The literature frequently addresses the differences in receptive and productive vocabulary, but grammar is often left unacknowledged in second language acquisition studies. In this paper, we used two corpora to investigate the divergences in the behavior of pedagogically relevant grammatical structures in reception and production texts. We further improved the divergence scores observed in this investigation by setting a polarity to them that indicates whether there is overuse or underuse of a grammatical structure by language learners. This led to the compilation of a language profile that was later combined with vocabulary and readability features for classifying reception and production texts in three classes: beginner, intermediate, and advanced. The results of the automatic classification task in both production (0.872 of F-measure) and reception (0.942 of F-measure) were comparable to the current state of the art. We also attempted to automatically attribute a score to texts produced by learners, and the correlation results were encouraging, but there is still a good amount of room for improvement in this task. The developed language profile will serve as input for a system that helps language learners to activate more of their passive knowledge in writing texts.