Liang Li


2022

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Fast-R2D2: A Pretrained Recursive Neural Network based on Pruned CKY for Grammar Induction and Text Representation
Xiang Hu | Haitao Mi | Liang Li | Gerard de Melo
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Chart-based models have shown great potential in unsupervised grammar induction, running recursively and hierarchically, but requiring O(n³) time-complexity. The Recursive Transformer based on Differentiable Trees (R2D2) makes it possible to scale to large language model pretraining even with a complex tree encoder, by introducing a heuristic pruning method.However, its rule-based pruning process suffers from local optima and slow inference. In this paper, we propose a unified R2D2 method that overcomes these issues. We use a top-down unsupervised parser as a model-guided pruning method, which also enables parallel encoding during inference. Our parser casts parsing as a split point scoring task by first scoring all split points for a given sentence and then using the highest-scoring one to recursively split a span into two parts. The reverse order of the splits is considered as the order of pruning in the encoder. We optimize the unsupervised parser by minimizing the Kullback–Leibler distance between tree probabilities from the parser and the R2D2 model.Our experiments show that our Fast-R2D2 significantly improves the grammar induction quality and achieves competitive results in downstream tasks.

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Graph-to-Text Generation with Dynamic Structure Pruning
Liang Li | Ruiying Geng | Bowen Li | Can Ma | Yinliang Yue | Binhua Li | Yongbin Li
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Most graph-to-text works are built on the encoder-decoder framework with cross-attention mechanism. Recent studies have shown that explicitly modeling the input graph structure can significantly improve the performance. However, the vanilla structural encoder cannot capture all specialized information in a single forward pass for all decoding steps, resulting in inaccurate semantic representations. Meanwhile, the input graph is flatted as an unordered sequence in the cross attention, ignoring the original graph structure. As a result, the obtained input graph context vector in the decoder may be flawed. To address these issues, we propose a Structure-Aware Cross-Attention (SACA) mechanism to re-encode the input graph representation conditioning on the newly generated context at each decoding step in a structure aware manner. We further adapt SACA and introduce its variant Dynamic Graph Pruning (DGP) mechanism to dynamically drop irrelevant nodes in the decoding process. We achieve new state-of-the-art results on two graph-to-text datasets, LDC2020T02 and ENT-DESC, with only minor increase on computational cost.

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Think Beyond Words: Exploring Context-Relevant Visual Commonsense for Diverse Dialogue Generation
Yiting Liu | Liang Li | Beichen Zhang | Qingming Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Commonsense knowledge has been widely considered for building intelligent open-domain dialogue agents, aiming to generate meaningful and diverse responses. Previous works in this field usually lack the ability to effectively obtain and utilize auxiliary commonsense from the external visual world. In this paper, we argue that exploiting logical information in images related to context can be effective to enrich and steer the generation process. In view of this, we propose VICTOR, a context-relevant VIsual Commonsense enhanced dialogue generaTOR for generating coherent and informative responses. To obtain the associated visual commonsense, we devise a novel approach that expands topic words on the knowledge graph and maps them into daily scenarios. During the generation, the model adopts multimodal fusion mechanism to integrate visual and textual information, and adaptively combine their decoding distributions for better response generation. The experimental results on two public datasets show that our proposed method outperforms the latest competitive methods in terms of coherence and diversity.

2021

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Rˆ3Net:Relation-embedded Representation Reconstruction Network for Change Captioning
Yunbin Tu | Liang Li | Chenggang Yan | Shengxiang Gao | Zhengtao Yu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Change captioning is to use a natural language sentence to describe the fine-grained disagreement between two similar images. Viewpoint change is the most typical distractor in this task, because it changes the scale and location of the objects and overwhelms the representation of real change. In this paper, we propose a Relation-embedded Representation Reconstruction Network (Rˆ3Net) to explicitly distinguish the real change from the large amount of clutter and irrelevant changes. Specifically, a relation-embedded module is first devised to explore potential changed objects in the large amount of clutter. Then, based on the semantic similarities of corresponding locations in the two images, a representation reconstruction module (RRM) is designed to learn the reconstruction representation and further model the difference representation. Besides, we introduce a syntactic skeleton predictor (SSP) to enhance the semantic interaction between change localization and caption generation. Extensive experiments show that the proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art results on two public datasets.

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Improving Encoder by Auxiliary Supervision Tasks for Table-to-Text Generation
Liang Li | Can Ma | Yinliang Yue | Dayong Hu
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Table-to-text generation aims at automatically generating natural text to help people conveniently obtain salient information in tables. Although neural models for table-to-text have achieved remarkable progress, some problems are still overlooked. Previous methods cannot deduce the factual results from the entity’s (player or team) performance and the relations between entities. To solve this issue, we first build an entity graph from the input tables and introduce a reasoning module to perform reasoning on the graph. Moreover, there are different relations (e.g., the numeric size relation and the importance relation) between records in different dimensions. And these relations may contribute to the data-to-text generation. However, it is hard for a vanilla encoder to capture these. Consequently, we propose to utilize two auxiliary tasks, Number Ranking (NR) and Importance Ranking (IR), to supervise the encoder to capture the different relations. Experimental results on ROTOWIRE and RW-FG show that our method not only has a good generalization but also outperforms previous methods on several metrics: BLEU, Content Selection, Content Ordering.

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Semantic Relation-aware Difference Representation Learning for Change Captioning
Yunbin Tu | Tingting Yao | Liang Li | Jiedong Lou | Shengxiang Gao | Zhengtao Yu | Chenggang Yan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

2018

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A Self-Attentive Model with Gate Mechanism for Spoken Language Understanding
Changliang Li | Liang Li | Ji Qi
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Spoken Language Understanding (SLU), which typically involves intent determination and slot filling, is a core component of spoken dialogue systems. Joint learning has shown to be effective in SLU given that slot tags and intents are supposed to share knowledge with each other. However, most existing joint learning methods only consider joint learning by sharing parameters on surface level rather than semantic level. In this work, we propose a novel self-attentive model with gate mechanism to fully utilize the semantic correlation between slot and intent. Our model first obtains intent-augmented embeddings based on neural network with self-attention mechanism. And then the intent semantic representation is utilized as the gate for labelling slot tags. The objectives of both tasks are optimized simultaneously via joint learning in an end-to-end way. We conduct experiment on popular benchmark ATIS. The results show that our model achieves state-of-the-art and outperforms other popular methods by a large margin in terms of both intent detection error rate and slot filling F1-score. This paper gives a new perspective for research on SLU.