How well can Text-to-Image Generative Models understand Ethical Natural Language Interventions?

Hritik Bansal, Da Yin, Masoud Monajatipoor, Kai-Wei Chang


Abstract
Text-to-image generative models have achieved unprecedented success in generating high-quality images based on natural language descriptions. However, it is shown that these models tend to favor specific social groups when prompted with neutral text descriptions (e.g., ‘a photo of a lawyer’). Following Zhao et al. (2021), we study the effect on the diversity of the generated images when adding ethical intervention that supports equitable judgment (e.g., ‘if all individuals can be a lawyer irrespective of their gender’) in the input prompts. To this end, we introduce an Ethical NaTural Language Interventions in Text-to-Image GENeration (ENTIGEN) benchmark dataset to evaluate the change in image generations conditional on ethical interventions across three social axes – gender, skin color, and culture. Through CLIP-based and human evaluation on minDALL.E, DALL.E-mini and Stable Diffusion, we find that the model generations cover diverse social groups while preserving the image quality. In some cases, the generations would be anti-stereotypical (e.g., models tend to create images with individuals that are perceived as man when fed with prompts about makeup) in the presence of ethical intervention. Preliminary studies indicate that a large change in the model predictions is triggered by certain phrases such as ‘irrespective of gender’ in the context of gender bias in the ethical interventions. We release code and annotated data at https://github.com/Hritikbansal/entigen_emnlp.
Anthology ID:
2022.emnlp-main.88
Volume:
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing
Month:
December
Year:
2022
Address:
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Venue:
EMNLP
SIG:
Publisher:
Association for Computational Linguistics
Note:
Pages:
1358–1370
Language:
URL:
https://aclanthology.org/2022.emnlp-main.88
DOI:
Bibkey:
Cite (ACL):
Hritik Bansal, Da Yin, Masoud Monajatipoor, and Kai-Wei Chang. 2022. How well can Text-to-Image Generative Models understand Ethical Natural Language Interventions?. In Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages 1358–1370, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Association for Computational Linguistics.
Cite (Informal):
How well can Text-to-Image Generative Models understand Ethical Natural Language Interventions? (Bansal et al., EMNLP 2022)
Copy Citation:
PDF:
https://preview.aclanthology.org/emnlp-22-ingestion/2022.emnlp-main.88.pdf