Code-switching has seen growing interest in recent years as an important multilingual NLP phenomenon. Generating code-switched text for data augmentation has been sufficiently well-explored. However, there is no prior work on generating code-switched text with fine-grained control on the degree of code-switching and the lexical choices used to convey formality. We present CoCoa, an encoder-decoder translation model that converts monolingual Hindi text to Hindi-English code-switched text with both encoder-side and decoder-side interventions to achieve fine-grained controllable generation. CoCoa can be invoked at test-time to synthesize code-switched text that is simultaneously faithful to syntactic and lexical attributes relevant to code-switching. CoCoa outputs were subjected to rigorous subjective and objective evaluations. Human evaluations establish that our outputs are of superior quality while being faithful to desired attributes. We show significantly improved BLEU scores when compared with human-generated code-switched references. Compared to competitive baselines, we show 10% reduction in perplexity on a language modeling task and also demonstrate clear improvements on a downstream code-switched sentiment analysis task.
A typical medical curriculum is organized in a hierarchy of instructional objectives called Learning Outcomes (LOs); a few thousand LOs span five years of study. Gaining a thorough understanding of the curriculum requires learners to recognize and apply related LOs across years, and across different parts of the curriculum. However, given the large scope of the curriculum, manually labeling related LOs is tedious, and almost impossible to scale. In this paper, we build a system that learns relationships between LOs, and we achieve up to human-level performance in the LO relationship extraction task. We then present an application where the proposed system is employed to build a map of related LOs and Learning Resources (LRs) pertaining to a virtual patient case. We believe that our system can help medical students grasp the curriculum better, within classroom as well as in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) settings.