Authorship attribution is a task that aims to identify the author of a given piece of writing. We aim to develop a generalized solution that can handle a large number of texts from authors and topics unavailable in training data. Previous studies have proposed strategies to address only either unseen authors or unseen topics. Authorship representation learning has been shown to work in open-set environments with a large number of unseen authors but has not been explicitly designed for cross-topic environments at the same time. To handle a large number of unseen authors and topics, we propose Authorship Representation Regularization (ARR), a distillation framework that creates authorship representation with reduced reliance on topic-specific information. To assess the performance of our framework, we also propose a cross-topic-open-set evaluation method. Our proposed method has improved performances in the cross-topic-open set setup over baselines in 4 out of 6 cases.
Despite their promising results on standard benchmarks, NLU models are still prone to make predictions based on shortcuts caused by unintended bias in the dataset. For example, an NLI model may use lexical overlap as a shortcut to make entailment predictions due to repetitive data generation patterns from annotators, also called annotation artifacts. In this paper, we propose a causal analysis framework to help debias NLU models. We show that (1) by defining causal relationships, we can introspect how much annotation artifacts affect the outcomes. (2) We can utilize counterfactual inference to mitigate bias with this knowledge. We found that viewing a model as a treatment can mitigate bias more effectively than viewing annotation artifacts as treatment. (3) In addition to bias mitigation, we can interpret how much each debiasing strategy is affected by annotation artifacts. Our experimental results show that using counterfactual inference can improve out-of-distribution performance in all settings while maintaining high in-distribution performance.
This paper presents the first Thai Nested Named Entity Recognition (N-NER) dataset. Thai N-NER consists of 264,798 mentions, 104 classes, and a maximum depth of 8 layers obtained from 4,894 documents in the domains of news articles and restaurant reviews. Our work, to the best of our knowledge, presents the largest non-English N-NER dataset and the first non-English one with fine-grained classes. To understand the new challenges our proposed dataset brings to the field, we conduct an experimental study on (i) cutting edge N-NER models with the state-of-the-art accuracy in English and (ii) baseline methods based on well-known language model architectures. From the experimental results, we obtained two key findings. First, all models produced poor F1 scores in the tail region of the class distribution. There is little or no performance improvement provided by these models with respect to the baseline methods with our Thai dataset. These findings suggest that further investigation is required to make a multilingual N-NER solution that works well across different languages.
Cross-Lingual Retrieval Question Answering (CL-ReQA) is concerned with retrieving answer documents or passages to a question written in a different language. A common approach to CL-ReQA is to create a multilingual sentence embedding space such that question-answer pairs across different languages are close to each other. In this paper, we propose a novel CL-ReQA method utilizing the concept of language knowledge transfer and a new cross-lingual consistency training technique to create a multilingual embedding space for ReQA. To assess the effectiveness of our work, we conducted comprehensive experiments on CL-ReQA and a downstream task, machine reading QA. We compared our proposed method with the current state-of-the-art solutions across three public CL-ReQA corpora. Our method outperforms competitors in 19 out of 21 settings of CL-ReQA. When used with a downstream machine reading QA task, our method outperforms the best existing language-model-based method by 10% in F1 while being 10 times faster in sentence embedding computation. The code and models are available at https://github.com/mrpeerat/CL-ReLKT.