrinsic evaluation - using AoA values as features for the classification of literary excerpts labeled by age appropriateness - shows how es-sential is lexical coverage for this task.
The free association task has been very influential both in cognitive science and in computational linguistics. However, little research has been done to study how free associations develop in childhood. The current work focuses on the developmental hypothesis according to which free word associations emerge by mirroring the co-occurrence distribution of children’s linguistic environment. I trained a distributional semantic model on a large corpus of child language and I tested if it could predict children’s responses. The results largely supported the hypothesis: Co-occurrence-based similarity was a strong predictor of children’s associative behavior even controlling for other possible predictors such as phonological similarity, word frequency, and word length. I discuss the findings in the light of theories of conceptual development.
Interactive alignment is a major mechanism of linguistic coordination. Here we study the way this mechanism emerges in development across the lexical, syntactic, and conceptual levels. We leverage NLP tools to analyze a large-scale corpus of child-adult conversations between 2 and 5 years old. We found that, across development, children align consistently to adults above chance and that adults align consistently more to children than vice versa (even controlling for language production abilities). Besides these consistencies, we found a diversity of developmental trajectories across linguistic levels. These corpus-based findings provide strong support for an early onset of multi-level linguistic alignment in children and invites new experimental work.
Grammatical gender is a consistent and informative cue to the plural class of German nouns. We find that neural encoder-decoder models learn to rely on this cue to predict plural class, but adult speakers are relatively insensitive to it. This suggests that the neural models are not an effective cognitive model of German plural formation.
Case is an abstract grammatical feature that indicates argument relationship in a sentence. In English, cases are expressed on pronouns, as nominative case (e.g. I, he), accusative case (e.g. me, him) and genitive case (e.g. my, his). Children correctly use cased pronouns at a very young age. How do they acquire abstract case in the first place, when different cases are not associated with different meanings? This paper proposes that the distributional patterns in parents’ input could be used to distinguish grammatical cases in English.
By positing a relationship between naturalistic reading times and information-theoretic surprisal, surprisal theory (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008) provides a natural interface between language models and psycholinguistic models. This paper re-evaluates a claim due to Goodkind and Bicknell (2018) that a language model’s ability to model reading times is a linear function of its perplexity. By extending Goodkind and Bicknell’s analysis to modern neural architectures, we show that the proposed relation does not always hold for Long Short-Term Memory networks, Transformers, and pre-trained models. We introduce an alternate measure of language modeling performance called predictability norm correlation based on Cloze probabilities measured from human subjects. Our new metric yields a more robust relationship between language model quality and psycholinguistic modeling performance that allows for comparison between models with different training configurations.
This paper addresses long-term archival for large corpora. Three aspects specific to language resources are focused, namely (1) the removal of resources for legal reasons, (2) versioning of (unchanged) objects in constantly growing resources, especially where objects can be part of multiple releases but also part of different collections, and (3) the conversion of data to new formats for digital preservation. It is motivated why language resources may have to be changed, and why formats may need to be converted. As a solution, the use of an intermediate proxy object called a signpost is suggested. The approach will be exemplified with respect to the corpora of the Leibniz Institute for the German Language in Mannheim, namely the German Reference Corpus (DeReKo) and the Archive for Spoken German (AGD).
We evaluate a graph-based dependency parser on DeReKo, a large corpus of contemporary German. The dependency parser is trained on the German dataset from the SPMRL 2014 Shared Task which contains text from the news domain, whereas DeReKo also covers other domains including fiction, science, and technology. To avoid the need for costly manual annotation of the corpus, we use the parser’s probability estimates for unlabeled and labeled attachment as main evaluation criterion. We show that these probability estimates are highly correlated with the actual attachment scores on a manually annotated test set. On this basis, we compare estimated parsing scores for the individual domains in DeReKo, and show that the scores decrease with increasing distance of a domain to the training corpus.
This paper investigates the impact of different types and size of training corpora on language models. By asking the fundamental question of quality versus quantity, we compare four French corpora by pre-training four different ELMos and evaluating them on dependency parsing, POS-tagging and Named Entities Recognition downstream tasks. We present and asses the relevance of a new balanced French corpus, CaBeRnet, that features a representative range of language usage, including a balanced variety of genres (oral transcriptions, newspapers, popular magazines, technical reports, fiction, academic texts), in oral and written styles. We hypothesize that a linguistically representative corpus will allow the language models to be more efficient, and therefore yield better evaluation scores on different evaluation sets and tasks. This paper offers three main contributions: (1) two newly built corpora: (a) CaBeRnet, a French Balanced Reference Corpus and (b) CBT-fr a domain-specific corpus having both oral and written style in youth literature, (2) five versions of ELMo pre-trained on differently built corpora, and (3) a whole array of computational results on downstream tasks that deepen our understanding of the effects of corpus balance and register in NLP evaluation.
This paper describes work in progress on devising automatic and parallel methods for geoparsing large digital historical textual data by combining the strengths of three natural language processing (NLP) tools, the Edinburgh Geoparser, spaCy and defoe, and employing different tokenisation and named entity recognition (NER) techniques. We apply these tools to a large collection of nineteenth century Scottish geographical dictionaries, and describe preliminary results obtained when processing this data.
Development of dozens of specialized corpus query systems and languages over the past decades has let to a diverse but also fragmented landscape. Today we are faced with a plethora of query tools that each provide unique features, but which are also not interoperable and often rely on very specific database back-ends or formats for storage. This severely hampers usability both for end users that want to query different corpora and also for corpus designers that wish to provide users with an interface for querying and exploration. We propose a hybrid corpus query architecture as a first step to overcoming this issue. It takes the form of a middleware system between user front-ends and optional database or text indexing solutions as back-ends. At its core is a custom query evaluation engine for index-less processing of corpus queries. With a flexible JSON-LD query protocol the approach allows communication with back-end systems to partially solve queries and offset some of the performance penalties imposed by the custom evaluation engine. This paper outlines the details of our first draft of aforementioned architecture.
As a part of the ZuMult-project, we are currently modelling a backend architecture that should provide query access to corpora from the Archive of Spoken German (AGD) at the Leibniz-Institute for the German Language (IDS). We are exploring how to reuse existing search engine frameworks providing full text indices and allowing to query corpora by one of the corpus query languages (QLs) established and actively used in the corpus research community. For this purpose, we tested MTAS - an open source Lucene-based search engine for querying on text with multilevel annotations. We applied MTAS on three oral corpora stored in the TEI-based ISO standard for transcriptions of spoken language (ISO 24624:2016). These corpora differ from the corpus data that MTAS was developed for, because they include interactions with two and more speakers and are enriched, inter alia, with timeline-based annotations. In this contribution, we report our test results and address issues that arise when search frameworks originally developed for querying written corpora are being transferred into the field of spoken language.
The challenges for making use of a large text corpus such as the ‘AAC – Austrian Academy Corpus’ for the purposes of digital literary studies will be addressed in this presentation. The research question of how to use a digital text corpus of considerable size for such a specific research purpose is of interest for corpus research in general as it is of interest for digital literary text studies which rely to a large extent on large digital text corpora. The observations of the usage of lexical entities such as words, word forms, multi word units and many other linguistic units determine the way in which texts are being studied and explored. Larger entities have to be taken into account as well, which is why questions of semantic analysis and larger structures come into play. The texts of the AAC – Austrian Academy Corpus which was founded in 2001 are German language texts of historical and cultural significance from the time between 1848 and 1989. The aim of this study is to present possible research questions for corpus-based methodological approaches for the digital study of literary texts and to give examples of early experiments and experiences with making use of a large text corpus for these research purposes.
The paper overviews the state of implementation of the Czech National Corpus (CNC) in all the main areas of its operation: corpus compilation, annotation, application development and user services. As the focus is on the recent development, some of the areas are described in more detail than the others. Close attention is paid to the data collection and, in particular, to the description of web application development. This is not only because CNC has recently seen a significant progress in this area, but also because we believe that end-user web applications shape the way linguists and other scholars think about the language data and about the range of possibilities they offer. This consideration is even more important given the variability of the CNC corpora.
In this paper we present an experiment of augmenting the Corpus of Contemporary Romanian Language (CoRoLa) with the syntactic level of annotations, which would allow users to address queries about the syntax of Romanian sentences, in the Universal Dependency model. After a short introduction of CoRoLa, we describe the treebanks used to train the dependency parser, we show the evaluation results and the process of upgrading CoRoLa with the new level of annotations. The parser displaying the best accuracy with respect to recognition of heads and relations, out of three variants trained on manually built treebanks, was chosen. Keywords: Syntactic annotation, treebank, corpus, maltparser
With their huge speaking populations in the world, Spanish and Chinese occupy important positions in linguistic studies. Since the two languages come from different language systems, the translation between Spanish and Chinese is complicated. A comparative study for the language pair can discover the discourse differences between Spanish and Chinese, and can benefit the Spanish-Chinese translation. In this work, based on a Spanish-Chinese parallel corpus annotated with discourse information, we compare the annotation results between the language pair and analyze how discourse affects Spanish-Chinese translation. The research results in our study can help human translators who work with the language pair.
This work proposes a framework to predict sequences in dialogues, using turn based syntactic features and dialogue control functions. Syntactic features were extracted using dependency parsing, while dialogue control functions were manually labelled. These features were transformed using tf-idf and word embedding; feature selection was done using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). We ran experiments on six combinations of features to predict sequences with Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering. An analysis of the clustering results indicate that using word embeddings and syntactic features, significantly improved the results.
Coreference resolution (CR) is an essential part of discourse analysis. Most recently, neural approaches have been proposed to improve over SOTA models from earlier paradigms. So far none of the published neural models leverage external semantic knowledge such as type information. This paper offers the first such model and evaluation, demonstrating modest gains in accuracy by introducing either gold standard or predicted types. In the proposed approach, type information serves both to (1) improve mention representation and (2) create a soft type consistency check between coreference candidate mentions. Our evaluation covers two different grain sizes of types over four different benchmark corpora.
In coreference resolution, span representations play a key role to predict coreference links accurately. We present a thorough examination of the span representation derived by applying BERT on coreference resolution (Joshi et al., 2019) using a probing model. Our results show that the span representation is able to encode a significant amount of coreference information. In addition, we find that the head-finding attention mechanism involved in creating the spans is crucial in encoding coreference knowledge. Last, our analysis shows that the span representation cannot capture non-local coreference as efficiently as local coreference.
Sketch comedy and crosstalk are two popular types of comedy. They can relieve people’s stress and thus benefit their mental health, especially when performances and scripts are high-quality. However, writing a script is time-consuming and its quality is difficult to achieve. In order to minimise the time and effort needed for producing an excellent script, we explore ways of predicting the audience’s response from the comedy scripts. For this task, we present a corpus of annotated scripts from popular television entertainment programmes in recent years. Annotations include a) text classification labels, indicating which actor’s lines made the studio audience laugh; b) information extraction labels, i.e. the text spans that made the audience laughed immediately after the performers said them. The corpus will also be useful for dialogue systems and discourse analysis, since our annotations are based on entire scripts. In addition, we evaluate different baseline algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate that BERT models can achieve the best predictions among all the baseline methods. Furthermore, we conduct an error analysis and investigate predictions across scripts with different styles.
The present paper focuses on variation phenomena in coreference chains. We address the hypothesis that the degree of structural variation between chain elements depends on language-specific constraints and preferences and, even more, on the communicative situation of language production. We define coreference features that also include reference to abstract entities and events. These features are inspired through several sources – cognitive parameters, pragmatic factors and typological status. We pay attention to the distributions of these features in a dataset containing English and German texts of spoken and written discourse mode, which can be classified into seven different registers. We apply text classification and feature selection to find out how these variational dimensions (language, mode and register) impact on coreference features. Knowledge on the variation under analysis is valuable for contrastive linguistics, translation studies and multilingual natural language processing (NLP), e.g. machine translation or cross-lingual coreference resolution.
This paper studies a novel model that simplifies the disambiguation of connectives for explicit discourse relations. We use a neural approach that integrates contextualized word embeddings and predicts whether a connective candidate is part of a discourse relation or not. We study the influence of those context-specific embeddings. Further, we show the benefit of training the tasks of connective disambiguation and sense classification together at the same time. The success of our approach is supported by state-of-the-art results.
In this paper, the utility and advantages of the discourse analysis for text pairs categorization and ranking are investigated. We consider two tasks in which discourse structure seems useful and important: automatic verification of political statements, and ranking in question answering systems. We propose a neural network based approach to learn the match between pairs of discourse tree structures. To this end, the neural TreeLSTM model is modified to effectively encode discourse trees and DSNDM model based on it is suggested to analyze pairs of texts. In addition, the integration of the attention mechanism in the model is proposed. Moreover, different ranking approaches are investigated for the second task. In the paper, the comparison with state-of-the-art methods is given. Experiments illustrate that combination of neural networks and discourse structure in DSNDM is effective since it reaches top results in the assigned tasks. The evaluation also demonstrates that discourse analysis improves quality for the processing of longer texts.
We introduce four tasks designed to determine which sentence encoders best capture discourse properties of sentences from scientific abstracts, namely coherence and cohesion between clauses of a sentence, and discourse relations within sentences. We show that even if contextual encoders such as BERT or SciBERT encodes the coherence in discourse units, they do not help to predict three discourse relations commonly used in scientific abstracts. We discuss what these results underline, namely that these discourse relations are based on particular phrasing that allow non-contextual encoders to perform well.
We recognize the task of event argument linking in documents as similar to that of intent slot resolution in dialogue, providing a Transformer-based model that extends from a recently proposed solution to resolve references to slots. The approach allows for joint consideration of argument candidates given a detected event, which we illustrate leads to state-of-the-art performance in multi-sentence argument linking.
In this work, we systematically investigate how well current models of coherence can capture aspects of text implicated in discourse organisation. We devise two datasets of various linguistic alterations that undermine coherence and test model sensitivity to changes in syntax and semantics. We furthermore probe discourse embedding space and examine the knowledge that is encoded in representations of coherence. We hope this study shall provide further insight into how to frame the task and improve models of coherence assessment further. Finally, we make our datasets publicly available as a resource for researchers to use to test discourse coherence models.
First, we discuss the most common linguistic perspectives on the concept of recency and propose a taxonomy of recency metrics employed in Machine Learning studies for choosing the form of referring expressions in discourse context. We then report on a Multi-Layer Perceptron study and a Sequential Forward Search experiment, followed by Bayes Factor analysis of the outcomes. The results suggest that recency metrics counting paragraphs and sentences contribute to referential choice prediction more than other recency-related metrics. Based on the results of our analysis, we argue that, sensitivity to discourse structure is important for recency metrics used in determining referring expression forms.
The multi-head self-attention of popular transformer models is widely used within Natural Language Processing (NLP), including for the task of extractive summarization. With the goal of analyzing and pruning the parameter-heavy self-attention mechanism, there are multiple approaches proposing more parameter-light self-attention alternatives. In this paper, we present a novel parameter-lean self-attention mechanism using discourse priors. Our new tree self-attention is based on document-level discourse information, extending the recently proposed “Synthesizer” framework with another lightweight alternative. We show empirical results that our tree self-attention approach achieves competitive ROUGE-scores on the task of extractive summarization. When compared to the original single-head transformer model, the tree attention approach reaches similar performance on both, EDU and sentence level, despite the significant reduction of parameters in the attention component. We further significantly outperform the 8-head transformer model on sentence level when applying a more balanced hyper-parameter setting, requiring an order of magnitude less parameters.
The PDTB-3 contains many more Implicit discourse relations than the previous PDTB-2. This is in part because implicit relations have now been annotated within sentences as well as between them. In addition, some now co-occur with explicit discourse relations, instead of standing on their own. Here we show that while this can complicate the problem of identifying the location of implicit discourse relations, it can in turn simplify the problem of identifying their senses. We present data to support this claim, as well as methods that can serve as a non-trivial baseline for future state-of-the-art recognizers for implicit discourse relations.
In this work, we present two new bilingual discourse connective lexicons, namely, for Turkish-English and European Portuguese-English created automatically using the existing discourse relation-aligned TED-MDB corpus. In their current form, the Pt-En lexicon includes 95 entries, whereas the Tr-En lexicon contains 133 entries. The lexicons constitute the first step of a larger project of developing a multilingual discourse connective lexicon.
A substantial overlap of coreferent mentions in the CoNLL dataset magnifies the recent progress on coreference resolution. This is because the CoNLL benchmark fails to evaluate the ability of coreference resolvers that requires linking novel mentions unseen at train time. In this work, we create a new dataset based on CoNLL, which largely decreases mention overlaps in the entire dataset and exposes the limitations of published resolvers on two aspects—lexical inference ability and understanding of low-level orthographic noise. Our findings show (1) the requirements for embeddings, used in resolvers, and for coreference resolutions are, by design, in conflict and (2) adversarial approaches are sometimes not legitimate to mitigate the obstacles, as they may falsely introduce mention overlaps in adversarial training and test sets, thus giving an inflated impression for the improvements.
We present preliminary results on investigating the benefits of coreference resolution features for neural RST discourse parsing by considering different levels of coupling of the discourse parser with the coreference resolver. In particular, starting with a strong baseline neural parser unaware of any coreference information, we compare a parser which utilizes only the output of a neural coreference resolver, with a more sophisticated model, where discourse parsing and coreference resolution are jointly learned in a neural multitask fashion. Results indicate that these initial attempts to incorporate coreference information do not boost the performance of discourse parsing in a statistically significant way.
The corpus, from which a predictive language model is trained, can be considered the experience of a semantic system. We recorded everyday reading of two participants for two months on a tablet, generating individual corpus samples of 300/500K tokens. Then we trained word2vec models from individual corpora and a 70 million-sentence newspaper corpus to obtain individual and norm-based long-term memory structure. To test whether individual corpora can make better predictions for a cognitive task of long-term memory retrieval, we generated stimulus materials consisting of 134 sentences with uncorrelated individual and norm-based word probabilities. For the subsequent eye tracking study 1-2 months later, our regression analyses revealed that individual, but not norm-corpus-based word probabilities can account for first-fixation duration and first-pass gaze duration. Word length additionally affected gaze duration and total viewing duration. The results suggest that corpora representative for an individual’s long-term memory structure can better explain reading performance than a norm corpus, and that recently acquired information is lexically accessed rapidly.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) provides a means to investigate human conceptual representation in cognitive and neuroscience studies, where researchers predict the fMRI activations with elicited stimuli inputs. Previous work mainly uses a single source of features, particularly linguistic features, to predict fMRI activations. However, relatively little work has been done on investigating rich-source features for conceptual representation. In this paper, we systematically compare the linguistic, visual as well as auditory input features in conceptual representation, and further introduce associative conceptual features, which are obtained from Small World of Words game, to predict fMRI activations. Our experimental results show that those rich-source features can enhance performance in predicting the fMRI activations. Our analysis indicates that information from rich sources is present in the conceptual representation of human brains. In particular, the visual feature weights the most on conceptual representation, which is consistent with the recent cognitive science study.
Cross-linguistic studies of concepts provide valuable insights for the investigation of the mental lexicon. Recent developments of cross-linguistic databases facilitate an exploration of a diverse set of languages on the basis of comparative concepts. These databases make use of a well-established reference catalog, the Concepticon, which is built from concept lists published in linguistics. A recently released feature of the Concepticon includes data on norms, ratings, and relations for words and concepts. The present study used data on word frequencies to test two hypotheses. First, I examined the assumption that related languages (i.e., English and German) share concepts with more similar frequencies than non-related languages (i.e., English and Chinese). Second, the variation of frequencies across both language pairs was explored to answer the question of whether the related languages share fewer concepts with a large difference between the frequency than the non-related languages. The findings indicate that related languages experience less variation in their frequencies. If there is variation, it seems to be due to cultural and structural differences. The implications of this study are far-reaching in that it exemplifies the use of cross-linguistic data for the study of the mental lexicon.
Language users process utterances by segmenting them into many cognitive units, which vary in their sizes and linguistic levels. Although we can do such unitization/segmentation easily, its cognitive mechanism is still not clear. This paper proposes an unsupervised model, Less-is-Better (LiB), to simulate the human cognitive process with respect to language unitization/segmentation. LiB follows the principle of least effort and aims to build a lexicon which minimizes the number of unit tokens (alleviating the effort of analysis) and number of unit types (alleviating the effort of storage) at the same time on any given corpus. LiB’s workflow is inspired by empirical cognitive phenomena. The design makes the mechanism of LiB cognitively plausible and the computational requirement light-weight. The lexicon generated by LiB performs the best among different types of lexicons (e.g. ground-truth words) both from an information-theoretical view and a cognitive view, which suggests that the LiB lexicon may be a plausible proxy of the mental lexicon.
The shared task of the CogALex-VI workshop focuses on the monolingual and multilingual identification of semantic relations. We provided training and validation data for the following languages: English, German and Chinese. Given a word pair, systems had to be trained to identify which relation holds between them, with possible choices being synonymy, antonymy, hypernymy and no relation at all. Two test sets were released for evaluating the participating systems. One containing pairs for each of the training languages (systems were evaluated in a monolingual fashion) and the other proposing a surprise language to test the crosslingual transfer capabilities of the systems. Among the submitted systems, top performance was achieved by a transformer-based model in both the monolingual and in the multilingual setting, for all the tested languages, proving the potentials of this recently-introduced neural architecture. The shared task description and the results are available at https://sites.google.com/site/cogalexvisharedtask/.
The HSemID system, submitted to the CogALex VI Shared Task is a hybrid system relying mainly on metric clusters measured in large web corpora, complemented by a vector space model using cosine similarity to detect semantic associations. Although the system reached ra-ther weak results for the subcategories of synonyms, antonyms and hypernyms, with some dif-ferences from one language to another, it is able to measure general semantic associations (as being random or not-random) with an F1 score close to 0.80. The results strongly suggest that idiomatic constructions play a fundamental role in semantic associations. Further experiments are necessary in order to fine-tune the model to the subcategories of synonyms, antonyms, hy-pernyms and to explain surprising differences across languages. 1 Introduction
We describe our submission to the CogALex-VI shared task on the identification of multilingual paradigmatic relations building on XLM-RoBERTa (XLM-R), a robustly optimized and multilingual BERT model. In spite of several experiments with data augmentation, data addition and ensemble methods with a Siamese Triple Net, Translrelation, the XLM-R model with a linear classifier adapted to this specific task, performed best in testing and achieved the best results in the final evaluation of the shared task, even for a previously unseen language.
This paper presents a bidirectional transformer based approach for recognising semantic relationships between a pair of words as proposed by CogALex VI shared task in 2020. The system presented here works by employing BERT embeddings of the words and passing the same over tuned neural network to produce a learning model for the pair of words and their relationships. Afterwards the very same model is used for the relationship between unknown words from the test set. CogALex VI provided Subtask 1 as the identification of relationship of three specific categories amongst English pair of words and the presented system opts to work on that. The resulted relationships of the unknown words are analysed here which shows a balanced performance in overall characteristics with some scope for improvement.
The majority of studies on detecting idiomatic expressions have focused on discovering potentially idiomatic expressions overlooking the context. However, many idioms like blow the whistle could be interpreted idiomatically or literally depending on the context. In this work, we leverage the Idiom Principle (Sinclair et al., 1991) and contextualized word embeddings (CWEs), focusing on Context2Vec (Melamud et al., 2016) and BERT (Devlin et al., 2019) to distinguish between literal and idiomatic senses of such expressions in context. We also experiment with a non-contextualized word embedding baseline, in this case word2Vec (Mikolov et al., 2013) and compare its performance with that of CWEs. The results show that CWEs outperform the non-CWEs, especially when the Idiom Principle is applied, as it improves the results by 6%. We further show that the Context2Vec model, trained based on Idiom Principle, can place potentially idiomatic expressions into distinct ‘sense’ (idiomatic/literal) regions of the embedding space, whereas Word2Vec and BERT seem to lack this capacity. The model is also capable of producing suitable substitutes for ambiguous expressions in context which is promising for downstream tasks like text simplification.
Textual definitions constitute a fundamental source of knowledge when seeking the meaning of words, and they are the cornerstone of lexical resources like glossaries, dictionaries, encyclopedia or thesauri. In this paper, we present an in-depth analytical study on the main features relevant to the task of definition extraction. Our main goal is to study whether linguistic structures from canonical (the Aristotelian or genus et differentia model) can be leveraged to retrieve definitions from corpora in different domains of knowledge and textual genres alike. To this end, we develop a simple linear classifier and analyze the contribution of several (sets of) linguistic features. Finally, as a result of our experiments, we also shed light on the particularities of existing benchmarks as well as the most challenging aspects of the task.
Speech disfluencies have been hypothesized to occur before words that are less predictable and therefore more cognitively demanding. In this paper, we revisit this hypothesis by using OpenAI’s GPT-2 to calculate predictability of words as language model perplexity. Using the Switchboard corpus, we find that 51% of disfluencies occur at the highest, second highest, or within one token of the highest perplexity, and this distribution is not random. We also show that disfluencies precede words with significantly higher perplexity than fluent contexts. Based on our results, we offer new evidence that disfluencies are more likely to occur before less predictable words.
Language transfer can facilitate learning L2 words whose form and meaning are similar to L1 words, or hinder speakers when the languages differ. L2 idioms introduce another layer of challenge, as language transfer could occur on the literal or figurative level of meaning. Thus, the mechanics of language transfer for idiom processing shed light on how literal and figurative meaning is stored in the bilingual lexicon. Three factors appear to influence how language transfer affects idiom comprehension: bilingual fluency, processing of literal-figurative vs. figurative cognate idioms (idioms with the same wording and meaning in both languages, or the same meaning only), and comprehension of literal vs. figurative meaning of a given idiom. To examine the relationship between these factors, this study investigated English-Spanish bilinguals’ reaction time on a lexical decision task examining literal-figurative and figurative cognate idioms. The results suggest that fluency increases processing speed rather than slow it down due to language transfer, and that language transfer from L1 to L2 occurs on the level of figurative meaning in L1-dominant bilinguals.
We report ongoing research on linking elements in German compounds, with a focus on noun-noun compounds in which the first constituent is ending in schwa. We present a corpus of about 3000 nouns ending in schwa, annotated for various phonological and morpho-syntactic features, and critically, the dominant linking strategy. The corpus analysis is complemented by an unsuccessful attempt to train neural networks and by a pilot experiment asking native speakers to indicate their preferred linking strategy. In addition to existing nouns, the experimental stimuli included nonce words, also ending in schwa. While neither the corpus study nor the experiment offer a clear picture, the results nevertheless provide interesting insights into the intricacies of German compounding. Overall, we find a predominance of the paradigmatic linking element -n for feminine and masculine nouns. At the same time, the results for nonce words show that -n is not a default strategy.
Existing dictionaries may help collocation translation by suggesting associated words in the form of collocations, thesaurus, and example sentences. We propose to enhance them with task-driven word associations, illustrating the need by a few scenarios and outlining a possible approach based on word embedding. An example is given, using pre-trained word embedding, while more extensive investigation with more refined methods and resources is underway.
During sentence comprehension, humans adjust word meanings according to the combination of the concepts that occur in the sentence. This paper presents a neural network model called CEREBRA (Context-dEpendent meaning REpresentation in the BRAin) that demonstrates this process based on fMRI sentence patterns and the Concept Attribute Rep-resentation (CAR) theory. In several experiments, CEREBRA is used to quantify conceptual combination effect and demonstrate that it matters to humans. Such context-based representations could be used in future natural language processing systems allowing them to mirror human performance more accurately.
Understanding context-dependent variation in word meanings is a key aspect of human language comprehension supported by the lexicon. Lexicographic resources (e.g., WordNet) capture only some of this context-dependent variation; for example, they often do not encode how closely senses, or discretized word meanings, are related to one another. Our work investigates whether recent advances in NLP, specifically contextualized word embeddings, capture human-like distinctions between English word senses, such as polysemy and homonymy. We collect data from a behavioral, web-based experiment, in which participants provide judgments of the relatedness of multiple WordNet senses of a word in a two-dimensional spatial arrangement task. We find that participants’ judgments of the relatedness between senses are correlated with distances between senses in the BERT embedding space. Specifically, homonymous senses (e.g., bat as mammal vs. bat as sports equipment) are reliably more distant from one another in the embedding space than polysemous ones (e.g., chicken as animal vs. chicken as meat). Our findings point towards the potential utility of continuous-space representations of sense meanings.
Word Association Norms (WAN) are collections that present stimuli words and the set of their associated responses. The corpus is widely used in diverse areas of expertise. In order to reduce the effort to have a good quality resource that can be reproduced in many languages with minimum sources, a methodology to build Automatic Word Association Norms is proposed (AWAN). The methodology has an input of two simple elements: a) dictionary, and b) pre-processed Word Embeddings. This new kind of WAN is evaluated in two ways: i) learning word embeddings based on the node2vec algorithm and comparing them with human annotated benchmarks, and ii) performing a lexical search for a reverse dictionary. Both evaluations are done in a weighted graph with the AWAN lexical elements. The results showed that the methodology produces good quality AWANs.
The first step of any terminological work is to setup a reliable, specialized corpus composed of documents written by specialists and then to apply automatic term extraction (ATE) methods to this corpus in order to retrieve a first list of potential terms. In this paper, the experiment we describe differs quite drastically from this usual process since we are applying ATE to unspecialized corpora. The corpus used for this study was built from newspaper articles retrieved from the Web using a short list of keywords. The general intuition on which this research is based is that ATE based corpus comparison techniques can be used to capture both similarities and dissimilarities between corpora. The former are exploited through a termhood measure and the latter through word embeddings. Our initial results were validated manually and show that combining a traditional ATE method that focuses on dissimilarities between corpora to newer methods that exploit similarities (more specifically distributional features of candidates) leads to promising results.
Automatic term extraction (ATE) from texts is critical for effective terminology work in small speech communities. We present TermPortal, a workbench for terminology work in Iceland, featuring the first ATE system for Icelandic. The tool facilitates standardization in terminology work in Iceland, as it exports data in standard formats in order to streamline gathering and distribution of the material. In the project we focus on the domain of finance in order to do be able to fulfill the needs of an important and large field. We present a comprehensive survey amongst the most prominent organizations in that field, the results of which emphasize the need for a good, up-to-date and accessible termbank and the willingness to use terms in Icelandic. Furthermore we present the ATE tool for Icelandic, which uses a variety of methods and shows great potential with a recall rate of up to 95% and a high C-value, indicating that it competently finds term candidates that are important to the input text.
A common method of structuring information extracted from textual data is using a knowledge model (e.g. a thesaurus) to organise the information semantically. Creating and managing a knowledge model is already a costly task in terms of human effort, not to mention making it multilingual. Multilingual knowledge modelling is a common problem for both transnational organisations and organisations providing text analytics that want to analyse information in more than one language. Many organisations tend to develop their language resources first in one language (often English). When it comes to analysing data sources in other languages, either a lot of effort has to be invested in recreating the same knowledge base in a different language or the data itself has to be translated into the language of the knowledge model. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised method to automatically induce a given thesaurus into another language using only comparable monolingual corpora. The aim of this proposal is to employ cross-lingual word embeddings to map the set of topics in an already-existing English thesaurus into Spanish. With this in mind, we describe different approaches to generate the Spanish thesaurus terms and offer an extrinsic evaluation by using the obtained thesaurus, which covers non-financial topics in a multi-label document classification task, and we compare the results across these approaches.
We present a study whose objective is to compare several dependency parsers for English applied to a specialized corpus for building distributional count-based models from syntactic dependencies. One of the particularities of this study is to focus on the concepts of the target domain, which mainly occur in documents as multi-terms and must be aligned with the outputs of the parsers. We compare a set of ten parsers in terms of syntactic triplets but also in terms of distributional neighbors extracted from the models built from these triplets, both with and without an external reference concerning the semantic relations between concepts. We show more particularly that some patterns of proximity between these parsers can be observed across our different evaluations, which could give insights for anticipating the performance of a parser for building distributional models from a given corpus
Machine learning plays an ever-bigger part in online recruitment, powering intelligent matchmaking and job recommendations across many of the world’s largest job platforms. However, the main text is rarely enough to fully understand a job posting: more often than not, much of the required information is condensed into the job title. Several organised efforts have been made to map job titles onto a hand-made knowledge base as to provide this information, but these only cover around 60% of online vacancies. We introduce a novel, purely data-driven approach towards the detection of new job titles. Our method is conceptually simple, extremely efficient and competitive with traditional NER-based approaches. Although the standalone application of our method does not outperform a finetuned BERT model, it can be applied as a preprocessing step as well, substantially boosting accuracy across several architectures.
The empowerment of the population and the democratisation of information regarding healthcare have revealed that there is a communication gap between health professionals and patients. The latter are constantly receiving more and more written information about their healthcare visits and treatments, but that does not mean they understand it. In this paper we focus on the patient’s lack of comprehension of medical reports. After linguistically characterising the medical report, we present the results of a survey that showed that patients have serious comprehension difficulties concerning the medical reports they receive, specifically problems regarding the medical terminology used in these texts, specifically in Spanish and Catalan. To favour the understanding of medical reports, we propose an automatic text enrichment strategy that generates linguistically and cognitively enriched medical reports which are more comprehensible to the patient, and which focus on the parts of the medical report that most interest the patient: the diagnosis and treatment sections.
The semantic projection method is often used in terminology structuring to infer semantic relations between terms. Semantic projection relies upon the assumption of semantic compositionality: the relation that links simple term pairs remains valid in pairs of complex terms built from these simple terms. This paper proposes to investigate whether this assumption commonly adopted in natural language processing is actually valid. First, we describe the process of constructing a list of semantically linked multi-word terms (MWTs) related to the environmental field through the extraction of semantic variants. Second, we present our analysis of the results from the semantic projection. We find that contexts play an essential role in defining the relations between MWTs.
We present the NetViz terminology visualization tool and apply it to the domain modeling of karstology, a subfield of geography studying karst phenomena. The developed tool allows for high-performance online network visualization where the user can upload the terminological data in a simple CSV format, define the nodes (terms, categories), edges (relations) and their properties (by assigning different node colors), and then edit and interactively explore domain knowledge in the form of a network. We showcase the usefulness of the tool on examples from the karstology domain, where in the first use case we visualize the domain knowledge as represented in a manually annotated corpus of domain definitions, while in the second use case we show the power of visualization for domain understanding by visualizing automatically extracted knowledge in the form of triplets extracted from the karstology domain corpus. The application is entirely web-based without any need for downloading or special configuration. The source code of the web application is also available under the permissive MIT license, allowing future extensions for developing new terminological applications.
Thesaurus construction with minimum human efforts often relies on automatic methods to discover terms and their relations. Hence, the quality of a thesaurus heavily depends on the chosen methodologies for: (i) building its content (terminology extraction task) and (ii) designing its structure (semantic similarity task). The performance of the existing methods on automatic thesaurus construction is still less accurate than the handcrafted ones of which is important to highlight the drawbacks to let new strategies build more accurate thesauri models. In this paper, we will provide a systematic analysis of existing methods for both tasks and discuss their feasibility based on an Italian Cybersecurity corpus. In particular, we will provide a detailed analysis on how the semantic relationships network of a thesaurus can be automatically built, and investigate the ways to enrich the terminological scope of a thesaurus by taking into account the information contained in external domain-oriented semantic sets.
Terminology extraction procedure usually consists of selecting candidates for terms and ordering them according to their importance for the given text or set of texts. Depending on the method used, a list of candidates contains different fractions of grammatically incorrect, semantically odd and irrelevant sequences. The aim of this work was to improve term candidate selection by reducing the number of incorrect sequences using a dependency parser for Polish.
Our contribution is part of a wider research project on term variation in German and concentrates on the computational aspects of a frame-based model for term meaning representation in the technical field. We focus on the role of frames (in the sense of Frame-Based Terminology) as the semantic interface between concepts covered by a domain ontology and domain-specific terminology. In particular, we describe methods for performing frame-based corpus annotation and frame-based term extraction. The aim of the contribution is to discuss the capacity of the model to automatically acquire semantic knowledge suitable for terminographic information tools such as specialised dictionaries, and its applicability to further specialised languages.
The TermEval 2020 shared task provided a platform for researchers to work on automatic term extraction (ATE) with the same dataset: the Annotated Corpora for Term Extraction Research (ACTER). The dataset covers three languages (English, French, and Dutch) and four domains, of which the domain of heart failure was kept as a held-out test set on which final f1-scores were calculated. The aim was to provide a large, transparent, qualitatively annotated, and diverse dataset to the ATE research community, with the goal of promoting comparative research and thus identifying strengths and weaknesses of various state-of-the-art methodologies. The results show a lot of variation between different systems and illustrate how some methodologies reach higher precision or recall, how different systems extract different types of terms, how some are exceptionally good at finding rare terms, or are less impacted by term length. The current contribution offers an overview of the shared task with a comparative evaluation, which complements the individual papers by all participants.
Automatic terminology extraction is a notoriously difficult task aiming to ease effort demanded to manually identify terms in domain-specific corpora by automatically providing a ranked list of candidate terms. The main ways that addressed this task can be ranged in four main categories: (i) rule-based approaches, (ii) feature-based approaches, (iii) context-based approaches, and (iv) hybrid approaches. For this first TermEval shared task, we explore a feature-based approach, and a deep neural network multitask approach -BERT- that we fine-tune for term extraction. We show that BERT models (RoBERTa for English and CamemBERT for French) outperform other systems for French and English languages.
This paper describes RACAI’s automatic term extraction system, which participated in the TermEval 2020 shared task on English monolingual term extraction. We discuss the system architecture, some of the challenges that we faced as well as present our results in the English competition.
The identification of terms from domain-specific corpora using computational methods is a highly time-consuming task because terms has to be validated by specialists. In order to improve term candidate selection, we have developed the Token Slot Recognition (TSR) method, a filtering strategy based on terminological tokens which is used to rank extracted term candidates from domain-specific corpora. We have implemented this filtering strategy in TBXTools. In this paper we present the system we have used in the TermEval 2020 shared task on monolingual term extraction. We also present the evaluation results for the system for English, French and Dutch and for two corpora: corruption and heart failure. For English and French we have used a linguistic methodology based on POS patterns, and for Dutch we have used a statistical methodology based on n-grams calculation and filtering with stop-words. For all languages, TSR (Token Slot Recognition) filtering method has been applied. We have obtained competitive results, but there is still room for improvement of the system.
In the last decade, the field of Neural Language Modelling has witnessed enormous changes, with the development of novel models through the use of Transformer architectures. However, even these models struggle to model long sequences due to memory constraints and increasing computational complexity. Coreference annotations over the training data can provide context far beyond the modelling limitations of such language models. In this paper we present an extension over the Transformer-block architecture used in neural language models, specifically in GPT2, in order to incorporate entity annotations during training. Our model, GPT2E, extends the Transformer layers architecture of GPT2 to Entity-Transformers, an architecture designed to handle coreference information when present. To that end, we achieve richer representations for entity mentions, with insignificant training cost. We show the comparative model performance between GPT2 and GPT2E in terms of Perplexity on the CoNLL 2012 and LAMBADA datasets as well as the key differences in the entity representations and their effects in downstream tasks such as Named Entity Recognition. Furthermore, our approach can be adopted by the majority of Transformer-based language models.
While it has been claimed that anaphora or coreference resolution plays an important role in opinion mining, it is not clear to what extent coreference resolution actually boosts performance, if at all. In this paper, we investigate the potential added value of coreference resolution for the aspect-based sentiment analysis of restaurant reviews in two languages, English and Dutch. We focus on the task of aspect category classification and investigate whether including coreference information prior to classification to resolve implicit aspect mentions is beneficial. Because coreference resolution is not a solved task in NLP, we rely on both automatically-derived and gold-standard coreference relations, allowing us to investigate the true upper bound. By training a classifier on a combination of lexical and semantic features, we show that resolving the coreferential relations prior to classification is beneficial in a joint optimization setup. However, this is only the case when relying on gold-standard relations and the result is more outspoken for English than for Dutch. When validating the optimal models, however, we found that only the Dutch pipeline is able to achieve a satisfying performance on a held-out test set and does so regardless of whether coreference information was included.
Pro-drop languages such as Arabic, Chinese, Italian or Japanese allow morphologically null but referential arguments in certain syntactic positions, called anaphoric zero-pronouns. Much NLP work on anaphoric zero-pronouns (AZP) is based on gold mentions, but models for their identification are a fundamental prerequisite for their resolution in real-life applications. Such identification requires complex language understanding and knowledge of real-world entities. Transfer learning models, such as BERT, have recently shown to learn surface, syntactic, and semantic information,which can be very useful in recognizing AZPs. We propose a BERT-based multilingual model for AZP identification from predicted zero pronoun positions, and evaluate it on the Arabic and Chinese portions of OntoNotes 5.0. As far as we know, this is the first neural network model of AZP identification for Arabic; and our approach outperforms the stateof-the-art for Chinese. Experiment results suggest that BERT implicitly encode information about AZPs through their surrounding context.
This work addresses coreference resolution in Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) graphs, a popular formalism for semantic parsing. We evaluate several current coreference resolution techniques on a recently published AMR coreference corpus, establishing baselines for future work. We also demonstrate that coreference resolution can improve the accuracy of a state-of-the-art semantic parser on this corpus.
Until recently, coreference resolution has been a critical task on the pipeline of any NLP task involving deep language understanding, such as machine translation, chatbots, summarization or sentiment analysis. However, nowadays, those end tasks are learned end-to-end by deep neural networks without adding any explicit knowledge about coreference. Thus, coreference resolution is used less in the training of other NLP tasks or trending pretrained language models. In this paper we present a new approach to face coreference resolution as a sequence to sequence task based on the Transformer architecture. This approach is simple and universal, compatible with any language or dataset (regardless of singletons) and easier to integrate with current language models architectures. We test it on the ARRAU corpus, where we get 65.6 F1 CoNLL. We see this approach not as a final goal, but a means to pretrain sequence to sequence language models (T5) on coreference resolution.
This article introduces TwiConv, an English coreference-annotated corpus of microblog conversations from Twitter. We describe the corpus compilation process and the annotation scheme, and release the corpus publicly, along with this paper. We manually annotated nominal coreference in 1756 tweets arranged in 185 conversation threads. The annotation achieves satisfactory annotation agreement results. We also present a new method for mapping the tweet contents with distributed stand-off annotations, which can easily be adapted to different annotation tasks.
Lexical semantics and world knowledge are crucial for interpreting bridging anaphora. Yet, existing computational methods for acquiring and injecting this type of information into bridging resolution systems suffer important limitations. Based on explicit querying of external knowledge bases, earlier approaches are computationally expensive (hence, hardly scalable) and they map the data to be processed into high-dimensional spaces (careful handling of the curse of dimensionality and overfitting has to be in order). In this work, we take a different and principled approach which naturally addresses these issues. Specifically, we convert the external knowledge source (in this case, WordNet) into a graph, and learn embeddings of the graph nodes of low dimension to capture the crucial features of the graph topology and, at the same time, rich semantic information. Once properly identified from the mention text spans, these low dimensional graph node embeddings are combined with distributional text-based embeddings to provide enhanced mention representations. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach by evaluating it on commonly used datasets, namely ISNotes and BASHI. Our enhanced mention representations yield significant accuracy improvements on both datasets when compared to different standalone text-based mention representations.
Shell nouns (SNs) are abstract nouns like “fact”, “issue”, and “decision”, which are capable of refer- ring to non-nominal antecedents, much like anaphoric pronouns. As an extension of classical anaphora resolution, the automatic detection of SNs alongside their respective antecedents has received a growing research interest in recent years but proved to be a challenging task. This paper critically examines the assumption prevalent in previous research that SNs are typically accompanied by a specific antecedent, arguing that SNs like “issue” and “decision” are frequently used to refer, not to specific antecedents, but to global discourse topics, in which case they are out of reach of previously proposed resolution strategies that are tailored to SNs with explicit antecedents. The contribution of this work is three-fold. First, the notion of global SNs is defined; second, their qualitative and quantitative impact on previous SN research is investigated; and third, implications for previous and future approaches to SN resolution are discussed.
We evaluate a rule-based (Lee et al., 2013) and neural (Lee et al., 2018) coreference system on Dutch datasets of two domains: literary novels and news/Wikipedia text. The results provide insight into the relative strengths of data-driven and knowledge-driven systems, as well as the influence of domain, document length, and annotation schemes. The neural system performs best on news/Wikipedia text, while the rule-based system performs best on literature. The neural system shows weaknesses with limited training data and long documents, while the rule-based system is affected by annotation differences. The code and models used in this paper are available at https://github.com/andreasvc/crac2020
Learning to detect entity mentions without using syntactic information can be useful for integration and joint optimization with other tasks. However, it is common to have partially annotated data for this problem. Here, we investigate two approaches to deal with partial annotation of mentions: weighted loss and soft-target classification. We also propose two neural mention detection approaches: a sequence tagging, and an exhaustive search. We evaluate our methods with coreference resolution as a downstream task, using multitask learning. The results show that the recall and F1 score improve for all methods.
No neural coreference resolver for Arabic exists, in fact we are not aware of any learning-based coreference resolver for Arabic since (Björkelund and Kuhn, 2014). In this paper, we introduce a coreference resolution system for Arabic based on Lee et al’s end-to-end architecture combined with the Arabic version of bert and an external mention detector. As far as we know, this is the first neural coreference resolution system aimed specifically to Arabic, and it substantially outperforms the existing state-of-the-art on OntoNotes 5.0 with a gain of 15.2 points conll F1. We also discuss the current limitations of the task for Arabic and possible approaches that can tackle these challenges.
In this paper we describe our attempt to increase the amount of information that can be retrieved through active learning sessions compared to previous approaches. We optimise the annotator’s labelling process using active learning in the context of coreference resolution. Using simulated active learning experiments, we suggest three adjustments to ensure the labelling time is spent as efficiently as possible. All three adjustments provide more information to the machine learner than the baseline, though a large impact on the F1 score over time is not observed. Compared to previous models, we report a marginal F1 improvement on the final coreference models trained using for two out of the three approaches tested when applied to the English OntoNotes 2012 Coreference Resolution data. Our best-performing model achieves 58.01 F1, an increase of 0.93 F1 over the baseline model.
We analyze reference phenomena in a corpus of robot-assisted disaster response team communication. The annotation scheme we designed for this purpose distinguishes different types of entities, roles, reference units and relations. We focus particularly on mission-relevant objects, locations and actors and also annotate a rich set of reference links, including co-reference and various other kinds of relations. We explain the categories used in our annotation, present their distribution in the corpus and discuss challenging cases.
Many people live-tweet televised events like Presidential debates and popular TV-shows and discuss people or characters in the event. Naturally, many tweets make pronominal reference to these people/characters. We propose an algorithm for resolving personal pronouns that make reference to people involved in an event, in tweet streams collected during the event.
We present a study focusing on variation of coreferential devices in English original TED talks and news texts and their German translations. Using exploratory techniques we contemplate a diverse set of coreference devices as features which we assume indicate language-specific and register-based variation as well as potential translation strategies. Our findings reflect differences on both dimensions with stronger variation along the lines of register than between languages. By exposing interactions between text type and cross-linguistic variation, they can also inform multilingual NLP applications, especially machine translation.
Reflexive anaphora present a challenge for semantic interpretation: their meaning varies depending on context in a way that appears to require abstract variables. Past work has raised doubts about the ability of recurrent networks to meet this challenge. In this paper, we explore this question in the context of a fragment of English that incorporates the relevant sort of contextual variability. We consider sequence-to-sequence architectures with recurrent units and show that such networks are capable of learning semantic interpretations for reflexive anaphora which generalize to novel antecedents. We explore the effect of attention mechanisms and different recurrent unit types on the type of training data that is needed for success as measured in two ways: how much lexical support is needed to induce an abstract reflexive meaning (i.e., how many distinct reflexive antecedents must occur during training) and what contexts must a noun phrase occur in to support generalization of reflexive interpretation to this noun phrase?
In 2019, about 293 billion emails were sent worldwide every day. They are a valuable source of information and knowledge for professionals. Since the 90’s, many studies have been done on emails and have highlighted the need for resources regarding numerous NLP tasks. Due to the lack of available resources for French, very few studies on emails have been conducted. Anaphora resolution in emails is an unexplored area, annotated resources are needed, at least to answer a first question: Does email communication have specifics that must be addressed to tackle the anaphora resolution task? In order to answer this question 1) we build a French emails corpus composed of 100 anonymized professional threads and make it available freely for scientific exploitation. 2) we provide annotations of anaphoric links in the email collection.
The cloze test for Chinese idioms is a new challenge in machine reading comprehension: given a sentence with a blank, choosing a candidate Chinese idiom which matches the context. Chinese idiom is a type of Chinese idiomatic expression. The common misuse of Chinese idioms leads to error in corpus and causes error in the learned semantic representation of Chinese idioms. In this paper, we introduce the definition written by Chinese experts to correct the misuse. We propose a model for the Chinese idiom cloze test integrating various information effectively. We propose an attention mechanism called Attribute Attention to balance the weight of different attributes among different descriptions of the Chinese idiom. Besides the given candidates of every blank, we also try to choose the answer from all Chinese idioms that appear in the dataset as the extra loss due to the uniqueness and specificity of Chinese idioms. In experiments, our model outperforms the state-of-the-art model.
Studies have shown that deep neural networks (DNNs) are vulnerable to adversarial examples – perturbed inputs that cause DNN-based models to produce incorrect results. One robust adversarial attack in the NLP domain is the synonym substitution. In attacks of this variety, the adversary substitutes words with synonyms. Since synonym substitution perturbations aim to satisfy all lexical, grammatical, and semantic constraints, they are difficult to detect with automatic syntax check as well as by humans. In this paper, we propose a structure-free defensive method that is capable of improving the performance of DNN-based models with both clean and adversarial data. Our findings show that replacing the embeddings of the important words in the input samples with the average of their synonyms’ embeddings can significantly improve the generalization of DNN-based classifiers. By doing so, we reduce model sensitivity to particular words in the input samples. Our results indicate that the proposed defense is not only capable of defending against adversarial attacks, but is also capable of improving the performance of DNN-based models when tested on benign data. On average, the proposed defense improved the classification accuracy of the CNN and Bi-LSTM models by 41.30% and 55.66%, respectively, when tested under adversarial attacks. Extended investigation shows that our defensive method can improve the robustness of nonneural models, achieving an average of 17.62% and 22.93% classification accuracy increase on the SVM and XGBoost models, respectively. The proposed defensive method has also shown an average of 26.60% classification accuracy improvement when tested with the infamous BERT model. Our algorithm is generic enough to be applied in any NLP domain and to any model trained on any natural language.
In this paper, we investigate data augmentation for text generation, which we call GenAug. Text generation and language modeling are important tasks within natural language processing, and are especially challenging for low-data regimes. We propose and evaluate various augmentation methods, including some that incorporate external knowledge, for finetuning GPT-2 on a subset of Yelp Reviews. We also examine the relationship between the amount of augmentation and the quality of the generated text. We utilize several metrics that evaluate important aspects of the generated text including its diversity and fluency. Our experiments demonstrate that insertion of character-level synthetic noise and keyword replacement with hypernyms are effective augmentation methods, and that the quality of generations improves to a peak at approximately three times the amount of original data.
Following the major success of neural language models (LMs) such as BERT or GPT-2 on a variety of language understanding tasks, recent work focused on injecting (structured) knowledge from external resources into these models. While on the one hand, joint pre-training (i.e., training from scratch, adding objectives based on external knowledge to the primary LM objective) may be prohibitively computationally expensive, post-hoc fine-tuning on external knowledge, on the other hand, may lead to the catastrophic forgetting of distributional knowledge. In this work, we investigate models for complementing the distributional knowledge of BERT with conceptual knowledge from ConceptNet and its corresponding Open Mind Common Sense (OMCS) corpus, respectively, using adapter training. While overall results on the GLUE benchmark paint an inconclusive picture, a deeper analysis reveals that our adapter-based models substantially outperform BERT (up to 15-20 performance points) on inference tasks that require the type of conceptual knowledge explicitly present in ConceptNet and OMCS. We also open source all our experiments and relevant code under: https://github.com/wluper/retrograph.
Entity-attribute relations are a fundamental component for building large-scale knowledge bases, which are widely employed in modern search engines. However, most such knowledge bases are manually curated, covering only a small fraction of all attributes, even for common entities. To improve the precision of model-based entity-attribute extraction, we propose attribute-aware embeddings, which embeds entities and attributes in the same space by the similarity of their attributes. Our model, EANET, learns these embeddings by representing entities as a weighted sum of their attributes and concatenates these embeddings to mention level features. EANET achieves up to 91% classification accuracy, outperforming strong baselines and achieves 83% precision on manually labeled high confidence extractions, outperforming Biperpedia (Gupta et al., 2014), a previous state-of-the-art for large scale entity-attribute extraction.
Deep neural networks have demonstrated high performance on many natural language processing (NLP) tasks that can be answered directly from text, and have struggled to solve NLP tasks requiring external (e.g., world) knowledge. In this paper, we present OSCR (Ontology-based Semantic Composition Regularization), a method for injecting task-agnostic knowledge from an Ontology or knowledge graph into a neural network during pre-training. We evaluated the performance of BERT pre-trained on Wikipedia with and without OSCR by measuring the performance when fine-tuning on two question answering tasks involving world knowledge and causal reasoning and one requiring domain (healthcare) knowledge and obtained 33.3%, 18.6%, and 4% improved accuracy compared to pre-training BERT without OSCR.
Medical concept normalization (MCN) i.e., mapping of colloquial medical phrases to standard concepts is an essential step in analysis of medical social media text. The main drawback in existing state-of-the-art approach (Kalyan and Sangeetha, 2020b) is learning target concept vector representations from scratch which requires more number of training instances. Our model is based on RoBERTa and target concept embeddings. In our model, we integrate a) target concept information in the form of target concept vectors generated by encoding target concept descriptions using SRoBERTa, state-of-the-art RoBERTa based sentence embedding model and b) domain lexicon knowledge by enriching target concept vectors with synonym relationship knowledge using retrofitting algorithm. It is the first attempt in MCN to exploit both target concept information as well as domain lexicon knowledge in the form of retrofitted target concept vectors. Our model outperforms all the existing models with an accuracy improvement up to 1.36% on three standard datasets. Further, our model when trained only on mapping lexicon synonyms achieves up to 4.87% improvement in accuracy.
Pretrained language models have excelled at many NLP tasks recently; however, their social intelligence is still unsatisfactory. To enable this, machines need to have a more general understanding of our complicated world and develop the ability to perform commonsense reasoning besides fitting the specific downstream tasks. External commonsense knowledge graphs (KGs), such as ConceptNet, provide rich information about words and their relationships. Thus, towards general commonsense learning, we propose two approaches to implicitly and explicitly infuse such KGs into pretrained language models. We demonstrate our proposed methods perform well on SocialIQA, a social commonsense reasoning task, in both limited and full training data regimes.
In this work, we present our empirical attempt to identify the proper strategy of using Transformer Language Models to identify sentences consistent with commonsense. We tackle the first two tasks from the ComVE competition. The starting point for our work is the BERT assumption according to which a large number of NLP tasks can be solved with pre-trained Transformers with no substantial task-specific changes of the architecture. However, our experiments show that the encoding strategy can have a great impact on the quality of the fine-tuning. The combination between cross-encoding and multi-input models worked better than one cross-encoder and allowed us to achieve comparable results with the state-of-the-art without the use of any external data.
We demonstrate the complementary natures of neural knowledge graph embedding, fine-grain entity type prediction, and neural language modeling. We show that a language model-inspired knowledge graph embedding approach yields both improved knowledge graph embeddings and fine-grain entity type representations. Our work also shows that jointly modeling both structured knowledge tuples and language improves both.
Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) is a simple, expressive semantic framework whose emphasis on predicate-argument structure is effective for many tasks. Nevertheless, AMR lacks a systematic treatment of projection phenomena, making its translation into logical form problematic. We present a translation function from AMR to first order logic using continuation semantics, which allows us to capture the semantic context of an expression in the form of an argument. This is a natural extension of AMR’s original design principles, allowing us to easily model basic projection phenomena such as quantification and negation as well as complex phenomena such as bound variables and donkey anaphora.
The AMR (Abstract Meaning Representation) formalism for representing meaning of natural language sentences puts emphasis on predicate-argument structure and was not designed to deal with scope and quantifiers. By extending AMR with indices for contexts and formulating constraints on these contexts, a formalism is derived that makes correct predictions for inferences involving negation and bound variables. The attractive core predicate-argument structure of AMR is preserved. The resulting framework is similar to the meaning representations of Discourse Representation Theory employed in the Parallel Meaning Bank.
To explore the potential sembanking in Korean and ways to represent the meaning of Korean sentences, this paper reports on the process of applying Abstract Meaning Representation to Korean, a semantic representation framework that has been studied in wide range of languages, and its output: the Korean AMR corpus. The corpus which is constructed so far is a size of 1,253 sentences and its raw texts are from ExoBrain Corpus, a state-led R&D project on language AI. This paper also analyzes the result in both qualitative and quantitative manners, proposing discussions for further development.
This paper presents a “road map” for the annotation of semantic categories in typologically diverse languages, with potentially few linguistic resources, and often no existing computational resources. Past semantic annotation efforts have focused largely on high-resource languages, or relatively low-resource languages with a large number of native speakers. However, there are certain typological traits, namely the synthesis of multiple concepts into a single word, that are more common in languages with a smaller speech community. For example, what is expressed as a sentence in a more analytic language like English, may be expressed as a single word in a more synthetic language like Arapaho. This paper proposes solutions for annotating analytic and synthetic languages in a comparable way based on existing typological research, and introduces a road map for the annotation of languages with a dearth of resources.
Predicate-argument structure analysis is a central component in meaning representations of text. The fact that some arguments are not explicitly mentioned in a sentence gives rise to ambiguity in language understanding, and renders it difficult for machines to interpret text correctly. However, only few resources represent implicit roles for NLU, and existing studies in NLP only make coarse distinctions between categories of arguments omitted from linguistic form. This paper proposes a typology for fine-grained implicit argument annotation on top of Universal Conceptual Cognitive Annotation’s foundational layer. The proposed implicit argument categorisation is driven by theories of implicit role interpretation and consists of six types: Deictic, Generic, Genre-based, Type-identifiable, Non-specific, and Iterated-set. We exemplify our design by revisiting part of the UCCA EWT corpus, providing a new dataset annotated with the refinement layer, and making a comparative analysis with other schemes.
While many languages use adpositions to encode semantic relationships between content words in a sentence (e.g., agentivity or temporality), the details of how adpositions work vary widely across languages with respect to both form and meaning. In this paper, we empirically adapt the SNACS framework (Schneider et al., 2018) to Korean, a language that is typologically distant from English—the language SNACS was based on. We apply the SNACS framework to annotate the highly popular novellaThe Little Prince with semantic supersense labels over allKorean postpositions. Thus, we introduce the first broad-coverage corpus annotated with Korean postposition semantics and provide a detailed analysis of the corpus with an apples-to-apples comparison between Korean and English annotations
This paper examines how Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) can be utilized for finding answers to research questions in medical scientific documents, in particular, to advance the study of UV (ultraviolet) inactivation of the novel coronavirus that causes the disease COVID-19. We describe the development of a proof-of-concept prototype tool, InfoForager, which uses AMR to conduct a semantic search, targeting the meaning of the user question, and matching this to sentences in medical documents that may contain information to answer that question. This work was conducted as a sprint over a period of six weeks, and reveals both promising results and challenges in reducing the user search time relating to COVID-19 research, and in general, domain adaption of AMR for this task.
We propose an approach and a software framework for semantic parsing of natural language sentences to discourse representation structures with use of fuzzy meaning representations such as fuzzy sets and compatibility intervals. We explain the motivation for using fuzzy meaning representations in semantic parsing and describe the design of the proposed approach and the software framework, discussing various examples. We argue that the use of fuzzy meaning representations have potential to improve understanding and reasoning capabilities of systems working with natural language.
This paper introduces a representation and annotation scheme for argument structure constructions that are used metaphorically with verbs in different semantic domains. We aim to contribute to the study of constructional metaphors which has received little attention in theoretical and computational linguistics. The proposed representation consists of a systematic mapping between the constructional and verbal event structures in two domains. It reveals the semantic motivations that lead to constructions being metaphorically extended. We demonstrate this representation on argument structure constructions with Transfer of Possession verbs and test the viability of this scheme with an annotation exercise.
In this work, we introduce a bootstrapped, iterative NER model that integrates a PU learning algorithm for recognizing named entities in a low-resource setting. Our approach combines dictionary-based labeling with syntactically-informed label expansion to efficiently enrich the seed dictionaries. Experimental results on a dataset of manually annotated e-commerce product descriptions demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
In an attempt to balance precision and recall in the search page, leading digital shops have been effectively nudging users into select category facets as early as in the type-ahead suggestions. In this work, we present SessionPath, a novel neural network model that improves facet suggestions on two counts: first, the model is able to leverage session embeddings to provide scalable personalization; second, SessionPath predicts facets by explicitly producing a probability distribution at each node in the taxonomy path. We benchmark SessionPath on two partnering shops against count-based and neural models, and show how business requirements and model behavior can be combined in a principled way.
Alternative recommender systems are critical for ecommerce companies. They guide customers to explore a massive product catalog and assist customers to find the right products among an overwhelming number of options. However, it is a non-trivial task to recommend alternative products that fit customers’ needs. In this paper, we use both textual product information (e.g. product titles and descriptions) and customer behavior data to recommend alternative products. Our results show that the coverage of alternative products is significantly improved in offline evaluations as well as recall and precision. The final A/B test shows that our algorithm increases the conversion rate by 12% in a statistically significant way. In order to better capture the semantic meaning of product information, we build a Siamese Network with Bidirectional LSTM to learn product embeddings. In order to learn a similarity space that better matches the preference of real customers, we use co-compared data from historical customer behavior as labels to train the network. In addition, we use NMSLIB to accelerate the computationally expensive kNN computation for millions of products so that the alternative recommendation is able to scale across the entire catalog of a major ecommerce site.
Sentiment analysis is crucial for the advancement of artificial intelligence (AI). Sentiment understanding can help AI to replicate human language and discourse. Studying the formation and response of sentiment state from well-trained Customer Service Representatives (CSRs) can help make the interaction between humans and AI more intelligent. In this paper, a sentiment analysis pipeline is first carried out with respect to real-world multi-party conversations - that is, service calls. Based on the acoustic and linguistic features extracted from the source information, a novel aggregated method for voice sentiment recognition framework is built. Each party’s sentiment pattern during the communication is investigated along with the interaction sentiment pattern between all parties.
While buying a product from the e-commerce websites, customers generally have a plethora of questions. From the perspective of both the e-commerce service provider as well as the customers, there must be an effective question answering system to provide immediate answer to the user queries. While certain questions can only be answered after using the product, there are many questions which can be answered from the product specification itself. Our work takes a first step in this direction by finding out the relevant product specifications, that can help answering the user questions. We propose an approach to automatically create a training dataset for this problem. We utilize recently proposed XLNet and BERT architectures for this problem and find that they provide much better performance than the Siamese model, previously applied for this problem. Our model gives a good performance even when trained on one vertical and tested across different verticals.
In this work, we improve the intent classification in an English based e-commerce voice assistant by using inter-utterance context. For increased user adaptation and hence being more profitable, an e-commerce voice assistant is desired to understand the context of a conversation and not have the users repeat it in every utterance. For example, let a user’s first utterance be ‘find apples’. Then, the user may say ‘i want organic only’ to filter out the results generated by an assistant with respect to the first query. So, it is important for the assistant to take into account the context from the user’s first utterance to understand her intention in the second one. In this paper, we present our approach for contextual intent classification in Walmart’s e-commerce voice assistant. It uses the intent of the previous user utterance to predict the intent of her current utterance. With the help of experiments performed on real user queries we show that our approach improves the intent classification in the assistant.
In this paper, we present a semi-supervised bootstrapping approach to detect product or service related complaints in social media. Our approach begins with a small collection of annotated samples which are used to identify a preliminary set of linguistic indicators pertinent to complaints. These indicators are then used to expand the dataset. The expanded dataset is again used to extract more indicators. This process is applied for several iterations until we can no longer find any new indicators. We evaluated this approach on a Twitter corpus specifically to detect complaints about transportation services. We started with an annotated set of 326 samples of transportation complaints, and after four iterations of the approach, we collected 2,840 indicators and over 3,700 tweets. We annotated a random sample of 700 tweets from the final dataset and observed that nearly half the samples were actual transportation complaints. Lastly, we also studied how different features based on semantics, orthographic properties, and sentiment contribute towards the prediction of complaints.
In e-commerce, recommender systems have become an indispensable part of helping users explore the available inventory. In this work, we present a novel approach for item-based collaborative filtering, by leveraging BERT to understand items, and score relevancy between different items. Our proposed method could address problems that plague traditional recommender systems such as cold start, and “more of the same” recommended content. We conducted experiments on a large-scale real-world dataset with full cold-start scenario, and the proposed approach significantly outperforms the popular Bi-LSTM model.
Product reviews are a huge source of natural language data in e-commerce applications. Several millions of customers write reviews regarding a variety of topics. We categorize these topics into two groups as either “category-specific” topics or as “generic” topics that span multiple product categories. While we can use a supervised learning approach to tag review text for generic topics, it is impossible to use supervised approaches to tag category-specific topics due to the sheer number of possible topics for each category. In this paper, we present an approach to tag each review with several product category-specific tags on Indonesian language product reviews using a semi-supervised approach. We show that our proposed method can work at scale on real product reviews at Tokopedia, a major e-commerce platform in Indonesia. Manual evaluation shows that the proposed method can efficiently generate category-specific product tags.
In e-commerce system, category prediction is to automatically predict categories of given texts. Different from traditional classification where there are no relations between classes, category prediction is reckoned as a standard hierarchical classification problem since categories are usually organized as a hierarchical tree. In this paper, we address hierarchical category prediction. We propose a Deep Hierarchical Classification framework, which incorporates the multi-scale hierarchical information in neural networks and introduces a representation sharing strategy according to the category tree. We also define a novel combined loss function to punish hierarchical prediction losses. The evaluation shows that the proposed approach outperforms existing approaches in accuracy.
In recent years, there has been an increase in online shopping resulting in an increased number of online reviews. Customers cannot delve into the huge amount of data when they are looking for specific aspects of a product. Some of these aspects can be extracted from the product reviews. In this paper we introduced SimsterQ - a clustering based system for answering questions that makes use of word vectors. Clustering was performed using cosine similarity scores between sentence vectors of reviews and questions. Two variants (Sim and Median) with and without stopwords were evaluated against traditional methods that use term frequency. We also used an n-gram approach to study the effect of noise. We used the reviews in the Amazon Reviews dataset to pick the answers. Evaluation was performed both at the individual sentence level using the top sentence from Okapi BM25 as the gold standard and at the whole answer level using review snippets as the gold standard. At the sentence level our system performed slightly better than a more complicated deep learning method. Our system returned answers similar to the review snippets from the Amazon QA Dataset as measured by the cosine similarity. Analysis was also performed on the quality of the clusters generated by our system.
In recent years, the focus of e-Commerce research has been on better understanding the relationship between the internet marketplace, customers, and goods and services. This has been done by examining information that can be gleaned from consumer information, recommender systems, click rates, or the way purchasers go about making buying decisions, for example. This paper takes a very different approach and examines the companies themselves. In the past ten years, e-Commerce giants such as Amazon, Skymall, Wayfair, and Groupon have been embroiled in class action security lawsuits promulgated under Rule 10b(5), which, in short, is one of the Securities and Exchange Commission’s main rules surrounding fraud. Lawsuits are extremely expensive to the company and can damage a company’s brand extensively, with the shareholders left to suffer the consequences. We examined the Management Discussion and Analysis and the Market Risks for 96 companies using sentiment analysis on selected financial measures and found that we were able to predict the outcome of the lawsuits in our dataset using sentiment (tone) alone to a recall of 0.8207 using the Random Forest classifier. We believe that this is an important contribution as it has cross-domain implications and potential, and opens up new areas of research in e-Commerce, finance, and law, as the settlements from the class action lawsuits in our dataset alone are in excess of $1.6 billion dollars, in aggregate.
In this paper, we study the applicability of Bayesian Parametric and Non-parametric methods for user clustering in an E-commerce search setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that presents a comparative study of various Bayesian clustering methods in the context of product search. Specifically, we cluster users based on their topical patterns from their respective product search queries. To evaluate the quality of the clusters formed, we perform a collaborative query recommendation task. Our findings indicate that simple parametric model like Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) outperforms more sophisticated non-parametric methods like Distance Dependent Chinese Restaurant Process and Dirichlet Process-based clustering in both tasks.
In this paper, we present two productive and functional recommender methods to improve the ac- curacy of predicting the right product for the user. One proposal is a survey-based recommender system that uses k-nearest neighbors. It recommends products by asking questions from the user, efficiently applying a binary product vector to the product attributes, and processing the request with a minimum error. The second proposal uses an enriched collaborative-based recommender system using enriched weighted vectors. Thanks to the style rules, the enriched collaborative- based method recommends outfits with competitive recommendation quality. We evaluated both of the proposals on a Kaggle fashion-dataset along with iMaterialist and, results show equivalent performance on binary gender and product attributes.
Product descriptions in e-commerce platforms contain detailed and valuable information about retailers assortment. In particular, coding promotions within digital leaflets are of great interest in e-commerce as they capture the attention of consumers by showing regular promotions for different products. However, this information is embedded into images, making it difficult to extract and process for downstream tasks. In this paper, we present an end-to-end approach that classifies promotions within digital leaflets into their corresponding product categories using both visual and textual information. Our approach can be divided into three key components: 1) region detection, 2) text recognition and 3) text classification. In many cases, a single promotion refers to multiple product categories, so we introduce a multi-label objective in the classification head. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for two separated tasks: 1) image-based detection of the descriptions for each individual promotion and 2) multi-label classification of the product categories using the text from the product descriptions. We train and evaluate our models using a private dataset composed of images from digital leaflets obtained by Nielsen. Results show that we consistently outperform the proposed baseline by a large margin in all the experiments.
Consumer Price Indices (CPIs) are one of the major statistics produced by Statistical Offices, and of crucial importance to Central Banks. To calculate CPIs, statistical offices collect a large amount of individual prices of goods and services. Nowadays prices of many consumer goods can be obtained online, enabling a much more detailed measurement of inflation rates. One major challenge is to classify the variety of products, from different shops and languages into the given statistical schema consisting of a complex multi-level classification hierarchy - the European Classification of Individual Consumption according to Purpose (ECOICOP) for European countries, since there is no model, mapping or labelled data available. We focus in our analysis on food, beverage and tobacco which account for 74 of the 258 ECOICOP categories and 19 % of the Euro Area inflation basket. In this paper we build a classifier on web scraped, hand-labeled product data from German retailers and test the transfer to French data using cross lingual word embedding. We compare its performance against a classifier trained on the single languages and a classifier with both languages trained jointly. Furthermore, we propose a pipeline to effectively create a data set with balanced labels using transferred predictions and active learning. In addition we test how much data it takes to build a single language classifier from scratch an if there are benefits from multilingual training. Our proposed system reduces the time to complete the task by about two thirds and is already used to support the analysis of inflation.
We propose a novel way of conversational recommendation, where instead of asking questions to the user to acquire their preferences; the recommender tracks their conversation with other people, including customer support agents (CSA), and joins the conversation only when it is time to introduce a recommendation. Building a recommender that joins a human conversation (RJC), we propose information extraction, discourse and argumentation analyses, as well as dialogue management techniques to compute a recommendation for a product and service that is needed by the customer, as inferred from the conversation. A special case of such conversations is considered where the customer raises his problem with CSA in an attempt to resolve it, along with receiving a recommendation for a product with features addressing this problem. We evaluate performance of RJC is in a number of human-human and human-chat bot dialogues, and demonstrate that RJC is an efficient and less intrusive way to provide high relevance and persuasive recommendations.
Online customer reviews are of growing importance for many businesses in the hospitality industry, particularly restaurants and hotels. Managerial responses to such reviews provide businesses with the opportunity to influence the public discourse and to attain improved ratings over time. However, responding to each and every review is a time-consuming endeavour. Therefore, we investigate automatic generation of review responses in the hospitality domain for two languages, English and German. We apply an existing system, originally proposed for review response generation for smartphone apps. This approach employs an extended neural network sequence-to-sequence architecture and performs well in the original domain. However, as shown through our experiments, when applied to a new domain, such as hospitality, performance drops considerably. Therefore, we analyse potential causes for the differences in performance and provide evidence to suggest that review response generation in the hospitality domain is a more challenging task and thus requires further study and additional domain adaptation techniques.
Information retrieval chatbots are widely used as assistants, to help users formulate their requirements about the products they want to purchase, and navigate to the set of items that satisfies their requirements in the best way. The work of the modern chatbots is based mostly on the deep learning theory behind the knowledge model that can improve the performance of the system. In our work, we are developing a concept-based knowledge model that encapsulates objects and their common descriptions. The leveraging of the concept-based knowledge model allows the system to refine the initial users’ requests and lead them to the set of objects with the maximal variability of parameters that matters less to them. Introducing the additional textual characteristics allows users to formulate their initial query as a phrase in natural language, rather than as some standard request in the form of, “Attribute - value”.
Product matching, i.e., being able to infer the product being sold for a merchant-created offer, is crucial for any e-commerce marketplace, enabling product-based navigation, price comparisons, product reviews, etc. This problem proves a challenging task, mostly due to the extent of product catalog, data heterogeneity, missing product representants, and varying levels of data quality. Moreover, new products are being introduced every day, making it difficult to cast the problem as a classification task. In this work, we apply BERT-based models in a similarity learning setup to solve the product matching problem. We provide a thorough ablation study, showing the impact of architecture and training objective choices. Application of transformer-based architectures and proper sampling techniques significantly boosts performance for a range of e-commerce domains, allowing for production deployment.
Many e-commerce services provide customer review systems. Previous laboratory studies have indicated that the ratings recorded by these systems differ from the actual evaluations of the users, owing to the influence of historical ratings in the system. Some studies have proposed using real-world datasets to model rating prediction. Herein, we propose an aspect-similarity-aware historical influence model for rating prediction using natural language processing techniques. In general, each user provides a rating considering different aspects. Thus, it can be assumed that historical ratings provided considering similar aspects to those of later ones will influence evaluations of users more. By focusing on the review-topic similarities, we show that our method predicts ratings more accurately than the previous historical-inference-aware model. In addition, we examine whether our model can predict “intrinsic rating,” which is given if users were not influenced by historical ratings. We performed an intrinsic rating prediction task, and showed that our model achieved improved performance. Our method can be useful to debias user ratings collected by customer review systems. The debiased ratings help users to make decision properly and systems to provide helpful recommendations. This might improve the user experience of e-commerce services.
E-commerce sites include advertising slogans along with information regarding an item. Slogans can attract viewers’ attention to increase sales or visits by emphasizing advantages of an item. The aim of this study is to generate a slogan from a description of an item. To generate a slogan, we apply an encoder–decoder model which has shown effectiveness in many kinds of natural language generation tasks, such as abstractive summarization. However, slogan generation task has three characteristics that distinguish it from other natural language generation tasks: distinctiveness, topic emphasis, and style difference. To handle these three characteristics, we propose a compressed representation–based reconstruction model with refer–attention and conversion layers. The results of the experiments indicate that, based on automatic and human evaluation, our method achieves higher performance than conventional methods.
This paper presents a typology of errors produced by automatic summarization systems. The typology was created by manually analyzing the output of four recent neural summarization systems. Our work is motivated by the growing awareness of the need for better summary evaluation methods that go beyond conventional overlap-based metrics. Our typology is structured into two dimensions. First, the Mapping Dimension describes surface-level errors and provides insight into word-sequence transformation issues. Second, the Meaning Dimension describes issues related to interpretation and provides insight into breakdowns in truth, i.e., factual faithfulness to the original text. Comparative analysis revealed that two neural summarization systems leveraging pre-trained models have an advantage in decreasing grammaticality errors, but not necessarily factual errors. We also discuss the importance of ensuring that summary length and abstractiveness do not interfere with evaluating summary quality.
We present BLANC, a new approach to the automatic estimation of document summary quality. Our goal is to measure the functional performance of a summary with an objective, reproducible, and fully automated method. Our approach achieves this by measuring the performance boost gained by a pre-trained language model with access to a document summary while carrying out its language understanding task on the document’s text. We present evidence that BLANC scores have as good correlation with human evaluations as do the ROUGE family of summary quality measurements. And unlike ROUGE, the BLANC method does not require human-written reference summaries, allowing for fully human-free summary quality estimation.
Conversational agent quality is currently assessed using human evaluation, and often requires an exorbitant number of comparisons to achieve statistical significance. In this paper, we introduce Item Response Theory (IRT) for chatbot evaluation, using a paired comparison in which annotators judge which system responds better to the next turn of a conversation. IRT is widely used in educational testing for simultaneously assessing the ability of test takers and the quality of test questions. It is similarly well suited for chatbot evaluation since it allows the assessment of both models and the prompts used to evaluate them. We use IRT to efficiently assess chatbots, and show that different examples from the evaluation set are better suited for comparing high-quality (nearer to human performance) than low-quality systems. Finally, we use IRT to reduce the number of evaluation examples assessed by human annotators while retaining discriminative power.
In this paper, we propose an evaluation metric for image captioning systems using both image and text information. Unlike the previous methods that rely on textual representations in evaluating the caption, our approach uses visiolinguistic representations. The proposed method generates image-conditioned embeddings for each token using ViLBERT from both generated and reference texts. Then, these contextual embeddings from each of the two sentence-pair are compared to compute the similarity score. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets show that our method correlates significantly better with human judgments than all existing metrics.
Evaluation is a bottleneck in the development of natural language generation (NLG) models. Automatic metrics such as BLEU rely on references, but for tasks such as open-ended generation, there are no references to draw upon. Although language diversity can be estimated using statistical measures such as perplexity, measuring language quality requires human evaluation. However, because human evaluation at scale is slow and expensive, it is used sparingly; it cannot be used to rapidly iterate on NLG models, in the way BLEU is used for machine translation. To this end, we propose BLEU Neighbors, a nearest neighbors model for estimating language quality by using the BLEU score as a kernel function. On existing datasets for chitchat dialogue and open-ended sentence generation, we find that – on average – the quality estimation from a BLEU Neighbors model has a lower mean squared error and higher Spearman correlation with the ground truth than individual human annotators. Despite its simplicity, BLEU Neighbors even outperforms state-of-the-art models on automatically grading essays, including models that have access to a gold-standard reference essay.
Recent advances in automatic evaluation metrics for text have shown that deep contextualized word representations, such as those generated by BERT encoders, are helpful for designing metrics that correlate well with human judgements. At the same time, it has been argued that contextualized word representations exhibit sub-optimal statistical properties for encoding the true similarity between words or sentences. In this paper, we present two techniques for improving encoding representations for similarity metrics: a batch-mean centering strategy that improves statistical properties; and a computationally efficient tempered Word Mover Distance, for better fusion of the information in the contextualized word representations. We conduct numerical experiments that demonstrate the robustness of our techniques, reporting results over various BERT-backbone learned metrics and achieving state of the art correlation with human ratings on several benchmarks.
The standard machine translation evaluation framework measures the single-best output of machine translation systems. There are, however, many situations where n-best lists are needed, yet there is no established way of evaluating them. This paper establishes a framework for addressing n-best evaluation by outlining three different questions one could consider when determining how one would define a ‘good’ n-best list and proposing evaluation measures for each question. The first and principal contribution is an evaluation measure that characterizes the translation quality of an entire n-best list by asking whether many of the valid translations are placed near the top of the list. The second is a measure that uses gold translations with preference annotations to ask to what degree systems can produce ranked lists in preference order. The third is a measure that rewards partial matches, evaluating the closeness of the many items in an n-best list to a set of many valid references. These three perspectives make clear that having access to many references can be useful when n-best evaluation is the goal.
We describe Artemis (Annotation methodology for Rich, Tractable, Extractive, Multi-domain, Indicative Summarization), a novel hierarchical annotation process that produces indicative summaries for documents from multiple domains. Current summarization evaluation datasets are single-domain and focused on a few domains for which naturally occurring summaries can be easily found, such as news and scientific articles. These are not sufficient for training and evaluation of summarization models for use in document management and information retrieval systems, which need to deal with documents from multiple domains. Compared to other annotation methods such as Relative Utility and Pyramid, Artemis is more tractable because judges don’t need to look at all the sentences in a document when making an importance judgment for one of the sentences, while providing similarly rich sentence importance annotations. We describe the annotation process in detail and compare it with other similar evaluation systems. We also present analysis and experimental results over a sample set of 532 annotated documents.
In pursuit of the perfect supervised NLP classifier, razor thin margins and low-resource test sets can make modeling decisions difficult. Popular metrics such as Accuracy, Precision, and Recall are often insufficient as they fail to give a complete picture of the model’s behavior. We present a probabilistic extension of Precision, Recall, and F1 score, which we refer to as confidence-Precision (cPrecision), confidence-Recall (cRecall), and confidence-F1 (cF1) respectively. The proposed metrics address some of the challenges faced when evaluating large-scale NLP systems, specifically when the model’s confidence score assignments have an impact on the system’s behavior. We describe four key benefits of our proposed metrics as compared to their threshold-based counterparts. Two of these benefits, which we refer to as robustness to missing values and sensitivity to model confidence score assignments are self-evident from the metrics’ definitions; the remaining benefits, generalization, and functional consistency are demonstrated empirically.
Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE) was proposed as a unified evaluation framework to compare semantic understanding of different NLP systems. In this survey paper, we provide an overview of different approaches for evaluating and understanding the reasoning capabilities of NLP systems. We then focus our discussion on RTE by highlighting prominent RTE datasets as well as advances in RTE dataset that focus on specific linguistic phenomena that can be used to evaluate NLP systems on a fine-grained level. We conclude by arguing that when evaluating NLP systems, the community should utilize newly introduced RTE datasets that focus on specific linguistic phenomena.
Ever since Pereira (2000) provided evidence against Chomsky’s (1957) conjecture that statistical language modelling is incommensurable with the aims of grammaticality prediction as a research enterprise, a new area of research has emerged that regards statistical language models as “psycholinguistic subjects” and probes their ability to acquire syntactic knowledge. The advent of The Corpus of Linguistic Acceptability (CoLA) (Warstadt et al., 2019) has earned a spot on the leaderboard for acceptability judgements, and the polemic between Lau et al. (2017) and Sprouse et al. (2018) has raised fundamental questions about the nature of grammaticality and how acceptability judgements should be elicited. All the while, we are told that neural language models continue to improve. That is not an easy claim to test at present, however, because there is almost no agreement on how to measure their improvement when it comes to grammaticality and acceptability judgements. The GLUE leaderboard bundles CoLA together with a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), although probably because CoLA’s seminal publication was using it to compute inter-rater reliabilities. Researchers working in this area have used other accuracy and correlation scores, often driven by a need to reconcile and compare various discrete and continuous variables with each other. The score that we will advocate for in this paper, the point biserial correlation, in fact compares a discrete variable (for us, acceptability judgements) to a continuous variable (for us, neural language model probabilities). The only previous work in this area to choose the PBC that we are aware of is Sprouse et al. (2018a), and that paper actually applied it backwards (with some justification) so that the language model probability was treated as the discrete binary variable by setting a threshold. With the PBC in mind, we will first reappraise some recent work in syntactically targeted linguistic evaluations (Hu et al., 2020), arguing that while their experimental design sets a new high watermark for this topic, their results may not prove what they have claimed. We then turn to the task-independent assessment of language models as grammaticality classifiers. Prior to the introduction of the GLUE leaderboard, the vast majority of this assessment was essentially anecdotal, and we find the use of the MCC in this regard to be problematic. We conduct several studies with PBCs to compare several popular language models. We also study the effects of several variables such as normalization and data homogeneity on PBC.
Word embeddings are an active topic in the NLP research community. State-of-the-art neural models achieve high performance on downstream tasks, albeit at the cost of computationally expensive training. Cost aware solutions require cheaper models that still achieve good performance. We present several reproduction studies of intrinsic evaluation tasks that evaluate non-contextual word representations in multiple languages. Furthermore, we present 50-8-8, a new data set for the outlier identification task, which avoids limitations of the original data set, such as ambiguous words, infrequent words, and multi-word tokens, while increasing the number of test cases. The data set is expanded to contain semantic and syntactic tests and is multilingual (English, German, and Italian). We provide an in-depth analysis of word embedding models with a range of hyper-parameters. Our analysis shows the suitability of different models and hyper-parameters for different tasks and the greater difficulty of representing German and Italian languages.
Current evaluation metrics for language modeling and generation rely heavily on the accuracy of predicted (or generated) words as compared to a reference ground truth. While important, token-level accuracy only captures one aspect of a language model’s behavior, and ignores linguistic properties of words that may allow some mis-predicted tokens to be useful in practice. Furthermore, statistics directly tied to prediction accuracy (including perplexity) may be confounded by the Zipfian nature of written language, as the majority of the prediction attempts will occur with frequently-occurring types. A model’s performance may vary greatly between high- and low-frequency words, which in practice could lead to failure modes such as repetitive and dull generated text being produced by a downstream consumer of a language model. To address this, we propose two new intrinsic evaluation measures within the framework of a simple word prediction task that are designed to give a more holistic picture of a language model’s performance. We evaluate several commonly-used large English language models using our proposed metrics, and demonstrate that our approach reveals functional differences in performance between the models that are obscured by more traditional metrics.
Open information extraction (OIE) is the task of extracting relations and their corresponding arguments from a natural language text in un- supervised manner. Outputs of such systems are used for downstream tasks such as ques- tion answering and automatic knowledge base (KB) construction. Many of these downstream tasks rely on aligning OIE triples with refer- ence KBs. Such alignments are usually eval- uated w.r.t. a specific downstream task and, to date, no direct manual evaluation of such alignments has been performed. In this paper, we directly evaluate how OIE triples from the OPIEC corpus are related to the DBpedia KB w.r.t. information content. First, we investigate OPIEC triples and DBpedia facts having the same arguments by comparing the information on the OIE surface relation with the KB rela- tion. Second, we evaluate the expressibility of general OPIEC triples in DBpedia. We in- vestigate whether—and, if so, how—a given OIE triple can be mapped to a single KB fact. We found that such mappings are not always possible because the information in the OIE triples tends to be more specific. Our evalua- tion suggests, however, that significant part of OIE triples can be expressed by means of KB formulas instead of individual facts.
This paper adds to the ongoing discussion in the natural language processing community on how to choose a good development set. Motivated by the real-life necessity of applying machine learning models to different data distributions, we propose a clustering-based data splitting algorithm. It creates development (or test) sets which are lexically different from the training data while ensuring similar label distributions. Hence, we are able to create challenging cross-validation evaluation setups while abstracting away from performance differences resulting from label distribution shifts between training and test data. In addition, we present a Python-based tool for analyzing and visualizing data split characteristics and model performance. We illustrate the workings and results of our approach using a sentiment analysis and a patent classification task.
One of the main challenges in the development of summarization tools is summarization quality evaluation. On the one hand, the human assessment of summarization quality conducted by linguistic experts is slow, expensive, and still not a standardized procedure. On the other hand, the automatic assessment metrics are reported not to correlate high enough with human quality ratings. As a solution, we propose crowdsourcing as a fast, scalable, and cost-effective alternative to expert evaluations to assess the intrinsic and extrinsic quality of summarization by comparing crowd ratings with expert ratings and automatic metrics such as ROUGE, BLEU, or BertScore on a German summarization data set. Our results provide a basis for best practices for crowd-based summarization evaluation regarding major influential factors such as the best annotation aggregation method, the influence of readability and reading effort on summarization evaluation, and the optimal number of crowd workers to achieve comparable results to experts, especially when determining factors such as overall quality, grammaticality, referential clarity, focus, structure & coherence, summary usefulness, and summary informativeness.
The analogy task introduced by Mikolov et al. (2013) has become the standard metric for tuning the hyperparameters of word embedding models. In this paper, however, we argue that the analogy task is unsuitable for low-resource languages for two reasons: (1) it requires that word embeddings be trained on large amounts of text, and (2) analogies may not be well-defined in some low-resource settings. We solve these problems by introducing the OddOneOut and Topk tasks, which are specifically designed for model selection in the low-resource setting. We use these metrics to successfully tune hyperparameters for a low-resource emoji embedding task and word embeddings on 16 extinct languages. The largest of these languages (Ancient Hebrew) has a 41 million token dataset, and the smallest (Old Gujarati) has only a 1813 token dataset.
Automatic fact checking is an important task motivated by the need for detecting and preventing the spread of misinformation across the web. The recently released FEVER challenge provides a benchmark task that assesses systems’ capability for both the retrieval of required evidence and the identification of authentic claims. Previous approaches share a similar pipeline training paradigm that decomposes the task into three subtasks, with each component built and trained separately. Although achieving acceptable scores, these methods induce difficulty for practical application development due to unnecessary complexity and expensive computation. In this paper, we explore the potential of simplifying the system design and reducing training computation by proposing a joint training setup in which a single sequence matching model is trained with compounded labels that give supervision for both sentence selection and claim verification subtasks, eliminating the duplicate computation that occurs when models are designed and trained separately. Empirical results on FEVER indicate that our method: (1) outperforms the typical multi-task learning approach, and (2) gets comparable results to top performing systems with a much simpler training setup and less training computation (in terms of the amount of data consumed and the number of model parameters), facilitating future works on the automatic fact checking task and its practical usage.
This work explores the application of textual entailment in news claim verification and stance prediction using a new corpus in Arabic. The publicly available corpus comes in two perspectives: a version consisting of 4,547 true and false claims and a version consisting of 3,786 pairs (claim, evidence). We describe the methodology for creating the corpus and the annotation process. Using the introduced corpus, we also develop two machine learning baselines for two proposed tasks: claim verification and stance prediction. Our best model utilizes pretraining (BERT) and achieves 76.7 F1 on the stance prediction task and 64.3 F1 on the claim verification task. Our preliminary experiments shed some light on the limits of automatic claim verification that relies on claims text only. Results hint that while the linguistic features and world knowledge learned during pretraining are useful for stance prediction, such learned representations from pretraining are insufficient for verifying claims without access to context or evidence.
Textual patterns (e.g., Country’s president Person) are specified and/or generated for extracting factual information from unstructured data. Pattern-based information extraction methods have been recognized for their efficiency and transferability. However, not every pattern is reliable: A major challenge is to derive the most complete and accurate facts from diverse and sometimes conflicting extractions. In this work, we propose a probabilistic graphical model which formulates fact extraction in a generative process. It automatically infers true facts and pattern reliability without any supervision. It has two novel designs specially for temporal facts: (1) it models pattern reliability on two types of time signals, including temporal tag in text and text generation time; (2) it models commonsense constraints as observable variables. Experimental results demonstrate that our model significantly outperforms existing methods on extracting true temporal facts from news data.
In the field of factoid question answering (QA), it is known that the state-of-the-art technology has achieved an accuracy comparable to that of humans in a certain benchmark challenge. On the other hand, in the area of non-factoid QA, there is still a limited number of datasets for training QA models, i.e., machine comprehension models. Considering such a situation within the field of the non-factoid QA, this paper aims to develop a dataset for training Japanese how-to tip QA models. This paper applies one of the state-of-the-art machine comprehension models to the Japanese how-to tip QA dataset. The trained how-to tip QA model is also compared with a factoid QA model trained with a Japanese factoid QA dataset. Evaluation results revealed that the how-to tip machine comprehension performance was almost comparative with that of the factoid machine comprehension even with the training data size reduced to around 4% of the factoid machine comprehension. Thus, the how-to tip machine comprehension task requires much less training data compared with the factoid machine comprehension task.
Recent work has suggested that language models (LMs) store both common-sense and factual knowledge learned from pre-training data. In this paper, we leverage this implicit knowledge to create an effective end-to-end fact checker using a solely a language model, without any external knowledge or explicit retrieval components. While previous work on extracting knowledge from LMs have focused on the task of open-domain question answering, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to examine the use of language models as fact checkers. In a closed-book setting, we show that our zero-shot LM approach outperforms a random baseline on the standard FEVER task, and that our finetuned LM compares favorably with standard baselines. Though we do not ultimately outperform methods which use explicit knowledge bases, we believe our exploration shows that this method is viable and has much room for exploration.
We propose two measures for measuring the quality of constructed claims in the FEVER task. Annotating data for this task involves the creation of supporting and refuting claims over a set of evidence. Automatic annotation processes often leave superficial patterns in data, which learning systems can detect instead of performing the underlying task. Humans also can leave these superficial patterns, either voluntarily or involuntarily (due to e.g. fatigue). The two measures introduced attempt to detect the impact of these superficial patterns. One is a new information-theoretic and distributionality based measure, DCI; and the other an extension of neural probing work over the ARCT task, utility. We demonstrate these measures over a recent major dataset, that from the English FEVER task in 2019.
The alarming spread of fake news in social media, together with the impossibility of scaling manual fact verification, motivated the development of natural language processing techniques to automatically verify the veracity of claims. Most approaches perform a claim-evidence classification without providing any insights about why the claim is trustworthy or not. We propose, instead, a model-agnostic framework that consists of two modules: (1) a span extractor, which identifies the crucial information connecting claim and evidence; and (2) a classifier that combines claim, evidence, and the extracted spans to predict the veracity of the claim. We show that the spans are informative for the classifier, improving performance and robustness. Tested on several state-of-the-art models over the Fever dataset, the enhanced classifiers consistently achieve higher accuracy while also showing reduced sensitivity to artifacts in the claims.
Detecting sarcasm and verbal irony is critical for understanding people’s actual sentiments and beliefs. Thus, the field of sarcasm analysis has become a popular research problem in natural language processing. As the community working on computational approaches for sarcasm detection is growing, it is imperative to conduct benchmarking studies to analyze the current state-of-the-art, facilitating progress in this area. We report on the shared task on sarcasm detection we conducted as a part of the 2nd Workshop on Figurative Language Processing (FigLang 2020) at ACL 2020.
We present a novel data augmentation technique, CRA (Contextual Response Augmentation), which utilizes conversational context to generate meaningful samples for training. We also mitigate the issues regarding unbalanced context lengths by changing the input output format of the model such that it can deal with varying context lengths effectively. Specifically, our proposed model, trained with the proposed data augmentation technique, participated in the sarcasm detection task of FigLang2020, have won and achieves the best performance in both Reddit and Twitter datasets.
In this paper, we report on the shared task on metaphor identification on VU Amsterdam Metaphor Corpus and on a subset of the TOEFL Native Language Identification Corpus. The shared task was conducted as apart of the ACL 2020 Workshop on Processing Figurative Language.
Machine metaphor understanding is one of the major topics in NLP. Most of the recent attempts consider it as classification or sequence tagging task. However, few types of research introduce the rich linguistic information into the field of computational metaphor by leveraging powerful pre-training language models. We focus a novel reading comprehension paradigm for solving the token-level metaphor detection task which provides an innovative type of solution for this task. We propose an end-to-end deep metaphor detection model named DeepMet based on this paradigm. The proposed approach encodes the global text context (whole sentence), local text context (sentence fragments), and question (query word) information as well as incorporating two types of part-of-speech (POS) features by making use of the advanced pre-training language model. The experimental results by using several metaphor datasets show that our model achieves competitive results in the second shared task on metaphor detection.
While mysterious, humor likely hinges on an interplay of entities, their relationships, and cultural connotations. Motivated by the importance of context in humor, we consider methods for constructing and leveraging contextual representations in generating humorous text. Specifically, we study the capacity of transformer-based architectures to generate funny satirical headlines, and show that both language models and summarization models can be fine-tuned to regularly generate headlines that people find funny. Furthermore, we find that summarization models uniquely support satire-generation by enabling the generation of topical humorous text. Outside of our formal study, we note that headlines generated by our model were accepted via a competitive process into a satirical newspaper, and one headline was ranked as high or better than 73% of human submissions. As part of our work, we contribute a dataset of over 15K satirical headlines paired with ranked contextual information from news articles and Wikipedia.
Sarcasm is an intricate form of speech, where meaning is conveyed implicitly. Being a convoluted form of expression, detecting sarcasm is an assiduous problem. The difficulty in recognition of sarcasm has many pitfalls, including misunderstandings in everyday communications, which leads us to an increasing focus on automated sarcasm detection. In the second edition of the Figurative Language Processing (FigLang 2020) workshop, the shared task of sarcasm detection released two datasets, containing responses along with their context sampled from Twitter and Reddit. In this work, we use RoBERTalarge to detect sarcasm in both the datasets. We further assert the importance of context in improving the performance of contextual word embedding based models by using three different types of inputs - Response-only, Context-Response, and Context-Response (Separated). We show that our proposed architecture performs competitively for both the datasets. We also show that the addition of a separation token between context and target response results in an improvement of 5.13% in the F1-score in the Reddit dataset.
Sarcasm is a form of communication in which the person states opposite of what he actually means. In this paper, we propose using machine learning techniques with BERT and GloVe embeddings to detect sarcasm in tweets. The dataset is preprocessed before extracting the embeddings. The proposed model also uses all of the context provided in the dataset to which the user is reacting along with his actual response.
Automatic Sarcasm Detection in conversations is a difficult and tricky task. Classifying an utterance as sarcastic or not in isolation can be futile since most of the time the sarcastic nature of a sentence heavily relies on its context. This paper presents our proposed model, C-Net, which takes contextual information of a sentence in a sequential manner to classify it as sarcastic or non-sarcastic. Our model showcases competitive performance in the Sarcasm Detection shared task organised on CodaLab and achieved 75.0% F1-score on the Twitter dataset and 66.3% F1-score on Reddit dataset.
Sarcasm is a type of figurative language broadly adopted in social media and daily conversations. The sarcasm can ultimately alter the meaning of the sentence, which makes the opinion analysis process error-prone. In this paper, we propose to employ bidirectional encoder representations transformers (BERT), and aspect-based sentiment analysis approaches in order to extract the relation between context dialogue sequence and response and determine whether or not the response is sarcastic. The best performing method of ours obtains an F1 score of 0.73 on the Twitter dataset and 0.734 over the Reddit dataset at the second workshop on figurative language processing Shared Task 2020.
Sarcasm analysis in user conversion text is automatic detection of any irony, insult, hurting, painful, caustic, humour, vulgarity that degrades an individual. It is helpful in the field of sentimental analysis and cyberbullying. As an immense growth of social media, sarcasm analysis helps to avoid insult, hurts and humour to affect someone. In this paper, we present traditional machine learning approaches, deep learning approach (LSTM -RNN) and BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) for identifying sarcasm. We have used the approaches to build the model, to identify and categorize how much conversion context or response is needed for sarcasm detection and evaluated on the two social media forums that is twitter conversation dataset and reddit conversion dataset. We compare the performance based on the approaches and obtained the best F1 scores as 0.722, 0.679 for the twitter forums and reddit forums respectively.
Social media platforms and discussion forums such as Reddit, Twitter, etc. are filled with figurative languages. Sarcasm is one such category of figurative language whose presence in a conversation makes language understanding a challenging task. In this paper, we present a deep neural architecture for sarcasm detection. We investigate various pre-trained language representation models (PLRMs) like BERT, RoBERTa, etc. and fine-tune it on the Twitter dataset. We experiment with a variety of PLRMs either on the twitter utterance in isolation or utilizing the contextual information along with the utterance. Our findings indicate that by taking into consideration the previous three most recent utterances, the model is more accurately able to classify a conversation as being sarcastic or not. Our best performing ensemble model achieves an overall F1 score of 0.790, which ranks us second on the leaderboard of the Sarcasm Shared Task 2020.
In this paper, we present the results obtained by BERT, BiLSTM and SVM classifiers on the shared task on Sarcasm Detection held as part of The Second Workshop on Figurative Language Processing. The shared task required the use of conversational context to detect sarcasm. We experimented by varying the amount of context used along with the response (response is the text to be classified). The amount of context used includes (i) zero context, (ii) last one, two or three utterances, and (iii) all utterances. It was found that including the last utterance in the dialogue along with the response improved the performance of the classifier for the Twitter data set. On the other hand, the best performance for the Reddit data set was obtained when using only the response without any contextual information. The BERT classifier obtained F-score of 0.743 and 0.658 for the Twitter and Reddit data set respectively.
Sarcasm Detection with Context, a shared task of Second Workshop on Figurative Language Processing (co-located with ACL 2020), is study of effect of context on Sarcasm detection in conversations of Social media. We present different techniques and models, mostly based on transformer for Sarcasm Detection with Context. We extended latest pre-trained transformers like BERT, RoBERTa, spanBERT on different task objectives like single sentence classification, sentence pair classification, etc. to understand role of conversation context for sarcasm detection on Twitter conversations and conversation threads from Reddit. We also present our own architecture consisting of LSTM and Transformers to achieve the objective.
Online discussion platforms are often flooded with opinions from users across the world on a variety of topics. Many such posts, comments, or utterances are often sarcastic in nature, i.e., the actual intent is hidden in the sentence and is different from its literal meaning, making the detection of such utterances challenging without additional context. In this paper, we propose a novel deep learning-based approach to detect whether an utterance is sarcastic or non-sarcastic by utilizing the given contexts ina hierarchical manner. We have used datasets from two online discussion platforms - Twitter and Reddit1for our experiments. Experimental and error analysis shows that the hierarchical models can make full use of history to obtain a better representation of contexts and thus, in turn, can outperform their sequential counterparts.
Sarcasm detection, regarded as one of the sub-problems of sentiment analysis, is a very typical task because the introduction of sarcastic words can flip the sentiment of the sentence itself. To date, many research works revolve around detecting sarcasm in one single sentence and there is very limited research to detect sarcasm resulting from multiple sentences. Current models used Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) variants with or without attention to detect sarcasm in conversations. We showed that the models using state-of-the-art Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT), to capture syntactic and semantic information across conversation sentences, performed better than the current models. Based on the data analysis, we estimated that the number of sentences in the conversation that can contribute to the sarcasm and the results agrees to this estimation. We also perform a comparative study of our different versions of BERT-based model with other variants of LSTM model and XLNet (both using the estimated number of conversation sentences) and find out that BERT-based models outperformed them.
This paper reports a linguistically-enriched method of detecting token-level metaphors for the second shared task on Metaphor Detection. We participate in all four phases of competition with both datasets, i.e. Verbs and AllPOS on the VUA and the TOFEL datasets. We use the modality exclusivity and embodiment norms for constructing a conceptual representation of the nodes and the context. Our system obtains an F-score of 0.652 for the VUA Verbs track, which is 5% higher than the strong baselines. The experimental results across models and datasets indicate the salient contribution of using modality exclusivity and modality shift information for predicting metaphoricity.
In our daily life, metaphor is a common way of expression. To understand the meaning of a metaphor, we should recognize the metaphor words which play important roles. In the metaphor detection task, we design a sequence labeling model based on ALBERT-LSTM-softmax. By applying this model, we carry out a lot of experiments and compare the experimental results with different processing methods, such as with different input sentences and tokens, or the methods with CRF and softmax. Then, some tricks are adopted to improve the experimental results. Finally, our model achieves a 0.707 F1-score for the all POS subtask and a 0.728 F1-score for the verb subtask on the TOEFL dataset.
Recent work on automatic sequential metaphor detection has involved recurrent neural networks initialized with different pre-trained word embeddings and which are sometimes combined with hand engineered features. To capture lexical and orthographic information automatically, in this paper we propose to add character based word representation. Also, to contrast the difference between literal and contextual meaning, we utilize a similarity network. We explore these components via two different architectures - a BiLSTM model and a Transformer Encoder model similar to BERT to perform metaphor identification. We participate in the Second Shared Task on Metaphor Detection on both the VUA and TOFEL datasets with the above models. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method as it outperforms all the systems which participated in the previous shared task.
This work explores the differences and similarities between neural image classifiers’ mis-categorisations and visually grounded metaphors - that we could conceive as intentional mis-categorisations. We discuss the possibility of using automatic image classifiers to approximate human metaphoric behaviours, and the limitations of such frame. We report two pilot experiments to study grounded metaphoricity. In the first we represent metaphors as a form of visual mis-categorisation. In the second we model metaphors as a more flexible, compositional operation in a continuous visual space generated from automatic classification systems.
This paper presents the first research aimed at recognizing euphemistic and dysphemistic phrases with natural language processing. Euphemisms soften references to topics that are sensitive, disagreeable, or taboo. Conversely, dysphemisms refer to sensitive topics in a harsh or rude way. For example, “passed away” and “departed” are euphemisms for death, while “croaked” and “six feet under” are dysphemisms for death. Our work explores the use of sentiment analysis to recognize euphemistic and dysphemistic language. First, we identify near-synonym phrases for three topics (firing, lying, and stealing) using a bootstrapping algorithm for semantic lexicon induction. Next, we classify phrases as euphemistic, dysphemistic, or neutral using lexical sentiment cues and contextual sentiment analysis. We introduce a new gold standard data set and present our experimental results for this task.
Metaphors are rhetorical use of words based on the conceptual mapping as opposed to their literal use. Metaphor detection, an important task in language understanding, aims to identify metaphors in word level from given sentences. We present IlliniMet, a system to automatically detect metaphorical words. Our model combines the strengths of the contextualized representation by the widely used RoBERTa model and the rich linguistic information from external resources such as WordNet. The proposed approach is shown to outperform strong baselines on a benchmark dataset. Our best model achieves F1 scores of 73.0% on VUA ALLPOS, 77.1% on VUA VERB, 70.3% on TOEFL ALLPOS and 71.9% on TOEFL VERB.
Metaphor processing and understanding has attracted the attention of many researchers recently with an increasing number of computational approaches. A common factor among these approaches is utilising existing benchmark datasets for evaluation and comparisons. The availability, quality and size of the annotated data are among the main difficulties facing the growing research area of metaphor processing. The majority of current approaches pertaining to metaphor processing concentrate on word-level processing due to data availability. On the other hand, approaches that process metaphors on the relation-level ignore the context where the metaphoric expression. This is due to the nature and format of the available data. Word-level annotation is poorly grounded theoretically and is harder to use in downstream tasks such as metaphor interpretation. The conversion from word-level to relation-level annotation is non-trivial. In this work, we attempt to fill this research gap by adapting three benchmark datasets, namely the VU Amsterdam metaphor corpus, the TroFi dataset and the TSV dataset, to suit relation-level metaphor identification. We publish the adapted datasets to facilitate future research in relation-level metaphor processing.
In this paper we describe computational ethnography study to demonstrate how machine learning techniques can be utilized to exploit bias resident in language data produced by communities with online presence. Specifically, we leverage the use of figurative language (i.e., the choice of metaphors) in online text (e.g., news media, blogs) produced by distinct communities to obtain models of community worldviews that can be shown to be distinctly biased and thus different from other communities’ models. We automatically construct metaphor-based community models for two distinct scenarios: gun rights and marriage equality. We then conduct a series of experiments to validate the hypothesis that the metaphors found in each community’s online language convey the bias in the community’s worldview.
This paper contains a preliminary corpus study of oxymorons, a figure of speech so far under-investigated in NLP-oriented research. The study resulted in a list of 376 oxymorons, identified by extracting a set of antonymous pairs (under various configurations) from corpora of written Italian and by manually checking the results. A complementary method is also envisaged for discovering contextual oxymorons, which are highly relevant for the detection of humor, irony and sarcasm.
Understanding and identifying humor has been increasingly popular, as seen by the number of datasets created to study humor. However, one area of humor research, humor generation, has remained a difficult task, with machine generated jokes failing to match human-created humor. As many humor prediction datasets claim to aid in generative tasks, we examine whether these claims are true. We focus our experiments on the most popular dataset, included in the 2020 SemEval’s Task 7, and teach our model to take normal text and “translate” it into humorous text. We evaluate our model compared to humorous human generated headlines, finding that our model is preferred equally in A/B testing with the human edited versions, a strong success for humor generation, and is preferred over an intelligent random baseline 72% of the time. We also show that our model is assumed to be human written comparable with that of the human edited headlines and is significantly better than random, indicating that this dataset does indeed provide potential for future humor generation systems.
This paper describes systems submitted to the Metaphor Shared Task at the Second Workshop on Figurative Language Processing. In this submission, we replicate the evaluation of the Bi-LSTM model introduced by Gao et al.(2018) on the VUA corpus in a new setting: TOEFL essays written by non-native English speakers. Our results show that Bi-LSTM models outperform feature-rich linear models on this challenging task, which is consistent with prior findings on the VUA dataset. However, the Bi-LSTM models lag behind the best performing systems in the shared task.
In this paper we present a novel resource-inexpensive architecture for metaphor detection based on a residual bidirectional long short-term memory and conditional random fields. Current approaches on this task rely on deep neural networks to identify metaphorical words, using additional linguistic features or word embeddings. We evaluate our proposed approach using different model configurations that combine embeddings, part of speech tags, and semantically disambiguated synonym sets. This evaluation process was performed using the training and testing partitions of the VU Amsterdam Metaphor Corpus. We use this method of evaluation as reference to compare the results with other current neural approaches for this task that implement similar neural architectures and features, and that were evaluated using this corpus. Results show that our system achieves competitive results with a simpler architecture compared to previous approaches.
The idea that a shift in concreteness within a sentence indicates the presence of a metaphor has been around for a while. However, recent methods of detecting metaphor that have relied on deep neural models have ignored concreteness and related psycholinguistic information. We hypothesis that this information is not available to these models and that their addition will boost the performance of these models in detecting metaphor. We test this hypothesis on the Metaphor Detection Shared Task 2020 and find that the addition of concreteness information does in fact boost deep neural models. We also run tests on data from a previous shared task and show similar results.
Supervised disambiguation of verbal idioms (VID) poses special demands on the quality and quantity of the annotated data used for learning and evaluation. In this paper, we present a new VID corpus for German and perform a series of VID disambiguation experiments on it. Our best classifier, based on a neural architecture, yields an error reduction across VIDs of 57% in terms of accuracy compared to a simple majority baseline.
We report the results of our system on the Metaphor Detection Shared Task at the Second Workshop on Figurative Language Processing 2020. Our model is an ensemble, utilising contextualised and static distributional semantic representations, along with word-type concreteness ratings. Using these features, it predicts word metaphoricity with a deep multi-layer perceptron. We are able to best the state-of-the-art from the 2018 Shared Task by an average of 8.0% F1, and finish fourth in both sub-tasks in which we participate.
Existing approaches to metaphor processing typically rely on local features, such as immediate lexico-syntactic contexts or information within a given sentence. However, a large body of corpus-linguistic research suggests that situational information and broader discourse properties influence metaphor production and comprehension. In this paper, we present the first neural metaphor processing architecture that models a broader discourse through the use of attention mechanisms. Our models advance the state of the art on the all POS track of the 2018 VU Amsterdam metaphor identification task. The inclusion of discourse-level information yields further significant improvements.
This paper describes the ETS entry to the 2020 Metaphor Detection shared task. Our contribution consists of a sequence of experiments using BERT, starting with a baseline, strengthening it by spell-correcting the TOEFL corpus, followed by a multi-task learning setting, where one of the tasks is the token-level metaphor classification as per the shared task, while the other is meant to provide additional training that we hypothesized to be relevant to the main task. In one case, out-of-domain data manually annotated for metaphor is used for the auxiliary task; in the other case, in-domain data automatically annotated for idioms is used for the auxiliary task. Both multi-task experiments yield promising results.
In this paper we present our results from the Second Shared Task on Metaphor Detection, hosted by the Second Workshop on Figurative Language Processing. We use an ensemble of RNN models with bidirectional LSTMs and bidirectional attention mechanisms. Some of the models were trained on all parts of speech. Each of the other models was trained on one of four categories for parts of speech: “nouns”, “verbs”, “adverbs/adjectives”, or “other”. The models were combined into voting pools and the voting pools were combined using the logical “OR” operator.
The detection of metaphors can provide valuable information about a given text and is crucial to sentiment analysis and machine translation. In this paper, we outline the techniques for word-level metaphor detection used in our submission to the Second Shared Task on Metaphor Detection. We propose using both BERT and XLNet language models to create contextualized embeddings and a bi-directional LSTM to identify whether a given word is a metaphor. Our best model achieved F1-scores of 68.0% on VUA AllPOS, 73.0% on VUA Verbs, 66.9% on TOEFL AllPOS, and 69.7% on TOEFL Verbs, placing 7th, 6th, 5th, and 5th respectively. In addition, we outline another potential approach with a KNN-LSTM ensemble model that we did not have enough time to implement given the deadline for the competition. We show that a KNN classifier provides a similar F1-score on a validation set as the LSTM and yields different information on metaphors.
This paper describes the adaptation and application of a neural network system for the automatic detection of metaphors. The LSTM BiRNN system participated in the shared task of metaphor identification that was part of the Second Workshop of Figurative Language Processing (FigLang2020) held at the Annual Conference of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL2020). The particular focus of our approach is on the potential influence that the metadata given in the ETS Corpus of Non-Native Written English might have on the automatic detection of metaphors in this dataset. The article first discusses the annotated ETS learner data, highlighting some of its peculiarities and inherent biases of metaphor use. A series of evaluations follow in order to test whether specific metadata influence the system performance in the task of automatic metaphor identification. The system is available under the APLv2 open-source license.
We present an ensemble approach for the detection of sarcasm in Reddit and Twitter responses in the context of The Second Workshop on Figurative Language Processing held in conjunction with ACL 2020. The ensemble is trained on the predicted sarcasm probabilities of four component models and on additional features, such as the sentiment of the comment, its length, and source (Reddit or Twitter) in order to learn which of the component models is the most reliable for which input. The component models consist of an LSTM with hashtag and emoji representations; a CNN-LSTM with casing, stop word, punctuation, and sentiment representations; an MLP based on Infersent embeddings; and an SVM trained on stylometric and emotion-based features. All component models use the two conversational turns preceding the response as context, except for the SVM, which only uses features extracted from the response. The ensemble itself consists of an adaboost classifier with the decision tree algorithm as base estimator and yields F1-scores of 67% and 74% on the Reddit and Twitter test data, respectively.
Understanding tone in Twitter posts will be increasingly important as more and more communication moves online. One of the most difficult, yet important tones to detect is sarcasm. In the past, LSTM and transformer architecture models have been used to tackle this problem. We attempt to expand upon this research, implementing LSTM, GRU, and transformer models, and exploring new methods to classify sarcasm in Twitter posts. Among these, the most successful were transformer models, most notably BERT. While we attempted a few other models described in this paper, our most successful model was an ensemble of transformer models including BERT, RoBERTa, XLNet, RoBERTa-large, and ALBERT. This research was performed in conjunction with the sarcasm detection shared task section in the Second Workshop on Figurative Language Processing, co-located with ACL 2020.
We present a transformer-based sarcasm detection model that accounts for the context from the entire conversation thread for more robust predictions. Our model uses deep transformer layers to perform multi-head attentions among the target utterance and the relevant context in the thread. The context-aware models are evaluated on two datasets from social media, Twitter and Reddit, and show 3.1% and 7.0% improvements over their baselines. Our best models give the F1-scores of 79.0% and 75.0% for the Twitter and Reddit datasets respectively, becoming one of the highest performing systems among 36 participants in this shared task.
This paper presents the results and findings of the Financial Narrative Summarisation shared task (FNS 2020) on summarising UK annual reports. The shared task was organised as part of the 1st Financial Narrative Processing and Financial Narrative Summarisation Workshop (FNP-FNS 2020). The shared task included one main task which is the use of either abstractive or extractive summarisation methodologies and techniques to automatically summarise UK financial annual reports. FNS summarisation shared task is the first to target financial annual reports. The data for the shared task was created and collected from publicly available UK annual reports published by firms listed on the London Stock Exchange (LSE). A total number of 24 systems from 9 different teams participated in the shared task. In addition we had 2 baseline summarisers and additional 2 topline summarisers to help evaluate and compare against the results of the participants.
This paper presents the FinTOC-2020 Shared Task on structure extraction from financial documents, its participants results and their findings. This shared task was organized as part of The 1st Joint Workshop on Financial Narrative Processing and MultiLing Financial Summarisation (FNP-FNS 2020), held at The 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING’2020). This shared task aimed to stimulate research in systems for extracting table-of-contents (TOC) from investment documents (such as financial prospectuses) by detecting the document titles and organizing them hierarchically into a TOC. For the second edition of this shared task, two subtasks were presented to the participants: one with English documents and the other one with French documents.
We present the FinCausal 2020 Shared Task on Causality Detection in Financial Documents and the associated FinCausal dataset, and discuss the participating systems and results. Two sub-tasks are proposed: a binary classification task (Task 1) and a relation extraction task (Task 2). A total of 16 teams submitted runs across the two Tasks and 13 of them contributed with a system description paper. This workshop is associated to the Joint Workshop on Financial Narrative Processing and MultiLing Financial Summarisation (FNP-FNS 2020), held at The 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING’2020), Barcelona, Spain on September 12, 2020.
Identifying causal relationships in a text is essential for achieving comprehensive natural language understanding. The present work proposes a combination of features derived from pre-trained BERT with linguistic features for training a supervised classifier for the task of Causality Detection. The Linguistic features help to inject knowledge about the semantic and syntactic structure of the input sentences. Experiments on the FinCausal Shared Task1 datasets indicate that the combination of Linguistic features with BERT improves overall performance for causality detection. The proposed system achieves a weighted average F1 score of 0.952 on the post-evaluation dataset.
This document describes a system for causality extraction from financial documents submitted as part of the FinCausal 2020 Workshop. The main contribution of this paper is a description of the robust post-processing used to detect the number of cause and effect clauses in a document and extract them. The proposed system achieved a weighted-average F1 score of more than 95% for the official blind test set during the post-evaluation phase and exact clauses match for 83% of the documents.
In this paper, we describe the results of team LIORI at the FinCausal 2020 Shared task held as a part of the 1st Joint Workshop on Financial Narrative Processing and MultiLingual Financial Summarisation. The shared task consisted of two subtasks: classifying whether a sentence contains any causality and labelling phrases that indicate causes and consequences. Our team ranked 1st in the first subtask and 4th in the second one. We used Transformer-based models with joint-task learning and their ensembles.
This paper describes the approach we built for the Financial Document Causality Detection Shared Task (FinCausal-2020) Task 2: Cause and Effect Detection. Our approach is based on a multi-class classifier using BiLSTM with Graph Convolutional Neural Network (GCN) trained by minimizing the binary cross entropy loss. In our approach, we have not used any extra data source apart from combining the trial and practice dataset. We achieve weighted F1 score to 75.61 percent and are ranked at 7-th place.
Financial causality detection is centered on identifying connections between different assets from financial news in order to improve trading strategies. FinCausal 2020 - Causality Identification in Financial Documents – is a competition targeting to boost results in financial causality by obtaining an explanation of how different individual events or chain of events interact and generate subsequent events in a financial environment. The competition is divided into two tasks: (a) a binary classification task for determining whether sentences are causal or not, and (b) a sequence labeling task aimed at identifying elements related to cause and effect. Various Transformer-based language models were fine-tuned for the first task and we obtained the second place in the competition with an F1-score of 97.55% using an ensemble of five such language models. Subsequently, a BERT model was fine-tuned for the second task and a Conditional Random Field model was used on top of the generated language features; the system managed to identify the cause and effect relationships with an F1-score of 73.10%. We open-sourced the code and made it available at: https://github.com/avramandrei/FinCausal2020.
FinCausal-2020 is the shared task which focuses on the causality detection of factual data for financial analysis. The financial data facts don’t provide much explanation on the variability of these data. This paper aims to propose an efficient method to classify the data into one which is having any financial cause or not. Many models were used to classify the data, out of which SVM model gave an F-Score of 0.9435, BERT with specific fine-tuning achieved best results with F-Score of 0.9677.