Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation (2019)


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Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 1: Research Papers)

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Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 1: Research Papers)
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | André Martins | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Matt Post | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor

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Saliency-driven Word Alignment Interpretation for Neural Machine Translation
Shuoyang Ding | Hainan Xu | Philipp Koehn

Despite their original goal to jointly learn to align and translate, Neural Machine Translation (NMT) models, especially Transformer, are often perceived as not learning interpretable word alignments. In this paper, we show that NMT models do learn interpretable word alignments, which could only be revealed with proper interpretation methods. We propose a series of such methods that are model-agnostic, are able to be applied either offline or online, and do not require parameter update or architectural change. We show that under the force decoding setup, the alignments induced by our interpretation method are of better quality than fast-align for some systems, and when performing free decoding, they agree well with the alignments induced by automatic alignment tools.

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Improving Zero-shot Translation with Language-Independent Constraints
Ngoc-Quan Pham | Jan Niehues | Thanh-Le Ha | Alexander Waibel

An important concern in training multilingual neural machine translation (NMT) is to translate between language pairs unseen during training, i.e zero-shot translation. Improving this ability kills two birds with one stone by providing an alternative to pivot translation which also allows us to better understand how the model captures information between languages. In this work, we carried out an investigation on this capability of the multilingual NMT models. First, we intentionally create an encoder architecture which is independent with respect to the source language. Such experiments shed light on the ability of NMT encoders to learn multilingual representations, in general. Based on such proof of concept, we were able to design regularization methods into the standard Transformer model, so that the whole architecture becomes more robust in zero-shot conditions. We investigated the behaviour of such models on the standard IWSLT 2017 multilingual dataset. We achieved an average improvement of 2.23 BLEU points across 12 language pairs compared to the zero-shot performance of a state-of-the-art multilingual system. Additionally, we carry out further experiments in which the effect is confirmed even for language pairs with multiple intermediate pivots.

Incorporating Source Syntax into Transformer-Based Neural Machine Translation
Anna Currey | Kenneth Heafield

Transformer-based neural machine translation (NMT) has recently achieved state-of-the-art performance on many machine translation tasks. However, recent work (Raganato and Tiedemann, 2018; Tang et al., 2018; Tran et al., 2018) has indicated that Transformer models may not learn syntactic structures as well as their recurrent neural network-based counterparts, particularly in low-resource cases. In this paper, we incorporate constituency parse information into a Transformer NMT model. We leverage linearized parses of the source training sentences in order to inject syntax into the Transformer architecture without modifying it. We introduce two methods: a multi-task machine translation and parsing model with a single encoder and decoder, and a mixed encoder model that learns to translate directly from parsed and unparsed source sentences. We evaluate our methods on low-resource translation from English into twenty target languages, showing consistent improvements of 1.3 BLEU on average across diverse target languages for the multi-task technique. We further evaluate the models on full-scale WMT tasks, finding that the multi-task model aids low- and medium-resource NMT but degenerates high-resource English-German translation.

APE at Scale and Its Implications on MT Evaluation Biases
Markus Freitag | Isaac Caswell | Scott Roy

In this work, we train an Automatic Post-Editing (APE) model and use it to reveal biases in standard MT evaluation procedures. The goal of our APE model is to correct typical errors introduced by the translation process, and convert the “translationese” output into natural text. Our APE model is trained entirely on monolingual data that has been round-trip translated through English, to mimic errors that are similar to the ones introduced by NMT. We apply our model to the output of existing NMT systems, and demonstrate that, while the human-judged quality improves in all cases, BLEU scores drop with forward-translated test sets. We verify these results for the WMT18 English to German, WMT15 English to French, and WMT16 English to Romanian tasks. Furthermore, we selectively apply our APE model on the output of the top submissions of the most recent WMT evaluation campaigns. We see quality improvements on all tasks of up to 2.5 BLEU points.

Generalizing Back-Translation in Neural Machine Translation
Miguel Graça | Yunsu Kim | Julian Schamper | Shahram Khadivi | Hermann Ney

Back-translation — data augmentation by translating target monolingual data — is a crucial component in modern neural machine translation (NMT). In this work, we reformulate back-translation in the scope of cross-entropy optimization of an NMT model, clarifying its underlying mathematical assumptions and approximations beyond its heuristic usage. Our formulation covers broader synthetic data generation schemes, including sampling from a target-to-source NMT model. With this formulation, we point out fundamental problems of the sampling-based approaches and propose to remedy them by (i) disabling label smoothing for the target-to-source model and (ii) sampling from a restricted search space. Our statements are investigated on the WMT 2018 German <-> English news translation task.

Tagged Back-Translation
Isaac Caswell | Ciprian Chelba | David Grangier

Recent work in Neural Machine Translation (NMT) has shown significant quality gains from noised-beam decoding during back-translation, a method to generate synthetic parallel data. We show that the main role of such synthetic noise is not to diversify the source side, as previously suggested, but simply to indicate to the model that the given source is synthetic. We propose a simpler alternative to noising techniques, consisting of tagging back-translated source sentences with an extra token. Our results on WMT outperform noised back-translation in English-Romanian and match performance on English-German, redefining the state-of-the-art on the former.

Hierarchical Document Encoder for Parallel Corpus Mining
Mandy Guo | Yinfei Yang | Keith Stevens | Daniel Cer | Heming Ge | Yun-hsuan Sung | Brian Strope | Ray Kurzweil

We explore using multilingual document embeddings for nearest neighbor mining of parallel data. Three document-level representations are investigated: (i) document embeddings generated by simply averaging multilingual sentence embeddings; (ii) a neural bag-of-words (BoW) document encoding model; (iii) a hierarchical multilingual document encoder (HiDE) that builds on our sentence-level model. The results show document embeddings derived from sentence-level averaging are surprisingly effective for clean datasets, but suggest models trained hierarchically at the document-level are more effective on noisy data. Analysis experiments demonstrate our hierarchical models are very robust to variations in the underlying sentence embedding quality. Using document embeddings trained with HiDE achieves the state-of-the-art on United Nations (UN) parallel document mining, 94.9% P@1 for en-fr and 97.3% P@1 for en-es.

The Effect of Translationese in Machine Translation Test Sets
Mike Zhang | Antonio Toral

The effect of translationese has been studied in the field of machine translation (MT), mostly with respect to training data. We study in depth the effect of translationese on test data, using the test sets from the last three editions of WMT’s news shared task, containing 17 translation directions. We show evidence that (i) the use of translationese in test sets results in inflated human evaluation scores for MT systems; (ii) in some cases system rankings do change and (iii) the impact translationese has on a translation direction is inversely correlated to the translation quality attainable by state-of-the-art MT systems for that direction.

Customizing Neural Machine Translation for Subtitling
Evgeny Matusov | Patrick Wilken | Yota Georgakopoulou

In this work, we customized a neural machine translation system for translation of subtitles in the domain of entertainment. The neural translation model was adapted to the subtitling content and style and extended by a simple, yet effective technique for utilizing inter-sentence context for short sentences such as dialog turns. The main contribution of the paper is a novel subtitle segmentation algorithm that predicts the end of a subtitle line given the previous word-level context using a recurrent neural network learned from human segmentation decisions. This model is combined with subtitle length and duration constraints established in the subtitling industry. We conducted a thorough human evaluation with two post-editors (English-to-Spanish translation of a documentary and a sitcom). It showed a notable productivity increase of up to 37% as compared to translating from scratch and significant reductions in human translation edit rate in comparison with the post-editing of the baseline non-adapted system without a learned segmentation model.

Integration of Dubbing Constraints into Machine Translation
Ashutosh Saboo | Timo Baumann

Translation systems aim to perform a meaning-preserving conversion of linguistic material (typically text but also speech) from a source to a target language (and, to a lesser degree, the corresponding socio-cultural contexts). Dubbing, i.e., the lip-synchronous translation and revoicing of speech adds to this constraints about the close matching of phonetic and resulting visemic synchrony characteristics of source and target material. There is an inherent conflict between a translation’s meaning preservation and ‘dubbability’ and the resulting trade-off can be controlled by weighing the synchrony constraints. We introduce our work, which to the best of our knowledge is the first of its kind, on integrating synchrony constraints into the machine translation paradigm. We present first results for the integration of synchrony constraints into encoder decoder-based neural machine translation and show that considerably more ‘dubbable’ translations can be achieved with only a small impact on BLEU score, and dubbability improves more steeply than BLEU degrades.

Widening the Representation Bottleneck in Neural Machine Translation with Lexical Shortcuts
Denis Emelin | Ivan Titov | Rico Sennrich

The transformer is a state-of-the-art neural translation model that uses attention to iteratively refine lexical representations with information drawn from the surrounding context. Lexical features are fed into the first layer and propagated through a deep network of hidden layers. We argue that the need to represent and propagate lexical features in each layer limits the model’s capacity for learning and representing other information relevant to the task. To alleviate this bottleneck, we introduce gated shortcut connections between the embedding layer and each subsequent layer within the encoder and decoder. This enables the model to access relevant lexical content dynamically, without expending limited resources on storing it within intermediate states. We show that the proposed modification yields consistent improvements over a baseline transformer on standard WMT translation tasks in 5 translation directions (0.9 BLEU on average) and reduces the amount of lexical information passed along the hidden layers. We furthermore evaluate different ways to integrate lexical connections into the transformer architecture and present ablation experiments exploring the effect of proposed shortcuts on model behavior.

A High-Quality Multilingual Dataset for Structured Documentation Translation
Kazuma Hashimoto | Raffaella Buschiazzo | James Bradbury | Teresa Marshall | Richard Socher | Caiming Xiong

This paper presents a high-quality multilingual dataset for the documentation domain to advance research on localization of structured text. Unlike widely-used datasets for translation of plain text, we collect XML-structured parallel text segments from the online documentation for an enterprise software platform. These Web pages have been professionally translated from English into 16 languages and maintained by domain experts, and around 100,000 text segments are available for each language pair. We build and evaluate translation models for seven target languages from English, with several different copy mechanisms and an XML-constrained beam search. We also experiment with a non-English pair to show that our dataset has the potential to explicitly enable 17 × 16 translation settings. Our experiments show that learning to translate with the XML tags improves translation accuracy, and the beam search accurately generates XML structures. We also discuss trade-offs of using the copy mechanisms by focusing on translation of numerical words and named entities. We further provide a detailed human analysis of gaps between the model output and human translations for real-world applications, including suitability for post-editing.


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Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)

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Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | André Martins | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Matt Post | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor

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Findings of the 2019 Conference on Machine Translation (WMT19)
Loïc Barrault | Ondřej Bojar | Marta R. Costa-jussà | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Philipp Koehn | Shervin Malmasi | Christof Monz | Mathias Müller | Santanu Pal | Matt Post | Marcos Zampieri

This paper presents the results of the premier shared task organized alongside the Conference on Machine Translation (WMT) 2019. Participants were asked to build machine translation systems for any of 18 language pairs, to be evaluated on a test set of news stories. The main metric for this task is human judgment of translation quality. The task was also opened up to additional test suites to probe specific aspects of translation.

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Results of the WMT19 Metrics Shared Task: Segment-Level and Strong MT Systems Pose Big Challenges
Qingsong Ma | Johnny Wei | Ondřej Bojar | Yvette Graham

This paper presents the results of the WMT19 Metrics Shared Task. Participants were asked to score the outputs of the translations systems competing in the WMT19 News Translation Task with automatic metrics. 13 research groups submitted 24 metrics, 10 of which are reference-less “metrics” and constitute submissions to the joint task with WMT19 Quality Estimation Task, “QE as a Metric”. In addition, we computed 11 baseline metrics, with 8 commonly applied baselines (BLEU, SentBLEU, NIST, WER, PER, TER, CDER, and chrF) and 3 reimplementations (chrF+, sacreBLEU-BLEU, and sacreBLEU-chrF). Metrics were evaluated on the system level, how well a given metric correlates with the WMT19 official manual ranking, and segment level, how well the metric correlates with human judgements of segment quality. This year, we use direct assessment (DA) as our only form of manual evaluation.

Findings of the First Shared Task on Machine Translation Robustness
Xian Li | Paul Michel | Antonios Anastasopoulos | Yonatan Belinkov | Nadir Durrani | Orhan Firat | Philipp Koehn | Graham Neubig | Juan Pino | Hassan Sajjad

We share the findings of the first shared task on improving robustness of Machine Translation (MT). The task provides a testbed representing challenges facing MT models deployed in the real world, and facilitates new approaches to improve models’ robustness to noisy input and domain mismatch. We focus on two language pairs (English-French and English-Japanese), and the submitted systems are evaluated on a blind test set consisting of noisy comments on Reddit and professionally sourced translations. As a new task, we received 23 submissions by 11 participating teams from universities, companies, national labs, etc. All submitted systems achieved large improvements over baselines, with the best improvement having +22.33 BLEU. We evaluated submissions by both human judgment and automatic evaluation (BLEU), which shows high correlations (Pearson’s r = 0.94 and 0.95). Furthermore, we conducted a qualitative analysis of the submitted systems using compare-mt, which revealed their salient differences in handling challenges in this task. Such analysis provides additional insights when there is occasional disagreement between human judgment and BLEU, e.g. systems better at producing colloquial expressions received higher score from human judgment.

The University of Edinburgh’s Submissions to the WMT19 News Translation Task
Rachel Bawden | Nikolay Bogoychev | Ulrich Germann | Roman Grundkiewicz | Faheem Kirefu | Antonio Valerio Miceli Barone | Alexandra Birch

The University of Edinburgh participated in the WMT19 Shared Task on News Translation in six language directions: English↔Gujarati, English↔Chinese, German→English, and English→Czech. For all translation directions, we created or used back-translations of monolingual data in the target language as additional synthetic training data. For English↔Gujarati, we also explored semi-supervised MT with cross-lingual language model pre-training, and translation pivoting through Hindi. For translation to and from Chinese, we investigated character-based tokenisation vs. sub-word segmentation of Chinese text. For German→English, we studied the impact of vast amounts of back-translated training data on translation quality, gaining a few additional insights over Edunov et al. (2018). For English→Czech, we compared different preprocessing and tokenisation regimes.

GTCOM Neural Machine Translation Systems for WMT19
Chao Bei | Hao Zong | Conghu Yuan | Qingming Liu | Baoyong Fan

This paper describes the Global Tone Communication Co., Ltd.’s submission of the WMT19 shared news translation task. We participate in six directions: English to (Gujarati, Lithuanian and Finnish) and (Gujarati, Lithuanian and Finnish) to English. Further, we get the best BLEU scores in the directions of English to Gujarati and Lithuanian to English (28.2 and 36.3 respectively) among all the participants. The submitted systems mainly focus on back-translation, knowledge distillation and reranking to build a competitive model for this task. Also, we apply language model to filter monolingual data, back-translated data and parallel data. The techniques we apply for data filtering include filtering by rules, language models. Besides, We conduct several experiments to validate different knowledge distillation techniques and right-to-left (R2L) reranking.

Machine Translation with parfda, Moses, kenlm, nplm, and PRO
Ergun Biçici

We build parfda Moses statistical machine translation (SMT) models for most language pairs in the news translation task. We experiment with a hybrid approach using neural language models integrated into Moses. We obtain the constrained data statistics on the machine translation task, the coverage of the test sets, and the upper bounds on the translation results. We also contribute a new testsuite for the German-English language pair and a new automated key phrase extraction technique for the evaluation of the testsuite translations.

LIUM’s Contributions to the WMT2019 News Translation Task: Data and Systems for German-French Language Pairs
Fethi Bougares | Jane Wottawa | Anne Baillot | Loïc Barrault | Adrien Bardet

This paper describes the neural machine translation (NMT) systems of the LIUM Laboratory developed for the French↔German news translation task of the Fourth Conference onMachine Translation (WMT 2019). The chosen language pair is included for the first time in the WMT news translation task. We de-scribe how the training and the evaluation data was created. We also present our participation in the French↔German translation directions using self-attentional Transformer networks with small and big architectures.

The University of Maryland’s Kazakh-English Neural Machine Translation System at WMT19
Eleftheria Briakou | Marine Carpuat

This paper describes the University of Maryland’s submission to the WMT 2019 Kazakh-English news translation task. We study the impact of transfer learning from another low-resource but related language. We experiment with different ways of encoding lexical units to maximize lexical overlap between the two language pairs, as well as back-translation and ensembling. The submitted system improves over a Kazakh-only baseline by +5.45 BLEU on newstest2019.

DBMS-KU Interpolation for WMT19 News Translation Task
Sari Dewi Budiwati | Al Hafiz Akbar Maulana Siagian | Tirana Noor Fatyanosa | Masayoshi Aritsugi

This paper presents the participation of DBMS-KU Interpolation system in WMT19 shared task, namely, Kazakh-English language pair. We examine the use of interpolation method using a different language model order. Our Interpolation system combines a direct translation with Russian as a pivot language. We use 3-gram and 5-gram language model orders to perform the language translation in this work. To reduce noise in the pivot translation process, we prune the phrase table of source-pivot and pivot-target. Our experimental results show that our Interpolation system outperforms the Baseline in terms of BLEU-cased score by +0.5 and +0.1 points in Kazakh-English and English-Kazakh, respectively. In particular, using the 5-gram language model order in our system could obtain better BLEU-cased score than utilizing the 3-gram one. Interestingly, we found that by employing the Interpolation system could reduce the perplexity score of English-Kazakh when using 3-gram language model order.

Lingua Custodia at WMT’19: Attempts to Control Terminology
Franck Burlot

This paper describes Lingua Custodia’s submission to the WMT’19 news shared task for German-to-French on the topic of the EU elections. We report experiments on the adaptation of the terminology of a machine translation system to a specific topic, aimed at providing more accurate translations of specific entities like political parties and person names, given that the shared task provided no in-domain training parallel data dealing with the restricted topic. Our primary submission to the shared task uses backtranslation generated with a type of decoding allowing the insertion of constraints in the output in order to guarantee the correct translation of specific terms that are not necessarily observed in the data.

The TALP-UPC Machine Translation Systems for WMT19 News Translation Task: Pivoting Techniques for Low Resource MT
Noe Casas | José A. R. Fonollosa | Carlos Escolano | Christine Basta | Marta R. Costa-jussà

In this article, we describe the TALP-UPC research group participation in the WMT19 news translation shared task for Kazakh-English. Given the low amount of parallel training data, we resort to using Russian as pivot language, training subword-based statistical translation systems for Russian-Kazakh and Russian-English that were then used to create two synthetic pseudo-parallel corpora for Kazakh-English and English-Kazakh respectively. Finally, a self-attention model based on the decoder part of the Transformer architecture was trained on the two pseudo-parallel corpora.

Kyoto University Participation to the WMT 2019 News Shared Task
Fabien Cromieres | Sadao Kurohashi

We describe here the experiments we did for the the news translation shared task of WMT 2019. We focused on the new German-to-French language direction, and mostly used current standard approaches to develop a Neural Machine Translation system. We make use of the Tensor2Tensor implementation of the Transformer model. After carefully cleaning the data and noting the importance of the good use of recent monolingual data for the task, we obtain our final result by combining the output of a diverse set of trained models through the use of their “checkpoint agreement”.

NICT’s Supervised Neural Machine Translation Systems for the WMT19 News Translation Task
Raj Dabre | Kehai Chen | Benjamin Marie | Rui Wang | Atsushi Fujita | Masao Utiyama | Eiichiro Sumita

In this paper, we describe our supervised neural machine translation (NMT) systems that we developed for the news translation task for Kazakh↔English, Gujarati↔English, Chinese↔English, and English→Finnish translation directions. We focused on leveraging multilingual transfer learning and back-translation for the extremely low-resource language pairs: Kazakh↔English and Gujarati↔English translation. For the Chinese↔English translation, we used the provided parallel data augmented with a large quantity of back-translated monolingual data to train state-of-the-art NMT systems. We then employed techniques that have been proven to be most effective, such as back-translation, fine-tuning, and model ensembling, to generate the primary submissions of Chinese↔English. For English→Finnish, our submission from WMT18 remains a strong baseline despite the increase in parallel corpora for this year’s task.

The University of Sydney’s Machine Translation System for WMT19
Liang Ding | Dacheng Tao

This paper describes the University of Sydney’s submission of the WMT 2019 shared news translation task. We participated in the Finnish->English direction and got the best BLEU(33.0) score among all the participants. Our system is based on the self-attentional Transformer networks, into which we integrated the most recent effective strategies from academic research (e.g., BPE, back translation, multi-features data selection, data augmentation, greedy model ensemble, reranking, ConMBR system combination, and postprocessing). Furthermore, we propose a novel augmentation method Cycle Translation and a data mixture strategy Big/Small parallel construction to entirely exploit the synthetic corpus. Extensive experiments show that adding the above techniques can make continuous improvements of the BLEU scores, and the best result outperforms the baseline (Transformer ensemble model trained with the original parallel corpus) by approximately 5.3 BLEU score, achieving the state-of-the-art performance.

UdS-DFKI Participation at WMT 2019: Low-Resource (en-gu) and Coreference-Aware (en-de) Systems
Cristina España-Bonet | Dana Ruiter

This paper describes the UdS-DFKI submission to the WMT2019 news translation task for Gujarati–English (low-resourced pair) and German–English (document-level evaluation). Our systems rely on the on-line extraction of parallel sentences from comparable corpora for the first scenario and on the inclusion of coreference-related information in the training data in the second one.

The IIIT-H Gujarati-English Machine Translation System for WMT19
Vikrant Goyal | Dipti Misra Sharma

This paper describes the Neural Machine Translation system of IIIT-Hyderabad for the Gujarati→English news translation shared task of WMT19. Our system is basedon encoder-decoder framework with attention mechanism. We experimented with Multilingual Neural MT models. Our experiments show that Multilingual Neural Machine Translation leveraging parallel data from related language pairs helps in significant BLEU improvements upto 11.5, for low resource language pairs like Gujarati-English

Kingsoft’s Neural Machine Translation System for WMT19
Xinze Guo | Chang Liu | Xiaolong Li | Yiran Wang | Guoliang Li | Feng Wang | Zhitao Xu | Liuyi Yang | Li Ma | Changliang Li

This paper describes the Kingsoft AI Lab’s submission to the WMT2019 news translation shared task. We participated in two language directions: English-Chinese and Chinese-English. For both language directions, we trained several variants of Transformer models using the provided parallel data enlarged with a large quantity of back-translated monolingual data. The best translation result was obtained with ensemble and reranking techniques. According to automatic metrics (BLEU) our Chinese-English system reached the second highest score, and our English-Chinese system reached the second highest score for this subtask.

The AFRL WMT19 Systems: Old Favorites and New Tricks
Jeremy Gwinnup | Grant Erdmann | Tim Anderson

This paper describes the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) machine translation systems and the improvements that were developed during the WMT19 evaluation campaign. This year, we refine our approach to training popular neural machine translation toolkits, experiment with a new domain adaptation technique and again measure improvements in performance on the Russian–English language pair.

Evaluating the Supervised and Zero-shot Performance of Multi-lingual Translation Models
Chris Hokamp | John Glover | Demian Gholipour Ghalandari

We study several methods for full or partial sharing of the decoder parameters of multi-lingual NMT models. Using only the WMT 2019 shared task parallel datasets for training, we evaluate both fully supervised and zero-shot translation performance in 110 unique translation directions. We use additional test sets and re-purpose evaluation methods recently used for unsupervised MT in order to evaluate zero-shot translation performance for language pairs where no gold-standard parallel data is available. To our knowledge, this is the largest evaluation of multi-lingual translation yet conducted in terms of the total size of the training data we use, and in terms of the number of zero-shot translation pairs we evaluate. We conduct an in-depth evaluation of the translation performance of different models, highlighting the trade-offs between methods of sharing decoder parameters. We find that models which have task-specific decoder parameters outperform models where decoder parameters are fully shared across all tasks.

The MLLP-UPV Supervised Machine Translation Systems for WMT19 News Translation Task
Javier Iranzo-Sánchez | Gonçal Garcés Díaz-Munío | Jorge Civera | Alfons Juan

This paper describes the participation of the MLLP research group of the Universitat Politècnica de València in the WMT 2019 News Translation Shared Task. In this edition, we have submitted systems for the German ↔ English and German ↔ French language pairs, participating in both directions of each pair. Our submitted systems, based on the Transformer architecture, make ample use of data filtering, synthetic data and domain adaptation through fine-tuning.

Microsoft Translator at WMT 2019: Towards Large-Scale Document-Level Neural Machine Translation
Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt

This paper describes the Microsoft Translator submissions to the WMT19 news translation shared task for English-German. Our main focus is document-level neural machine translation with deep transformer models. We start with strong sentence-level baselines, trained on large-scale data created via data-filtering and noisy back-translation and find that back-translation seems to mainly help with translationese input. We explore fine-tuning techniques, deeper models and different ensembling strategies to counter these effects. Using document boundaries present in the authentic and synthetic parallel data, we create sequences of up to 1000 subword segments and train transformer translation models. We experiment with data augmentation techniques for the smaller authentic data with document-boundaries and for larger authentic data without boundaries. We further explore multi-task training for the incorporation of document-level source language monolingual data via the BERT-objective on the encoder and two-pass decoding for combinations of sentence-level and document-level systems. Based on preliminary human evaluation results, evaluators strongly prefer the document-level systems over our comparable sentence-level system. The document-level systems also seem to score higher than the human references in source-based direct assessment.

CUNI Submission for Low-Resource Languages in WMT News 2019
Tom Kocmi | Ondřej Bojar

This paper describes the CUNI submission to the WMT 2019 News Translation Shared Task for the low-resource languages: Gujarati-English and Kazakh-English. We participated in both language pairs in both translation directions. Our system combines transfer learning from a different high-resource language pair followed by training on backtranslated monolingual data. Thanks to the simultaneous training in both directions, we can iterate the backtranslation process. We are using the Transformer model in a constrained submission.

CUNI Systems for the Unsupervised News Translation Task in WMT 2019
Ivana Kvapilíková | Dominik Macháček | Ondřej Bojar

In this paper we describe the CUNI translation system used for the unsupervised news shared task of the ACL 2019 Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (WMT19). We follow the strategy of Artetxe ae at. (2018b), creating a seed phrase-based system where the phrase table is initialized from cross-lingual embedding mappings trained on monolingual data, followed by a neural machine translation system trained on synthetic parallel data. The synthetic corpus was produced from a monolingual corpus by a tuned PBMT model refined through iterative back-translation. We further focus on the handling of named entities, i.e. the part of vocabulary where the cross-lingual embedding mapping suffers most. Our system reaches a BLEU score of 15.3 on the German-Czech WMT19 shared task.

A Comparison on Fine-grained Pre-trained Embeddings for the WMT19Chinese-English News Translation Task
Zhenhao Li | Lucia Specia

This paper describes our submission to the WMT 2019 Chinese-English (zh-en) news translation shared task. Our systems are based on RNN architectures with pre-trained embeddings which utilize character and sub-character information. We compare models with these different granularity levels using different evaluating metics. We find that a finer granularity embeddings can help the model according to character level evaluation and that the pre-trained embeddings can also be beneficial for model performance marginally when the training data is limited.

The NiuTrans Machine Translation Systems for WMT19
Bei Li | Yinqiao Li | Chen Xu | Ye Lin | Jiqiang Liu | Hui Liu | Ziyang Wang | Yuhao Zhang | Nuo Xu | Zeyang Wang | Kai Feng | Hexuan Chen | Tengbo Liu | Yanyang Li | Qiang Wang | Tong Xiao | Jingbo Zhu

This paper described NiuTrans neural machine translation systems for the WMT 2019 news translation tasks. We participated in 13 translation directions, including 11 supervised tasks, namely EN↔{ZH, DE, RU, KK, LT}, GU→EN and the unsupervised DE↔CS sub-track. Our systems were built on Deep Transformer and several back-translation methods. Iterative knowledge distillation and ensemble+reranking were also employed to obtain stronger models. Our unsupervised submissions were based on NMT enhanced by SMT. As a result, we achieved the highest BLEU scores in {KK↔EN, GU→EN} directions, ranking 2nd in {RU→EN, DE↔CS} and 3rd in {ZH→EN, LT→EN, EN→RU, EN↔DE} among all constrained submissions.

Multi-Source Transformer for Kazakh-Russian-English Neural Machine Translation
Patrick Littell | Chi-kiu Lo | Samuel Larkin | Darlene Stewart

We describe the neural machine translation (NMT) system developed at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) for the Kazakh-English news translation task of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (WMT19). Our submission is a multi-source NMT taking both the original Kazakh sentence and its Russian translation as input for translating into English.

Incorporating Word and Subword Units in Unsupervised Machine Translation Using Language Model Rescoring
Zihan Liu | Yan Xu | Genta Indra Winata | Pascale Fung

This paper describes CAiRE’s submission to the unsupervised machine translation track of the WMT’19 news shared task from German to Czech. We leverage a phrase-based statistical machine translation (PBSMT) model and a pre-trained language model to combine word-level neural machine translation (NMT) and subword-level NMT models without using any parallel data. We propose to solve the morphological richness problem of languages by training byte-pair encoding (BPE) embeddings for German and Czech separately, and they are aligned using MUSE (Conneau et al., 2018). To ensure the fluency and consistency of translations, a rescoring mechanism is proposed that reuses the pre-trained language model to select the translation candidates generated through beam search. Moreover, a series of pre-processing and post-processing approaches are applied to improve the quality of final translations.

JUMT at WMT2019 News Translation Task: A Hybrid Approach to Machine Translation for Lithuanian to English
Sainik Kumar Mahata | Avishek Garain | Adityar Rayala | Dipankar Das | Sivaji Bandyopadhyay

In the current work, we present a description of the system submitted to WMT 2019 News Translation Shared task. The system was created to translate news text from Lithuanian to English. To accomplish the given task, our system used a Word Embedding based Neural Machine Translation model to post edit the outputs generated by a Statistical Machine Translation model. The current paper documents the architecture of our model, descriptions of the various modules and the results produced using the same. Our system garnered a BLEU score of 17.6.

Johns Hopkins University Submission for WMT News Translation Task
Kelly Marchisio | Yash Kumar Lal | Philipp Koehn

We describe the work of Johns Hopkins University for the shared task of news translation organized by the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (2019). We submitted systems for both directions of the English-German language pair. The systems combine multiple techniques – sampling, filtering, iterative backtranslation, and continued training – previously used to improve performance of neural machine translation models. At submission time, we achieve a BLEU score of 38.1 for De-En and 42.5 for En-De translation directions on newstest2019. Post-submission, the score is 38.4 for De-En and 42.8 for En-De. Various experiments conducted in the process are also described.

NICT’s Unsupervised Neural and Statistical Machine Translation Systems for the WMT19 News Translation Task
Benjamin Marie | Haipeng Sun | Rui Wang | Kehai Chen | Atsushi Fujita | Masao Utiyama | Eiichiro Sumita

This paper presents the NICT’s participation in the WMT19 unsupervised news translation task. We participated in the unsupervised translation direction: German-Czech. Our primary submission to the task is the result of a simple combination of our unsupervised neural and statistical machine translation systems. Our system is ranked first for the German-to-Czech translation task, using only the data provided by the organizers (“constraint’”), according to both BLEU-cased and human evaluation. We also performed contrastive experiments with other language pairs, namely, English-Gujarati and English-Kazakh, to better assess the effectiveness of unsupervised machine translation in for distant language pairs and in truly low-resource conditions.

PROMT Systems for WMT 2019 Shared Translation Task
Alexander Molchanov

This paper describes the PROMT submissions for the WMT 2019 Shared News Translation Task. This year we participated in two language pairs and in three directions: English-Russian, English-German and German-English. All our submissions are Marian-based neural systems. We use significantly more data compared to the last year. We also present our improved data filtering pipeline.

JU-Saarland Submission to the WMT2019 English–Gujarati Translation Shared Task
Riktim Mondal | Shankha Raj Nayek | Aditya Chowdhury | Santanu Pal | Sudip Kumar Naskar | Josef van Genabith

In this paper we describe our joint submission (JU-Saarland) from Jadavpur University and Saarland University in the WMT 2019 news translation shared task for English–Gujarati language pair within the translation task sub-track. Our baseline and primary submissions are built using Recurrent neural network (RNN) based neural machine translation (NMT) system which follows attention mechanism. Given the fact that the two languages belong to different language families and there is not enough parallel data for this language pair, building a high quality NMT system for this language pair is a difficult task. We produced synthetic data through back-translation from available monolingual data. We report the translation quality of our English–Gujarati and Gujarati–English NMT systems trained at word, byte-pair and character encoding levels where RNN at word level is considered as the baseline and used for comparison purpose. Our English–Gujarati system ranked in the second position in the shared task.

Facebook FAIR’s WMT19 News Translation Task Submission
Nathan Ng | Kyra Yee | Alexei Baevski | Myle Ott | Michael Auli | Sergey Edunov

This paper describes Facebook FAIR’s submission to the WMT19 shared news translation task. We participate in four language directions, English <-> German and English <-> Russian in both directions. Following our submission from last year, our baseline systems are large BPE-based transformer models trained with the FAIRSEQ sequence modeling toolkit. This year we experiment with different bitext data filtering schemes, as well as with adding filtered back-translated data. We also ensemble and fine-tune our models on domain-specific data, then decode using noisy channel model reranking. Our system improves on our previous system’s performance by 4.5 BLEU points and achieves the best case-sensitive BLEU score for the translation direction English→Russian.

eTranslation’s Submissions to the WMT 2019 News Translation Task
Csaba Oravecz | Katina Bontcheva | Adrien Lardilleux | László Tihanyi | Andreas Eisele

This paper describes the submissions of the eTranslation team to the WMT 2019 news translation shared task. The systems have been developed with the aim of identifying and following rather than establishing best practices, under the constraints imposed by a low resource training and decoding environment normally used for our production systems. Thus most of the findings and results are transferable to systems used in the eTranslation service. Evaluations suggest that this approach is able to produce decent models with good performance and speed without the overhead of using prohibitively deep and complex architectures.

Tilde’s Machine Translation Systems for WMT 2019
Marcis Pinnis | Rihards Krišlauks | Matīss Rikters

The paper describes the development process of Tilde’s NMT systems for the WMT 2019 shared task on news translation. We trained systems for the English-Lithuanian and Lithuanian-English translation directions in constrained and unconstrained tracks. We build upon the best methods of the previous year’s competition and combine them with recent advancements in the field. We also present a new method to ensure source domain adherence in back-translated data. Our systems achieved a shared first place in human evaluation.

Apertium-fin-eng–Rule-based Shallow Machine Translation for WMT 2019 Shared Task
Tommi Pirinen

In this paper we describe a rule-based, bi-directional machine translation system for the Finnish—English language pair. The baseline system was based on the existing data of FinnWordNet, omorfi and apertium-eng. We have built the disambiguation, lexical selection and translation rules by hand. The dictionaries and rules have been developed based on the shared task data. We describe in this article the use of the shared task data as a kind of a test-driven development workflow in RBMT development and show that it suits perfectly to a modern software engineering continuous integration workflow of RBMT and yields big increases to BLEU scores with minimal effort.

English-Czech Systems in WMT19: Document-Level Transformer
Martin Popel | Dominik Macháček | Michal Auersperger | Ondřej Bojar | Pavel Pecina

We describe our NMT systems submitted to the WMT19 shared task in English→Czech news translation. Our systems are based on the Transformer model implemented in either Tensor2Tensor (T2T) or Marian framework. We aimed at improving the adequacy and coherence of translated documents by enlarging the context of the source and target. Instead of translating each sentence independently, we split the document into possibly overlapping multi-sentence segments. In case of the T2T implementation, this “document-level”-trained system achieves a +0.6 BLEU improvement (p < 0.05) relative to the same system applied on isolated sentences. To assess the potential effect document-level models might have on lexical coherence, we performed a semi-automatic analysis, which revealed only a few sentences improved in this aspect. Thus, we cannot draw any conclusions from this week evidence.

The RWTH Aachen University Machine Translation Systems for WMT 2019
Jan Rosendahl | Christian Herold | Yunsu Kim | Miguel Graça | Weiyue Wang | Parnia Bahar | Yingbo Gao | Hermann Ney

This paper describes the neural machine translation systems developed at the RWTH Aachen University for the German-English, Chinese-English and Kazakh-English news translation tasks of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (WMT19). For all tasks, the final submitted system is based on the Transformer architecture. We focus on improving data filtering and fine-tuning as well as systematically evaluating interesting approaches like unigram language model segmentation and transfer learning. For the De-En task, none of the tested methods gave a significant improvement over last years winning system and we end up with the same performance, resulting in 39.6% BLEU on newstest2019. In the Zh-En task, we show 1.3% BLEU improvement over our last year’s submission, which we mostly attribute to the splitting of long sentences during translation. We further report results on the Kazakh-English task where we gain improvements of 11.1% BLEU over our baseline system. On the same task we present a recent transfer learning approach, which uses half of the free parameters of our submission system and performs on par with it.

The Universitat d’Alacant Submissions to the English-to-Kazakh News Translation Task at WMT 2019
Víctor M. Sánchez-Cartagena | Juan Antonio Pérez-Ortiz | Felipe Sánchez-Martínez

This paper describes the two submissions of Universitat d’Alacant to the English-to-Kazakh news translation task at WMT 2019. Our submissions take advantage of monolingual data and parallel data from other language pairs by means of iterative backtranslation, pivot backtranslation and transfer learning. They also use linguistic information in two ways: morphological segmentation of Kazakh text, and integration of the output of a rule-based machine translation system. Our systems were ranked second in terms of chrF++ despite being built from an ensemble of only 2 independent training runs.

Felix Stahlberg | Danielle Saunders | Adrià de Gispert | Bill Byrne

Two techniques provide the fabric of the Cambridge University Engineering Department’s (CUED) entry to the WMT19 evaluation campaign: elastic weight consolidation (EWC) and different forms of language modelling (LMs). We report substantial gains by fine-tuning very strong baselines on former WMT test sets using a combination of checkpoint averaging and EWC. A sentence-level Transformer LM and a document-level LM based on a modified Transformer architecture yield further gains. As in previous years, we also extract n-gram probabilities from SMT lattices which can be seen as a source-conditioned n-gram LM.

Baidu Neural Machine Translation Systems for WMT19
Meng Sun | Bojian Jiang | Hao Xiong | Zhongjun He | Hua Wu | Haifeng Wang

In this paper we introduce the systems Baidu submitted for the WMT19 shared task on Chinese<->English news translation. Our systems are based on the Transformer architecture with some effective improvements. Data selection, back translation, data augmentation, knowledge distillation, domain adaptation, model ensemble and re-ranking are employed and proven effective in our experiments. Our Chinese->English system achieved the highest case-sensitive BLEU score among all constrained submissions, and our English->Chinese system ranked the second in all submissions.

University of Tartu’s Multilingual Multi-domain WMT19 News Translation Shared Task Submission
Andre Tättar | Elizaveta Korotkova | Mark Fishel

This paper describes the University of Tartu’s submission to the news translation shared task of WMT19, where the core idea was to train a single multilingual system to cover several language pairs of the shared task and submit its results. We only used the constrained data from the shared task. We describe our approach and its results and discuss the technical issues we faced.

Neural Machine Translation for English–Kazakh with Morphological Segmentation and Synthetic Data
Antonio Toral | Lukas Edman | Galiya Yeshmagambetova | Jennifer Spenader

This paper presents the systems submitted by the University of Groningen to the English– Kazakh language pair (both translation directions) for the WMT 2019 news translation task. We explore the potential benefits of (i) morphological segmentation (both unsupervised and rule-based), given the agglutinative nature of Kazakh, (ii) data from two additional languages (Turkish and Russian), given the scarcity of English–Kazakh data and (iii) synthetic data, both for the source and for the target language. Our best submissions ranked second for Kazakh→English and third for English→Kazakh in terms of the BLEU automatic evaluation metric.

The LMU Munich Unsupervised Machine Translation System for WMT19
Dario Stojanovski | Viktor Hangya | Matthias Huck | Alexander Fraser

We describe LMU Munich’s machine translation system for German→Czech translation which was used to participate in the WMT19 shared task on unsupervised news translation. We train our model using monolingual data only from both languages. The final model is an unsupervised neural model using established techniques for unsupervised translation such as denoising autoencoding and online back-translation. We bootstrap the model with masked language model pretraining and enhance it with back-translations from an unsupervised phrase-based system which is itself bootstrapped using unsupervised bilingual word embeddings.

Combining Local and Document-Level Context: The LMU Munich Neural Machine Translation System at WMT19
Dario Stojanovski | Alexander Fraser

We describe LMU Munich’s machine translation system for English→German translation which was used to participate in the WMT19 shared task on supervised news translation. We specifically participated in the document-level MT track. The system used as a primary submission is a context-aware Transformer capable of both rich modeling of limited contextual information and integration of large-scale document-level context with a less rich representation. We train this model by fine-tuning a big Transformer baseline. Our experimental results show that document-level context provides for large improvements in translation quality, and adding a rich representation of the previous sentence provides a small additional gain.

IITP-MT System for Gujarati-English News Translation Task at WMT 2019
Sukanta Sen | Kamal Kumar Gupta | Asif Ekbal | Pushpak Bhattacharyya

We describe our submission to WMT 2019 News translation shared task for Gujarati-English language pair. We submit constrained systems, i.e, we rely on the data provided for this language pair and do not use any external data. We train Transformer based subword-level neural machine translation (NMT) system using original parallel corpus along with synthetic parallel corpus obtained through back-translation of monolingual data. Our primary systems achieve BLEU scores of 10.4 and 8.1 for Gujarati→English and English→Gujarati, respectively. We observe that incorporating monolingual data through back-translation improves the BLEU score significantly over baseline NMT and SMT systems for this language pair.

The University of Helsinki Submissions to the WMT19 News Translation Task
Aarne Talman | Umut Sulubacak | Raúl Vázquez | Yves Scherrer | Sami Virpioja | Alessandro Raganato | Arvi Hurskainen | Jörg Tiedemann

In this paper we present the University of Helsinki submissions to the WMT 2019 shared news translation task in three language pairs: English-German, English-Finnish and Finnish-English. This year we focused first on cleaning and filtering the training data using multiple data-filtering approaches, resulting in much smaller and cleaner training sets. For English-German we trained both sentence-level transformer models as well as compared different document-level translation approaches. For Finnish-English and English-Finnish we focused on different segmentation approaches and we also included a rule-based system for English-Finnish.

Microsoft Research Asia’s Systems for WMT19
Yingce Xia | Xu Tan | Fei Tian | Fei Gao | Di He | Weicong Chen | Yang Fan | Linyuan Gong | Yichong Leng | Renqian Luo | Yiren Wang | Lijun Wu | Jinhua Zhu | Tao Qin | Tie-Yan Liu

We Microsoft Research Asia made submissions to 11 language directions in the WMT19 news translation tasks. We won the first place for 8 of the 11 directions and the second place for the other three. Our basic systems are built on Transformer, back translation and knowledge distillation. We integrate several of our rececent techniques to enhance the baseline systems: multi-agent dual learning (MADL), masked sequence-to-sequence pre-training (MASS), neural architecture optimization (NAO), and soft contextual data augmentation (SCA).

The En-Ru Two-way Integrated Machine Translation System Based on Transformer
Doron Yu

Machine translation is one of the most popular areas in natural language processing. WMT is a conference to assess the level of machine translation capabilities of organizations around the world, which is the evaluation activity we participated in. In this review we participated in a two-way translation track from Russian to English and English to Russian. We used official training data, 38 million parallel corpora, and 10 million monolingual corpora. The overall framework we use is the Transformer neural machine translation model, supplemented by data filtering, post-processing, reordering and other related processing methods. The BLEU value of our final translation result from Russian to English is 38.7, ranking 5th, while from English to Russian is 27.8, ranking 10th.

DFKI-NMT Submission to the WMT19 News Translation Task
Jingyi Zhang | Josef van Genabith

This paper describes the DFKI-NMT submission to the WMT19 News translation task. We participated in both English-to-German and German-to-English directions. We trained Transformer models and adopted various techniques for effectively training our models, including data selection, back-translation and in-domain fine-tuning. We give a detailed analysis of the performance of our system.

Linguistic Evaluation of German-English Machine Translation Using a Test Suite
Eleftherios Avramidis | Vivien Macketanz | Ursula Strohriegel | Hans Uszkoreit

We present the results of the application of a grammatical test suite for German-to-English MT on the systems submitted at WMT19, with a detailed analysis for 107 phenomena organized in 14 categories. The systems still translate wrong one out of four test items in average. Low performance is indicated for idioms, modals, pseudo-clefts, multi-word expressions and verb valency. When compared to last year, there has been a improvement of function words, non verbal agreement and punctuation. More detailed conclusions about particular systems and phenomena are also presented.

A Test Suite and Manual Evaluation of Document-Level NMT at WMT19
Kateřina Rysová | Magdaléna Rysová | Tomáš Musil | Lucie Poláková | Ondřej Bojar

As the quality of machine translation rises and neural machine translation (NMT) is moving from sentence to document level translations, it is becoming increasingly difficult to evaluate the output of translation systems. We provide a test suite for WMT19 aimed at assessing discourse phenomena of MT systems participating in the News Translation Task. We have manually checked the outputs and identified types of translation errors that are relevant to document-level translation.

Evaluating Conjunction Disambiguation on English-to-German and French-to-German WMT 2019 Translation Hypotheses
Maja Popović

We present a test set for evaluating an MT system’s capability to translate ambiguous conjunctions depending on the sentence structure. We concentrate on the English conjunction “but” and its French equivalent “mais” which can be translated into two different German conjunctions. We evaluate all English-to-German and French-to-German submissions to the WMT 2019 shared translation task. The evaluation is done mainly automatically, with additional fast manual inspection of unclear cases. All systems almost perfectly recognise the target conjunction “aber”, whereas accuracies for the other target conjunction “sondern” range from 78% to 97%, and the errors are mostly caused by replacing it with the alternative conjunction “aber”. The best performing system for both language pairs is a multilingual Transformer “TartuNLP” system trained on all WMT 2019 language pairs which use the Latin script, indicating that the multilingual approach is beneficial for conjunction disambiguation. As for other system features, such as using synthetic back-translated data, context-aware, hybrid, etc., no particular (dis)advantages can be observed. Qualitative manual inspection of translation hypotheses shown that highly ranked systems generally produce translations with high adequacy and fluency, meaning that these systems are not only capable of capturing the right conjunction whereas the rest of the translation hypothesis is poor. On the other hand, the low ranked systems generally exhibit lower fluency and poor adequacy.

The MuCoW Test Suite at WMT 2019: Automatically Harvested Multilingual Contrastive Word Sense Disambiguation Test Sets for Machine Translation
Alessandro Raganato | Yves Scherrer | Jörg Tiedemann

Supervised Neural Machine Translation (NMT) systems currently achieve impressive translation quality for many language pairs. One of the key features of a correct translation is the ability to perform word sense disambiguation (WSD), i.e., to translate an ambiguous word with its correct sense. Existing evaluation benchmarks on WSD capabilities of translation systems rely heavily on manual work and cover only few language pairs and few word types. We present MuCoW, a multilingual contrastive test suite that covers 16 language pairs with more than 200 thousand contrastive sentence pairs, automatically built from word-aligned parallel corpora and the wide-coverage multilingual sense inventory of BabelNet. We evaluate the quality of the ambiguity lexicons and of the resulting test suite on all submissions from 9 language pairs presented in the WMT19 news shared translation task, plus on other 5 language pairs using NMT pretrained models. The MuCoW test suite is available at

SAO WMT19 Test Suite: Machine Translation of Audit Reports
Tereza Vojtěchová | Michal Novák | Miloš Klouček | Ondřej Bojar

This paper describes a machine translation test set of documents from the auditing domain and its use as one of the “test suites” in the WMT19 News Translation Task for translation directions involving Czech, English and German. Our evaluation suggests that current MT systems optimized for the general news domain can perform quite well even in the particular domain of audit reports. The detailed manual evaluation however indicates that deep factual knowledge of the domain is necessary. For the naked eye of a non-expert, translations by many systems seem almost perfect and automatic MT evaluation with one reference is practically useless for considering these details. Furthermore, we show on a sample document from the domain of agreements that even the best systems completely fail in preserving the semantics of the agreement, namely the identity of the parties.

WMDO: Fluency-based Word Mover’s Distance for Machine Translation Evaluation
Julian Chow | Lucia Specia | Pranava Madhyastha

We propose WMDO, a metric based on distance between distributions in the semantic vector space. Matching in the semantic space has been investigated for translation evaluation, but the constraints of a translation’s word order have not been fully explored. Building on the Word Mover’s Distance metric and various word embeddings, we introduce a fragmentation penalty to account for fluency of a translation. This word order extension is shown to perform better than standard WMD, with promising results against other types of metrics.

Meteor++ 2.0: Adopt Syntactic Level Paraphrase Knowledge into Machine Translation Evaluation
Yinuo Guo | Junfeng Hu

This paper describes Meteor++ 2.0, our submission to the WMT19 Metric Shared Task. The well known Meteor metric improves machine translation evaluation by introducing paraphrase knowledge. However, it only focuses on the lexical level and utilizes consecutive n-grams paraphrases. In this work, we take into consideration syntactic level paraphrase knowledge, which sometimes may be skip-grams. We describe how such knowledge can be extracted from Paraphrase Database (PPDB) and integrated into Meteor-based metrics. Experiments on WMT15 and WMT17 evaluation datasets show that the newly proposed metric outperforms all previous versions of Meteor.

YiSi - a Unified Semantic MT Quality Evaluation and Estimation Metric for Languages with Different Levels of Available Resources
Chi-kiu Lo

We present YiSi, a unified automatic semantic machine translation quality evaluation and estimation metric for languages with different levels of available resources. Underneath the interface with different language resources settings, YiSi uses the same representation for the two sentences in assessment. Besides, we show significant improvement in the correlation of YiSi-1’s scores with human judgment is made by using contextual embeddings in multilingual BERT–Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers to evaluate lexical semantic similarity. YiSi is open source and publicly available.

EED: Extended Edit Distance Measure for Machine Translation
Peter Stanchev | Weiyue Wang | Hermann Ney

Over the years a number of machine translation metrics have been developed in order to evaluate the accuracy and quality of machine-generated translations. Metrics such as BLEU and TER have been used for decades. However, with the rapid progress of machine translation systems, the need for better metrics is growing. This paper proposes an extension of the edit distance, which achieves better human correlation, whilst remaining fast, flexible and easy to understand.

Filtering Pseudo-References by Paraphrasing for Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation
Ryoma Yoshimura | Hiroki Shimanaka | Yukio Matsumura | Hayahide Yamagishi | Mamoru Komachi

In this paper, we introduce our participation in the WMT 2019 Metric Shared Task. We propose an improved version of sentence BLEU using filtered pseudo-references. We propose a method to filter pseudo-references by paraphrasing for automatic evaluation of machine translation (MT). We use the outputs of off-the-shelf MT systems as pseudo-references filtered by paraphrasing in addition to a single human reference (gold reference). We use BERT fine-tuned with paraphrase corpus to filter pseudo-references by checking the paraphrasability with the gold reference. Our experimental results of the WMT 2016 and 2017 datasets show that our method achieved higher correlation with human evaluation than the sentence BLEU (SentBLEU) baselines with a single reference and with unfiltered pseudo-references.

Naver Labs Europe’s Systems for the WMT19 Machine Translation Robustness Task
Alexandre Berard | Ioan Calapodescu | Claude Roux

This paper describes the systems that we submitted to the WMT19 Machine Translation robustness task. This task aims to improve MT’s robustness to noise found on social media, like informal language, spelling mistakes and other orthographic variations. The organizers provide parallel data extracted from a social media website in two language pairs: French-English and Japanese-English (one for each language direction). The goal is to obtain the best scores on unseen test sets from the same source, according to automatic metrics (BLEU) and human evaluation. We propose one single and one ensemble system for each translation direction. Our ensemble models ranked first in all language pairs, according to BLEU evaluation. We discuss the pre-processing choices that we made, and present our solutions for robustness to noise and domain adaptation.

NICT’s Supervised Neural Machine Translation Systems for the WMT19 Translation Robustness Task
Raj Dabre | Eiichiro Sumita

In this paper we describe our neural machine translation (NMT) systems for Japanese↔English translation which we submitted to the translation robustness task. We focused on leveraging transfer learning via fine tuning to improve translation quality. We used a fairly well established domain adaptation technique called Mixed Fine Tuning (MFT) (Chu et. al., 2017) to improve translation quality for Japanese↔English. We also trained bi-directional NMT models instead of uni-directional ones as the former are known to be quite robust, especially in low-resource scenarios. However, given the noisy nature of the in-domain training data, the improvements we obtained are rather modest.

System Description: The Submission of FOKUS to the WMT 19 Robustness Task
Cristian Grozea

This paper describes the systems of Fraunhofer FOKUS for the WMT 2019 machine translation robustness task. We have made submissions to the EN-FR, FR-EN, and JA-EN language pairs. The first two were made with a baseline translator, trained on clean data for the WMT 2019 biomedical translation task. These baselines improved over the baselines from the MTNT paper by 2 to 4 BLEU points, but where not trained on the same data. The last one used the same model class and training procedure, with induced typos in the training data to increase the model robustness.

CUNI System for the WMT19 Robustness Task
Jindřich Helcl | Jindřich Libovický | Martin Popel

We present our submission to the WMT19 Robustness Task. Our baseline system is the Charles University (CUNI) Transformer system trained for the WMT18 shared task on News Translation. Quantitative results show that the CUNI Transformer system is already far more robust to noisy input than the LSTM-based baseline provided by the task organizers. We further improved the performance of our model by fine-tuning on the in-domain noisy data without influencing the translation quality on the news domain.

NTT’s Machine Translation Systems for WMT19 Robustness Task
Soichiro Murakami | Makoto Morishita | Tsutomu Hirao | Masaaki Nagata

This paper describes NTT’s submission to the WMT19 robustness task. This task mainly focuses on translating noisy text (e.g., posts on Twitter), which presents different difficulties from typical translation tasks such as news. Our submission combined techniques including utilization of a synthetic corpus, domain adaptation, and a placeholder mechanism, which significantly improved over the previous baseline. Experimental results revealed the placeholder mechanism, which temporarily replaces the non-standard tokens including emojis and emoticons with special placeholder tokens during translation, improves translation accuracy even with noisy texts.

JHU 2019 Robustness Task System Description
Matt Post | Kevin Duh

We describe the JHU submissions to the French–English, Japanese–English, and English–Japanese Robustness Task at WMT 2019. Our goal was to evaluate the performance of baseline systems on both the official noisy test set as well as news data, in order to ensure that performance gains in the latter did not come at the expense of general-domain performance. To this end, we built straightforward 6-layer Transformer models and experimented with a handful of variables including subword processing (FR→EN) and a handful of hyperparameters settings (JA↔EN). As expected, our systems performed reasonably.

Robust Machine Translation with Domain Sensitive Pseudo-Sources: Baidu-OSU WMT19 MT Robustness Shared Task System Report
Renjie Zheng | Hairong Liu | Mingbo Ma | Baigong Zheng | Liang Huang

This paper describes the machine translation system developed jointly by Baidu Research and Oregon State University for WMT 2019 Machine Translation Robustness Shared Task. Translation of social media is a very challenging problem, since its style is very different from normal parallel corpora (e.g. News) and also include various types of noises. To make it worse, the amount of social media parallel corpora is extremely limited. In this paper, we use a domain sensitive training method which leverages a large amount of parallel data from popular domains together with a little amount of parallel data from social media. Furthermore, we generate a parallel dataset with pseudo noisy source sentences which are back-translated from monolingual data using a model trained by a similar domain sensitive way. In this way, we achieve more than 10 BLEU improvement in both En-Fr and Fr-En translation compared with the baseline methods.

Improving Robustness of Neural Machine Translation with Multi-task Learning
Shuyan Zhou | Xiangkai Zeng | Yingqi Zhou | Antonios Anastasopoulos | Graham Neubig

While neural machine translation (NMT) achieves remarkable performance on clean, in-domain text, performance is known to degrade drastically when facing text which is full of typos, grammatical errors and other varieties of noise. In this work, we propose a multi-task learning algorithm for transformer-based MT systems that is more resilient to this noise. We describe our submission to the WMT 2019 Robustness shared task based on this method. Our model achieves a BLEU score of 32.8 on the shared task French to English dataset, which is 7.1 BLEU points higher than the baseline vanilla transformer trained with clean text.


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Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 3: Shared Task Papers, Day 2)

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Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 3: Shared Task Papers, Day 2)
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | André Martins | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Matt Post | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor

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Findings of the WMT 2019 Shared Tasks on Quality Estimation
Erick Fonseca | Lisa Yankovskaya | André F. T. Martins | Mark Fishel | Christian Federmann

We report the results of the WMT19 shared task on Quality Estimation, i.e. the task of predicting the quality of the output of machine translation systems given just the source text and the hypothesis translations. The task includes estimation at three granularity levels: word, sentence and document. A novel addition is evaluating sentence-level QE against human judgments: in other words, designing MT metrics that do not need a reference translation. This year we include three language pairs, produced solely by neural machine translation systems. Participating teams from eleven institutions submitted a variety of systems to different task variants and language pairs.

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Findings of the WMT 2019 Shared Task on Automatic Post-Editing
Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Matteo Negri | Marco Turchi

We present the results from the 5th round of the WMT task on MT Automatic Post-Editing. The task consists in automatically correcting the output of a “black-box” machine translation system by learning from human corrections. Keeping the same general evaluation setting of the previous four rounds, this year we focused on two language pairs (English-German and English-Russian) and on domain-specific data (In-formation Technology). For both the language directions, MT outputs were produced by neural systems unknown to par-ticipants. Seven teams participated in the English-German task, with a total of 18 submitted runs. The evaluation, which was performed on the same test set used for the 2018 round, shows a slight progress in APE technology: 4 teams achieved better results than last year’s winning system, with improvements up to -0.78 TER and +1.23 BLEU points over the baseline. Two teams participated in theEnglish-Russian task submitting 2 runs each. On this new language direction, characterized by a higher quality of the original translations, the task proved to be particularly challenging. None of the submitted runs improved the very high results of the strong system used to produce the initial translations(16.16 TER, 76.20 BLEU).

Findings of the WMT 2019 Biomedical Translation Shared Task: Evaluation for MEDLINE Abstracts and Biomedical Terminologies
Rachel Bawden | Kevin Bretonnel Cohen | Cristian Grozea | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Madeleine Kittner | Martin Krallinger | Nancy Mah | Aurelie Neveol | Mariana Neves | Felipe Soares | Amy Siu | Karin Verspoor | Maika Vicente Navarro

In the fourth edition of the WMT Biomedical Translation task, we considered a total of six languages, namely Chinese (zh), English (en), French (fr), German (de), Portuguese (pt), and Spanish (es). We performed an evaluation of automatic translations for a total of 10 language directions, namely, zh/en, en/zh, fr/en, en/fr, de/en, en/de, pt/en, en/pt, es/en, and en/es. We provided training data based on MEDLINE abstracts for eight of the 10 language pairs and test sets for all of them. In addition to that, we offered a new sub-task for the translation of terms in biomedical terminologies for the en/es language direction. Higher BLEU scores (close to 0.5) were obtained for the es/en, en/es and en/pt test sets, as well as for the terminology sub-task. After manual validation of the primary runs, some submissions were judged to be better than the reference translations, for instance, for de/en, en/es and es/en.

Findings of the WMT 2019 Shared Task on Parallel Corpus Filtering for Low-Resource Conditions
Philipp Koehn | Francisco Guzmán | Vishrav Chaudhary | Juan Pino

Following the WMT 2018 Shared Task on Parallel Corpus Filtering, we posed the challenge of assigning sentence-level quality scores for very noisy corpora of sentence pairs crawled from the web, with the goal of sub-selecting 2% and 10% of the highest-quality data to be used to train machine translation systems. This year, the task tackled the low resource condition of Nepali-English and Sinhala-English. Eleven participants from companies, national research labs, and universities participated in this task.

RTM Stacking Results for Machine Translation Performance Prediction
Ergun Biçici

We obtain new results using referential translation machines with increased number of learning models in the set of results that are stacked to obtain a better mixture of experts prediction. We combine features extracted from the word-level predictions with the sentence- or document-level features, which significantly improve the results on the training sets but decrease the test set results.

Unbabel’s Participation in the WMT19 Translation Quality Estimation Shared Task
Fabio Kepler | Jonay Trénous | Marcos Treviso | Miguel Vera | António Góis | M. Amin Farajian | António V. Lopes | André F. T. Martins

We present the contribution of the Unbabel team to the WMT 2019 Shared Task on Quality Estimation. We participated on the word, sentence, and document-level tracks, encompassing 3 language pairs: English-German, English-Russian, and English-French. Our submissions build upon the recent OpenKiwi framework: We combine linear, neural, and predictor-estimator systems with new transfer learning approaches using BERT and XLM pre-trained models. We compare systems individually and propose new ensemble techniques for word and sentence-level predictions. We also propose a simple technique for converting word labels into document-level predictions. Overall, our submitted systems achieve the best results on all tracks and language pairs by a considerable margin.

QE BERT: Bilingual BERT Using Multi-task Learning for Neural Quality Estimation
Hyun Kim | Joon-Ho Lim | Hyun-Ki Kim | Seung-Hoon Na

For translation quality estimation at word and sentence levels, this paper presents a novel approach based on BERT that recently has achieved impressive results on various natural language processing tasks. Our proposed model is re-purposed BERT for the translation quality estimation and uses multi-task learning for the sentence-level task and word-level subtasks (i.e., source word, target word, and target gap). Experimental results on Quality Estimation shared task of WMT19 show that our systems show competitive results and provide significant improvements over the baseline.

MIPT System for World-Level Quality Estimation
Mikhail Mosyagin | Varvara Logacheva

We explore different model architectures for the WMT 19 shared task on word-level quality estimation of automatic translation. We start with a model similar to Shef-bRNN, which we modify by using conditional random fields for sequence labelling. Additionally, we use a different approach for labelling gaps and source words. We further develop this model by including features from different sources such as BERT, baseline features for the task and transformer encoders. We evaluate the performance of our models on the English-German dataset for the corresponding shared task.

NJU Submissions for the WMT19 Quality Estimation Shared Task
Hou Qi

In this paper, we describe the submissions of the team from Nanjing University for the WMT19 sentence-level Quality Estimation (QE) shared task on English-German language pair. We develop two approaches based on a two-stage neural QE model consisting of a feature extractor and a quality estimator. More specifically, one of the proposed approaches employs the translation knowledge between the two languages from two different translation directions; while the other one employs extra monolingual knowledge from both source and target sides, obtained by pre-training deep self-attention networks. To efficiently train these two-stage models, a joint learning training method is applied. Experiments show that the ensemble model of the above two models achieves the best results on the benchmark dataset of the WMT17 sentence-level QE shared task and obtains competitive results in WMT19, ranking 3rd out of 10 submissions.

Quality Estimation and Translation Metrics via Pre-trained Word and Sentence Embeddings
Elizaveta Yankovskaya | Andre Tättar | Mark Fishel

We propose the use of pre-trained embeddings as features of a regression model for sentence-level quality estimation of machine translation. In our work we combine freely available BERT and LASER multilingual embeddings to train a neural-based regression model. In the second proposed method we use as an input features not only pre-trained embeddings, but also log probability of any machine translation (MT) system. Both methods are applied to several language pairs and are evaluated both as a classical quality estimation system (predicting the HTER score) as well as an MT metric (predicting human judgements of translation quality).

SOURCE: SOURce-Conditional Elmo-style Model for Machine Translation Quality Estimation
Junpei Zhou | Zhisong Zhang | Zecong Hu

Quality estimation (QE) of machine translation (MT) systems is a task of growing importance. It reduces the cost of post-editing, allowing machine-translated text to be used in formal occasions. In this work, we describe our submission system in WMT 2019 sentence-level QE task. We mainly explore the utilization of pre-trained translation models in QE and adopt a bi-directional translation-like strategy. The strategy is similar to ELMo, but additionally conditions on source sentences. Experiments on WMT QE dataset show that our strategy, which makes the pre-training slightly harder, can bring improvements for QE. In WMT-2019 QE task, our system ranked in the second place on En-De NMT dataset and the third place on En-Ru NMT dataset.

Transformer-based Automatic Post-Editing Model with Joint Encoder and Multi-source Attention of Decoder
WonKee Lee | Jaehun Shin | Jong-Hyeok Lee

This paper describes POSTECH’s submission to the WMT 2019 shared task on Automatic Post-Editing (APE). In this paper, we propose a new multi-source APE model by extending Transformer. The main contributions of our study are that we 1) reconstruct the encoder to generate a joint representation of translation (mt) and its src context, in addition to the conventional src encoding and 2) suggest two types of multi-source attention layers to compute attention between two outputs of the encoder and the decoder state in the decoder. Furthermore, we train our model by applying various teacher-forcing ratios to alleviate exposure bias. Finally, we adopt the ensemble technique across variations of our model. Experiments on the WMT19 English-German APE data set show improvements in terms of both TER and BLEU scores over the baseline. Our primary submission achieves -0.73 in TER and +1.49 in BLEU compare to the baseline.

Unbabel’s Submission to the WMT2019 APE Shared Task: BERT-Based Encoder-Decoder for Automatic Post-Editing
António V. Lopes | M. Amin Farajian | Gonçalo M. Correia | Jonay Trénous | André F. T. Martins

This paper describes Unbabel’s submission to the WMT2019 APE Shared Task for the English-German language pair. Following the recent rise of large, powerful, pre-trained models, we adapt the BERT pretrained model to perform Automatic Post-Editing in an encoder-decoder framework. Analogously to dual-encoder architectures we develop a BERT-based encoder-decoder (BED) model in which a single pretrained BERT encoder receives both the source src and machine translation mt strings. Furthermore, we explore a conservativeness factor to constrain the APE system to perform fewer edits. As the official results show, when trained on a weighted combination of in-domain and artificial training data, our BED system with the conservativeness penalty improves significantly the translations of a strong NMT system by -0.78 and +1.23 in terms of TER and BLEU, respectively. Finally, our submission achieves a new state-of-the-art, ex-aequo, in English-German APE of NMT.

USAAR-DFKI – The Transference Architecture for English–German Automatic Post-Editing
Santanu Pal | Hongfei Xu | Nico Herbig | Antonio Krüger | Josef van Genabith

In this paper we present an English–German Automatic Post-Editing (APE) system called transference, submitted to the APE Task organized at WMT 2019. Our transference model is based on a multi-encoder transformer architecture. Unlike previous approaches, it (i) uses a transformer encoder block for src, (ii) followed by a transformer decoder block, but without masking, for self-attention on mt, which effectively acts as second encoder combining src –> mt, and (iii) feeds this representation into a final decoder block generating pe. Our model improves over the raw black-box neural machine translation system by 0.9 and 1.0 absolute BLEU points on the WMT 2019 APE development and test set. Our submission ranked 3rd, however compared to the two top systems, performance differences are not statistically significant.

APE through Neural and Statistical MT with Augmented Data. ADAPT/DCU Submission to the WMT 2019 APE Shared Task
Dimitar Shterionov | Joachim Wagner | Félix do Carmo

Automatic post-editing (APE) can be reduced to a machine translation (MT) task, where the source is the output of a specific MT system and the target is its post-edited variant. However, this approach does not consider context information that can be found in the original source of the MT system. Thus a better approach is to employ multi-source MT, where two input sequences are considered – the one being the original source and the other being the MT output. Extra context information can be introduced in the form of extra tokens that identify certain global property of a group of segments, added as a prefix or a suffix to each segment. Successfully applied in domain adaptation of MT as well as on APE, this technique deserves further attention. In this work we investigate multi-source neural APE (or NPE) systems with training data which has been augmented with two types of extra context tokens. We experiment with authentic and synthetic data provided by WMT 2019 and submit our results to the APE shared task. We also experiment with using statistical machine translation (SMT) methods for APE. While our systems score bellow the baseline, we consider this work a step towards understanding the added value of extra context in the case of APE.

Effort-Aware Neural Automatic Post-Editing
Amirhossein Tebbifakhr | Matteo Negri | Marco Turchi

For this round of the WMT 2019 APE shared task, our submission focuses on addressing the “over-correction” problem in APE. Over-correction occurs when the APE system tends to rephrase an already correct MT output, and the resulting sentence is penalized by a reference-based evaluation against human post-edits. Our intuition is that this problem can be prevented by informing the system about the predicted quality of the MT output or, in other terms, the expected amount of needed corrections. For this purpose, following the common approach in multilingual NMT, we prepend a special token to the beginning of both the source text and the MT output indicating the required amount of post-editing. Following the best submissions to the WMT 2018 APE shared task, our backbone architecture is based on multi-source Transformer to encode both the MT output and the corresponding source text. We participated both in the English-German and English-Russian subtasks. In the first subtask, our best submission improved the original MT output quality up to +0.98 BLEU and -0.47 TER. In the second subtask, where the higher quality of the MT output increases the risk of over-correction, none of our submitted runs was able to improve the MT output.

UdS Submission for the WMT 19 Automatic Post-Editing Task
Hongfei Xu | Qiuhui Liu | Josef van Genabith

In this paper, we describe our submission to the English-German APE shared task at WMT 2019. We utilize and adapt an NMT architecture originally developed for exploiting context information to APE, implement this in our own transformer model and explore joint training of the APE task with a de-noising encoder.

Terminology-Aware Segmentation and Domain Feature for the WMT19 Biomedical Translation Task
Casimiro Pio Carrino | Bardia Rafieian | Marta R. Costa-jussà | José A. R. Fonollosa

In this work, we give a description of the TALP-UPC systems submitted for the WMT19 Biomedical Translation Task. Our proposed strategy is NMT model-independent and relies only on one ingredient, a biomedical terminology list. We first extracted such a terminology list by labelling biomedical words in our training dataset using the BabelNet API. Then, we designed a data preparation strategy to insert the terms information at a token level. Finally, we trained the Transformer model with this terms-informed data. Our best-submitted system ranked 2nd and 3rd for Spanish-English and English-Spanish translation directions, respectively.

Exploring Transfer Learning and Domain Data Selection for the Biomedical Translation
Noor-e- Hira | Sadaf Abdul Rauf | Kiran Kiani | Ammara Zafar | Raheel Nawaz

Transfer Learning and Selective data training are two of the many approaches being extensively investigated to improve the quality of Neural Machine Translation systems. This paper presents a series of experiments by applying transfer learning and selective data training for participation in the Bio-medical shared task of WMT19. We have used Information Retrieval to selectively choose related sentences from out-of-domain data and used them as additional training data using transfer learning. We also report the effect of tokenization on translation model performance.

Huawei’s NMT Systems for the WMT 2019 Biomedical Translation Task
Wei Peng | Jianfeng Liu | Liangyou Li | Qun Liu

This paper describes Huawei’s neural machine translation systems for the WMT 2019 biomedical translation shared task. We trained and fine-tuned our systems on a combination of out-of-domain and in-domain parallel corpora for six translation directions covering English–Chinese, English–French and English–German language pairs. Our submitted systems achieve the best BLEU scores on English–French and English–German language pairs according to the official evaluation results. In the English–Chinese translation task, our systems are in the second place. The enhanced performance is attributed to more in-domain training and more sophisticated models developed. Development of translation models and transfer learning (or domain adaptation) methods has significantly contributed to the progress of the task.

UCAM Biomedical Translation at WMT19: Transfer Learning Multi-domain Ensembles
Danielle Saunders | Felix Stahlberg | Bill Byrne

The 2019 WMT Biomedical translation task involved translating Medline abstracts. We approached this using transfer learning to obtain a series of strong neural models on distinct domains, and combining them into multi-domain ensembles. We further experimented with an adaptive language-model ensemble weighting scheme. Our submission achieved the best submitted results on both directions of English-Spanish.

BSC Participation in the WMT Translation of Biomedical Abstracts
Felipe Soares | Martin Krallinger

This paper describes the machine translation systems developed by the Barcelona Supercomputing (BSC) team for the biomedical translation shared task of WMT19. Our system is based on Neural Machine Translation unsing the OpenNMT-py toolkit and Transformer architecture. We participated in four translation directions for the English/Spanish and English/Portuguese language pairs. To create our training data, we concatenated several parallel corpora, both from in-domain and out-of-domain sources, as well as terminological resources from UMLS.

The MLLP-UPV Spanish-Portuguese and Portuguese-Spanish Machine Translation Systems for WMT19 Similar Language Translation Task
Pau Baquero-Arnal | Javier Iranzo-Sánchez | Jorge Civera | Alfons Juan

This paper describes the participation of the MLLP research group of the Universitat Politècnica de València in the WMT 2019 Similar Language Translation Shared Task. We have submitted systems for the Portuguese ↔ Spanish language pair, in both directions. We have submitted systems based on the Transformer architecture as well as an in development novel architecture which we have called 2D alternating RNN. We have carried out domain adaptation through fine-tuning.

The TALP-UPC System for the WMT Similar Language Task: Statistical vs Neural Machine Translation
Magdalena Biesialska | Lluis Guardia | Marta R. Costa-jussà

Although the problem of similar language translation has been an area of research interest for many years, yet it is still far from being solved. In this paper, we study the performance of two popular approaches: statistical and neural. We conclude that both methods yield similar results; however, the performance varies depending on the language pair. While the statistical approach outperforms the neural one by a difference of 6 BLEU points for the Spanish-Portuguese language pair, the proposed neural model surpasses the statistical one by a difference of 2 BLEU points for Czech-Polish. In the former case, the language similarity (based on perplexity) is much higher than in the latter case. Additionally, we report negative results for the system combination with back-translation. Our TALP-UPC system submission won 1st place for Czech->Polish and 2nd place for Spanish->Portuguese in the official evaluation of the 1st WMT Similar Language Translation task.

Machine Translation from an Intercomprehension Perspective
Yu Chen | Tania Avgustinova

Within the first shared task on machine translation between similar languages, we present our first attempts on Czech to Polish machine translation from an intercomprehension perspective. We propose methods based on the mutual intelligibility of the two languages, taking advantage of their orthographic and phonological similarity, in the hope to improve over our baselines. The translation results are evaluated using BLEU. On this metric, none of our proposals could outperform the baselines on the final test set. The current setups are rather preliminary, and there are several potential improvements we can try in the future.

Utilizing Monolingual Data in NMT for Similar Languages: Submission to Similar Language Translation Task
Jyotsana Khatri | Pushpak Bhattacharyya

This paper describes our submission to Shared Task on Similar Language Translation in Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (WMT 2019). We submitted three systems for Hindi -> Nepali direction in which we have examined the performance of a RNN based NMT system, a semi-supervised NMT system where monolingual data of both languages is utilized using the architecture by and a system trained with extra synthetic sentences generated using copy of source and target sentences without using any additional monolingual data.

Neural Machine Translation: Hindi-Nepali
Sahinur Rahman Laskar | Partha Pakray | Sivaji Bandyopadhyay

With the extensive use of Machine Translation (MT) technology, there is progressively interest in directly translating between pairs of similar languages. Because the main challenge is to overcome the limitation of available parallel data to produce a precise MT output. Current work relies on the Neural Machine Translation (NMT) with attention mechanism for the similar language translation of WMT19 shared task in the context of Hindi-Nepali pair. The NMT systems trained the Hindi-Nepali parallel corpus and tested, analyzed in Hindi ⇔ Nepali translation. The official result declared at WMT19 shared task, which shows that our NMT system obtained Bilingual Evaluation Understudy (BLEU) score 24.6 for primary configuration in Nepali to Hindi translation. Also, we have achieved BLEU score 53.7 (Hindi to Nepali) and 49.1 (Nepali to Hindi) in contrastive system type.

NICT’s Machine Translation Systems for the WMT19 Similar Language Translation Task
Benjamin Marie | Raj Dabre | Atsushi Fujita

This paper presents the NICT’s participation in the WMT19 shared Similar Language Translation Task. We participated in the Spanish-Portuguese task. For both translation directions, we prepared state-of-the-art statistical (SMT) and neural (NMT) machine translation systems. Our NMT systems with the Transformer architecture were trained on the provided parallel data enlarged with a large quantity of back-translated monolingual data. Our primary submission to the task is the result of a simple combination of our SMT and NMT systems. According to BLEU, our systems were ranked second and third respectively for the Portuguese-to-Spanish and Spanish-to-Portuguese translation directions. For contrastive experiments, we also submitted outputs generated with an unsupervised SMT system.

Panlingua-KMI MT System for Similar Language Translation Task at WMT 2019
Atul Kr. Ojha | Ritesh Kumar | Akanksha Bansal | Priya Rani

The present paper enumerates the development of Panlingua-KMI Machine Translation (MT) systems for Hindi ↔ Nepali language pair, designed as part of the Similar Language Translation Task at the WMT 2019 Shared Task. The Panlingua-KMI team conducted a series of experiments to explore both the phrase-based statistical (PBSMT) and neural methods (NMT). Among the 11 MT systems prepared under this task, 6 PBSMT systems were prepared for Nepali-Hindi, 1 PBSMT for Hindi-Nepali and 2 NMT systems were developed for Nepali↔Hindi. The results show that PBSMT could be an effective method for developing MT systems for closely-related languages. Our Hindi-Nepali PBSMT system was ranked 2nd among the 13 systems submitted for the pair and our Nepali-Hindi PBSMTsystem was ranked 4th among the 12 systems submitted for the task.

UDSDFKI Submission to the WMT2019 Czech–Polish Similar Language Translation Shared Task
Santanu Pal | Marcos Zampieri | Josef van Genabith

In this paper we present the UDS-DFKI system submitted to the Similar Language Translation shared task at WMT 2019. The first edition of this shared task featured data from three pairs of similar languages: Czech and Polish, Hindi and Nepali, and Portuguese and Spanish. Participants could choose to participate in any of these three tracks and submit system outputs in any translation direction. We report the results obtained by our system in translating from Czech to Polish and comment on the impact of out-of-domain test data in the performance of our system. UDS-DFKI achieved competitive performance ranking second among ten teams in Czech to Polish translation.

Neural Machine Translation of Low-Resource and Similar Languages with Backtranslation
Michael Przystupa | Muhammad Abdul-Mageed

We present our contribution to the WMT19 Similar Language Translation shared task. We investigate the utility of neural machine translation on three low-resource, similar language pairs: Spanish – Portuguese, Czech – Polish, and Hindi – Nepali. Since state-of-the-art neural machine translation systems still require large amounts of bitext, which we do not have for the pairs we consider, we focus primarily on incorporating monolingual data into our models with backtranslation. In our analysis, we found Transformer models to work best on Spanish – Portuguese and Czech – Polish translation, whereas LSTMs with global attention worked best on Hindi – Nepali translation.

The University of Helsinki Submissions to the WMT19 Similar Language Translation Task
Yves Scherrer | Raúl Vázquez | Sami Virpioja

This paper describes the University of Helsinki Language Technology group’s participation in the WMT 2019 similar language translation task. We trained neural machine translation models for the language pairs Czech <-> Polish and Spanish <-> Portuguese. Our experiments focused on different subword segmentation methods, and in particular on the comparison of a cognate-aware segmentation method, Cognate Morfessor, with character segmentation and unsupervised segmentation methods for which the data from different languages were simply concatenated. We did not observe major benefits from cognate-aware segmentation methods, but further research may be needed to explore larger parts of the parameter space. Character-level models proved to be competitive for translation between Spanish and Portuguese, but they are slower in training and decoding.

Dual Monolingual Cross-Entropy Delta Filtering of Noisy Parallel Data
Amittai Axelrod | Anish Kumar | Steve Sloto

We introduce a purely monolingual approach to filtering for parallel data from a noisy corpus in a low-resource scenario. Our work is inspired by Junczysdowmunt:2018, but we relax the requirements to allow for cases where no parallel data is available. Our primary contribution is a dual monolingual cross-entropy delta criterion modified from Cynical data selection Axelrod:2017, and is competitive (within 1.8 BLEU) with the best bilingual filtering method when used to train SMT systems. Our approach is featherweight, and runs end-to-end on a standard laptop in three hours.

NRC Parallel Corpus Filtering System for WMT 2019
Gabriel Bernier-Colborne | Chi-kiu Lo

We describe the National Research Council Canada team’s submissions to the parallel corpus filtering task at the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation.

Low-Resource Corpus Filtering Using Multilingual Sentence Embeddings
Vishrav Chaudhary | Yuqing Tang | Francisco Guzmán | Holger Schwenk | Philipp Koehn

In this paper, we describe our submission to the WMT19 low-resource parallel corpus filtering shared task. Our main approach is based on the LASER toolkit (Language-Agnostic SEntence Representations), which uses an encoder-decoder architecture trained on a parallel corpus to obtain multilingual sentence representations. We then use the representations directly to score and filter the noisy parallel sentences without additionally training a scoring function. We contrast our approach to other promising methods and show that LASER yields strong results. Finally, we produce an ensemble of different scoring methods and obtain additional gains. Our submission achieved the best overall performance for both the Nepali-English and Sinhala-English 1M tasks by a margin of 1.3 and 1.4 BLEU respectively, as compared to the second best systems. Moreover, our experiments show that this technique is promising for low and even no-resource scenarios.

Quality and Coverage: The AFRL Submission to the WMT19 Parallel Corpus Filtering for Low-Resource Conditions Task
Grant Erdmann | Jeremy Gwinnup

The WMT19 Parallel Corpus Filtering For Low-Resource Conditions Task aims to test various methods of filtering a noisy parallel corpora, to make them useful for training machine translation systems. This year the noisy corpora are the relatively low-resource language pairs of Nepali-English and Sinhala-English. This papers describes the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) submissions, including preprocessing methods and scoring metrics. Numerical results indicate a benefit over baseline and the relative benefits of different options.

Webinterpret Submission to the WMT2019 Shared Task on Parallel Corpus Filtering
Jesús González-Rubio

This document describes the participation of Webinterpret in the shared task on parallel corpus filtering at the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (WMT 2019). Here, we describe the main characteristics of our approach and discuss the results obtained on the data sets published for the shared task.

Noisy Parallel Corpus Filtering through Projected Word Embeddings
Murathan Kurfalı | Robert Östling

We present a very simple method for parallel text cleaning of low-resource languages, based on projection of word embeddings trained on large monolingual corpora in high-resource languages. In spite of its simplicity, we approach the strong baseline system in the downstream machine translation evaluation.

Filtering of Noisy Parallel Corpora Based on Hypothesis Generation
Zuzanna Parcheta | Germán Sanchis-Trilles | Francisco Casacuberta

The filtering task of noisy parallel corpora in WMT2019 aims to challenge participants to create filtering methods to be useful for training machine translation systems. In this work, we introduce a noisy parallel corpora filtering system based on generating hypotheses by means of a translation model. We train translation models in both language pairs: Nepali–English and Sinhala–English using provided parallel corpora. We select the training subset for three language pairs (Nepali, Sinhala and Hindi to English) jointly using bilingual cross-entropy selection to create the best possible translation model for both language pairs. Once the translation models are trained, we translate the noisy corpora and generate a hypothesis for each sentence pair. We compute the smoothed BLEU score between the target sentence and generated hypothesis. In addition, we apply several rules to discard very noisy or inadequate sentences which can lower the translation score. These heuristics are based on sentence length, source and target similarity and source language detection. We compare our results with the baseline published on the shared task website, which uses the Zipporah model, over which we achieve significant improvements in one of the conditions in the shared task. The designed filtering system is domain independent and all experiments are conducted using neural machine translation.

Parallel Corpus Filtering Based on Fuzzy String Matching
Sukanta Sen | Asif Ekbal | Pushpak Bhattacharyya

In this paper, we describe the IIT Patna’s submission to WMT 2019 shared task on parallel corpus filtering. This shared task asks the participants to develop methods for scoring each parallel sentence from a given noisy parallel corpus. Quality of the scoring method is judged based on the quality of SMT and NMT systems trained on smaller set of high-quality parallel sentences sub-sampled from the original noisy corpus. This task has two language pairs. We submit for both the Nepali-English and Sinhala-English language pairs. We define fuzzy string matching score between English and the translated (into English) source based on Levenshtein distance. Based on the scores, we sub-sample two sets (having 1 million and 5 millions English tokens) of parallel sentences from each parallel corpus, and train SMT systems for development purpose only. The organizers publish the official evaluation using both SMT and NMT on the final official test set. Total 10 teams participated in the shared task and according the official evaluation, our scoring method obtains 2nd position in the team ranking for 1-million NepaliEnglish NMT and 5-million Sinhala-English NMT categories.

The University of Helsinki Submission to the WMT19 Parallel Corpus Filtering Task
Raúl Vázquez | Umut Sulubacak | Jörg Tiedemann

This paper describes the University of Helsinki Language Technology group’s participation in the WMT 2019 parallel corpus filtering task. Our scores were produced using a two-step strategy. First, we individually applied a series of filters to remove the ‘bad’ quality sentences. Then, we produced scores for each sentence by weighting these features with a classification model. This methodology allowed us to build a simple and reliable system that is easily adaptable to other language pairs.